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Full text of "DICTIONARY OF NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY(FAED-MUYBRIDGE)"

DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



S E CO N I ) S U P P L E M E N T 



VOL, II 



FA K i > M u y t * K 1 1 >o K 







DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL 












PHY 



EDITED BY 



SIR SIDNEY LEE 



/> f "(, /*( >*'\ t Y t'A ^'"^ T I "i f "I f l f" i: '* H Jf 'f" 2 ** ft f 

SECON D SU i' P LltM LN 



VOL II 



FA E D M u v u i< i uc; i : 




SMITH, ELDER & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE 



ll right! 




T.;> 

.*,!<! vJl. 



A rp 

wit,, ,.*n |,i.viii 



isj/y p'W 

oJL. "t ^t,_.,wr v*JL.n sjiA,.,^a4 



57H i;w.Mwm ( ,s appear in tho prison t vohtnvo of thu Second Bnppltunenfc, 
whidi in doHigwnl to furnish biographies of noteworthy per^oiiH (lying 
u 22 fluru HIM aitfl ill Dtic, l!dL TJui contributors number 
'i'hit crtiiiiigH of ilionw whoso ca-roorn Jtre r^conlrul hero miiy bo 
y utuloyumJl under ton. gommtl hauliugrt thuw : 

N'AMKH 

AriintrtiHi'rnliftii r.f <'<iiVH'ntnt- at homo, in Irjilin. and t lit* cokmioH 73 

Army inul nuvy 

Art- 



iii' 



4 und 






* 



Tin* tiiii4ic?s of oighU'Wi WOHHIII ar<$ lnt?hi*.J<;*d on luuniunt of 
.*t.l tii url, liti.?rattt.rs HiJii.tn<;t a-n*l Ho^ial or oduimtioiwl 
u.'li.m boar tla* initiulH *>f th<iir \vritr*rH HMVO in a very fow ci 

niutoriul IIHH tiitf*n furmHliwi tt> UH Ktlitt*r on an 
than UIM purpuw* f Uu i : iiif!i>rtoking ponintttnl lam io um 

*N ill** Ktli tor and hin HtaiT uro nolt'ly r*Hpoimil.)lo for tlw Hhap< 
till? arlicli* hH tnkiii,, und no Htgnuturt) in n 



of 



,, 



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n 



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n 



la otl 



Mtlon 
ntui 



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\vurk jq, v.J 
H in 



LIST OF WBITEBS 



THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE SECOND SUPPLUMKNT 



A. I** A * A Ju 

W, A, . , . HIH WAi/nen 

C A. , , , 0, ATt.mKy, O.M,<1 I.H.O. 

*T. .11 A, * . 1 1.1 AT^AY, 

It. 11 * , * 'ril.K It BY. K0NAM* JliYNK 



3UVN& 



(X & A* II, ('. K. A. 

M* 11 . , MACKK-NZMC 

Fi I* 11 

1\ 0. II , . TI 



<1, H. II * , 



l 



IX 



.15. M. .11. 

F. II & 



i M 

if 



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A. H. B. * Tfiw Itiev* A, K 

W. W, B, * 



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M Wi # 






. Ci 



f. P* 0, * , If. E Cii'atif XLKY. 'M.D. 



# * 



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A, J. (';, , 
C * , * 



PHOFKMHOII 0, A, 



j F. e , 

! v, a 



F.HK'I>KUIOK 



, C. , * * Will,fAM U 

C. * * 



F.RA* 



i, H, IX * * 8m(i 

F.tt.8, 



I, * 

* j / * 

At 1.1 , * . 
C ti 

Vo* ^/* * * * 

.1 !> t> .1 t> 

<(# */ 4 / > it tji i dt-/* 
' V. Jt-f v . 



! 



>** * * :* 



^lAM KiDtiAlt, 



iticv, 



If F 

..* * * # 



A, It, 1). K* THK How, Atm.tt/tt li D* 



M'. K, * * * M. 
A. 1"^ F, , . A, 



T, A* F, * 

(1 II F. * 



FJBMUN. 



A* 



0, H. 'Fums 



* * J. 



viu 



List of Writers in Volume II. Supplement II 



W, G.IXF.* THE llv. W. 0. P. 

W, H.G. F-. W, H. C 

Bon, 



n i T F ,1 T K <f*Mfr-n 

H I .1 * .* " * * '* ** *:**"*''* 

i 

' 

tf, .K. * # 



im, 



a R F. * a K 

F. W 0* PHOHMCH80H F. W. f:*AMW*W!?' 

F. W, (*K. . Fit A NIC W* (~.IHN<W, 

a A. a, , . o* A, ciiuwiw, MJ>, 

A. T, (I . . Tim KKV. A. T. c.itiuwi**K 

A* G. * . TUB :ta 

t*t iiv-itf t ' -ri '^^k 'V '% ^"4 

E* JK, U* . * B E* (5 

W* R a . W, FcmKH CittAY 

J* 0. 1L . J. CuriiBKHT !Iv 

T, li . , . 



D'jf-| 
</ 



M. H. . * * 

0* A, H. * . (t* Ar.sxAJSOisH MAHHIM, 

E J* II. * , 1*. J, H.AKTMO. 

T"tf IT *t* ||* I' f t-**' *- i* '.< 

* 1% I*., i * .1 I' lil'f.?t l^l'iiir*!*?*, 

J H, , . * HKNHY lfifm I'Ji 

A. P. H* * A. P. H!!*!tXK M M,t},M,t*. 

24 ildUilii^' -KM. J..J 

A* M, H. A, M. Jfi'Ntt. 
A* E. H * AiiTtutn E, 

El* t,r 
-t . tt i < 

a H, . , . 

I, & II-B , 

0, X E* H, . 0* A B. 



H.OWKH, 



* 



T* C, H* 
O..P.L 



T, CAHN 



F.B.A* 



8lE C0UIWICWAY E It 



B, IM T # . , 8m . 2SVMEAKD IK 



fi. 



. 






tSin 



<J t 



I fi }.' l\ 1 

f.!, i.,, K. , . 

I*, f'l, K, * , 
I %f ] 

M .il* j * IP* N 

'U- f.'* > t 

If, I .* V , If, M 

tv I f 

V , 1 1 1 If. t it 



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Ml"?* Kl.J#M;.TH I .,>'- It- 

It. W. ||:r. 4 I1*M ; , 



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n H, L- , 

H* I' tt? 

V\ 1 i ** 

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t* if f 

I'n -Mi .f 

4 Jf % 

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if, I*. , 

H, J, 1* 

t' I 1 I 

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K. V, f f , 

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I* I II 1 > 4ft 



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k# Wl > > t 



# 



List of Writers in Volume II. Supplement IL 



A, M-N. . . Miss ANNIE MATHE.SON. 

IX 8, M* * , IX 8. MfC 

L* M. . , . Liswis MifiL 

A, H; M. . A* 11. Mi 



CICB,, 



(J.CXM.O* 
<L IX M, . , J, I), MILS KB. 

J*K, 0. I') KM, >L 13. < 

N* M. * * - NOU-VTAN Mowuc, M.1X 

K, 'M. , * KOWAHD 

R M. * . * MiH8 8. 

A, L. M. * . A, L. M 

B* 11 M., * RtmisiiT H. Mtwtuv. 

0* I-K (;J N 0. LK OHV N<*JUUTK, 

C. 11 N. . * OAl'I'AIN C?. B, N*:iftA.N. 



H. D. K. . . IL I). BOLUOTOH T M.D, 

B* J. R, * . E. J, ROWLICTTB, M,IX 

G. W* E, R. TM EIGHT HON. G. W- B, 

BUSH MIA, LL.D. 

M* ;R B, . * MKJHAISLFA BATH-KK, CU! LL.1X 

L. 0. R , . LLOYD C H 

S. . . . * LrK BA 

J, li 8* . . Sin JOHN 13. S-IAHDVH, Li'fT.JX 



L. P. H, * . !L 1*. 8 

A* R 8. - * A. FO.HMISH HIKVJSKINO, 'F.RA* 

A* IL 8 , * A- IL H 

0. ;R 

Cj, 8, 



* , (".KfUtru5 



XX J, O'MX . IX <1. (r 

, W, T, 0. a. W* 'T 

W. .B* 0.. , W. 11 OWKN. 

T, K K * . T. 1?. 



0. (Uti 



. . W, :R 



II, H. . . * Hilt TlKHUEJtT BlWHICN, IU.KT, 

if, A. .S, . . :i*jia if JCHHOH T A. B 



IfjH 



K, A. 



IX .1*. * * . 

15* IL l* ., * Tn. HKV, CA 

;L B. I*. * , THK !tv, 1j, 1.1 



Jt'tHJK K, A* 1 



f ; L 



<"* W M /"* 

*..< vv * n* * * V-M 

H'f u ti W. ,,, v, 

.* J. f>* * II* J-, Al'LN 

L T. . JAM EH TAVT.OK, M JX 

W, T, T-I.X Hiu WILLIAM T. 1 



A* W* E * A* W, 



3)' A, F, * . 'Ai?v Powit, 

0. W, E * a, W, 



I t> TA T 1> L 

> ,* f 1 /J*. :*. * -.' ,* 

I 'f> f 1* f I? 'I 

J, IV. .if. W * l} U> :| 



IL * , , OiLaNi 



IL 



* # 



Hoi DAVID I*RAI : N. 



J* R , * JOHN EAI LLIX 
H. B, li . . ii B. EAIT. 

WJ 

f* 



* # * 



* * 



M, 
W 



W. W. 



fc IL M 



Flit^IiiOE EOJIJCAT 

A, W, 



E W, , , 



List of Writers in Volume H. Supplant ni II 

If tjf 'wl 



f f 1 * * * 



jt g . 



iti,r-f, 



. B, W. , II. Ji WtiMTt.iif, 



A. B, W. * MM* ili,*:*r' 



. T, W. , & T, 



it 

if, 

it. 



1 1 . H, 



\Vr. 







NARY 



Vrf.f M: 

U, 



IIJv 



it 



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n 



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i * 



if I 



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* 



.s? j. , . !-v T I' 



I'll 



; : M 4 



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I*.* 



V 



U ll ; 



- -r It 



I* 



I. ,> j.. 



' * * i'4 S'O 1 , t '' , 1 



,. I * 



List of Writers in Volume 11. Supplniu:nl II 

V- W 



F. W. * , , l*KtfittMKM Fofltfcii W 
0, W. . . , Ciutitii Wii,nt F.RA 



ft, T. W, , hm I.U**v TH*^I*A* 



c|, R W, , 0, R W 



A. B. 



H. E 



MKN, BUNCO 



W 



fc 1, 








\Tffi\i \ 
\ i i \,j IN /\ 






* * * 



, fti 



ilf^tlffr*, 

''1 1*1 !*'< \ :i 



10 



H 



irta, 



to) A* 



At 



*nt 



in 



| :". dMHWj It-SWW^'^jJ 

HtHitJ4)4 A * 

,- .'wr. it 



' J1tM:*i*> ' 



| ' Thn C 



- |f'MI*r)|M|jrf { ; jl*|jf (ft 



i iliii i.t4yiil : ; Krtitti 



Auk! Mr 



* { I HIM!) 



nl 



by 
fur 



tf 



lit tll 

with 



Fiiwl. wan in 



i/ * 
my 



A.f U?r. tito . Victory 



* * 



/ ' 1,40 



j . H 

Retiring to Ardmon% <*ati'houH<% near hin > Hyin|ium'H. 
birthplace in 1880, Faed paink'd Htwow.1 Annwa., hi' 



Arrnin|iny.iiip IIIH I 
'i'v^d .HI lip' tVuti^h 
T, In 



by him to UaU'hmtm* town hall. 
Ho died at A'rdmoro on 22 Od, I JM.H!. Knnl 
luarriod in 1849 Jaw% daughter of J Mao 
douald, minmUT of (Jiglut in tho HdmdrM; 
H!U) died in 181)8. A' fmintwi jBirfmii *| 
Fiuxl in in th** posHi^iuti of Mr. ihwutd 
Hall, Woodlyn, Ualdu,H.irt<'"OiKFIi**'i, 

Facd'H practice UM a nmualurMt. In! in 
inoro elaboration of dctailH in IUH jar.ttin'H 
than oont*5inf)orui;y faHio |provt.*L II in 
nrti in typjonl of tho I-M't iScotti.sli g*n 
of the Iftto Vi<stt)riatt pfHod* 

I.W. IX MtsKay^H iSt.tnlt.iHh S^luiol of 
im* ; Bryant Dial, of FUJHUTH and KNS 
.rm'iw^'J <!!. ; Cat, of Kai-. <!, of St 

Ad^ri^v, 2;* "(W. iiMJJ.1 ' ' .A," fl. M, 

FAG AN; LUUIS ALISXANDKH 

.1901$), etnlMT nnd writer on art, 
at NujpkfH ou 7 
won in a family of tlirtM.' MMUM arid four 
dauglitcj'H of (,^*org'i l^igftsti fiy IUM wift. y 
Maria, dauphin* of l^itiin CJju ( b*tti% nit 
oiliwr in <lm Ifalifut anny, HoJu.^ri Fn^iui 
|<j, v,'.| diplomat IN! nntl ari Jut, wn itin j*rau*J--- 
father. Tin* <ld* i r I.*i'it1w*r, *lnm'pii <**.. f Mr^*', 
a twijor*g<Mt;ml in tlvn Indtjin army, tin**] 
in illOH ; ih^ youjig<<!\ Churfi'H I'lilwiirtl. IM 
jrotttry f t!i*j Niituwtl 
Hottth KoiiHi.tjgt.on, Hw fwthor, *whu joi 
tlwj tliplotnatiti MWUKI wan ft.ir rtifyiy yt.*iirH 
from 18!J7 -iLtluoJiA to <lu iirifiHli ' ' 

of the Two Nk'ilicH, and in Idn 
tsafiacity gave* a^HiHtum'ii to Sir 
I^ani'///i [<{* v] whuu on a jjolilitn 
icj Na|)ltw in 1H51 ; lui wiw mtuhs 
of logAtum to thn Argent int* uwtl 
In I.8l5tl> and 

Ift!niH in. Bnunrm Aiitv* in IHftH 



in 



ami in 



/i n 

m 



frirrtd 



V, 



n wit ft 



to 



lf 



for 



* 



..' 



Amorica in 'IHiSO, tu- Ktuiador (lHtU-5), 



gunoml to Vtmo%uo!it {1BI!H-II); tuuliiHl uf 
yollow fovor at Curacsiw In 18011 

f *t t Y'k * i. Hi 

Mffi' of ttimzfti u 101-2). 
F&giw'fl k>yiuKxl wiu* HiKfut In 

wlioro ho oarly k'^rniHt Ilalkft and 
vwU>|)td an intoiwt in Ilidmn i.f. H 
tu its, und art,' -In '1800 hit wtui 
cltargi^ af- it .{|uwin' inoNttCMigor t n 

irivatct ndwkjl -at ;Lay Um*t*ifi, " KHHI*X. ttt 

'^"llftwi, ho wan kindly rocxnvott by 
fftt.hor'8 friend v I*anj*l (i6w(, ii 21), 
White Htlll a boy, on roturning to Nnli t 
ho carried Icttom from WmM to tha 
rovolutiorwry Mont in the Two Htailscw. 
and ho iiubitoti wtrontf 

w 



o 



il m 



J* 



** 



V* 1 ! 



'iHrft|,li|rH,f* M! 
Mil*! M*' . 



|*Iill4|* 



jp, 

' 



i .11 1 



l!riU%!i 



tfifrtt<>| 



ill 



in 



'if * Vic* t|| B|,. 



liy 



Honni'l in 



Mimi^m f 



s* 



wall in 
mtatt, lutc 



watiw-()bbHini 



in^ in 



Pal eke 



3 



Pal kiner 



and 



H of Naples ; an (itching of 



(.!. P. NVattn's portrait, of Sir Anthony 



i.'Nmi'/fci in 1K78, and two etching of 
Italian HubjeetH in 1881. Some of thesn 
appeared in volume form in " Twelve 
Etching ' (1875 fol). Mo preHcnfed a col- 
leefiou of itiH elehingH in variouH Htaten of 
execution made between 1871 and 1877 to 
tho Brit wh Mimetim in November 1879 ; they 
mainly depict Italian Heciies and peaNantM* 
Until Pa.niiiWjp death Fa,gan'H relations 
with him remained elo,se, and Pani/,/,1 
appointed him bin literary exceiilor at IUH 
death in 1H7!>. In f8H(H<a<#ui published 
PankxrH biography (2 vote.), which went 

f < . ' * ..*.*' _ . . ... 



jnoved to New IJond Streei, (No, 02), and 



(here before ]8f>8 Iwaao 



cciunn- 



iatofl a c<-.nn.Fortal:jks fortune, Thencefort 
he chiefly devoted, himself to the Htudy of 
art ami to tlie eolleetion of art treamims 



Minly for lii.s own giullfieatiotu He noon 
formed n colUxjtion of anajolioa and luwtro 
wan% which owing to KOIUO unfortnnalo 



Mit Jio wold to a kiitHinan, Fro 
DaviH, a Uond Htree.t dealer, who in liin 
turn w>ld it, to Kir Rielmrd WalJaee ; 
if, IHW lornm art of tho WalJawj 



two edttimiB and re wived (Had* 
V eomniemlafion, In the Haute year 

i'' 

Fagnn edited ant! piditHhed at Klojrnee 
41 Leffrre ml. Antonio ParnV/i di nomini 
illiiMiri (* di Aimt'i llaliaiti IH^'i ...70,* jind 



in 1HH! ho iHHtH (rni?H /rni a 
M, Piiaiwii, 1850 1H70/ of svhich Knglinh 
and Italinn tfanKlatioiiH appeared tin.* name 

year* 

FagHii, who wan a prpular kM-iurei 1 on 



l* 1 ak:ktj noon recovered Inn financial 
stal)i.Iity, and next kotowed IUH tshief 
attention on hron/,<.*u of Hie iifti k eiith and 
.shiefijtlj e,*nttn'ieH whieh were bought by 
Dr v .Hod<.i of Berlin, where they form thu 
nueJenH <*f the njilendid eolh^Hion in the 



K i j iwt r 



ie 1 j Mi ine ui n . 



l^dek** -\VJIM through Iifo de<p]y intereHttil 
in Wedgwood tjhinu, and lie ultiinatdy niado 
a. eol lection of VVfnl^wood warn which wan 
uniqw% If, \vw exhibited ut> tho opening of 
Palaeein 1H5(S at Nonth Koiwin. 



ii rt, tntvt'lk'd widely* lie delivered the ton in 1802. at Leedn in 1808, at JMJmiil 
.Lowell lretnri*Miit !i<tou in IHIH^tnd In the (ireen in .1875 --U --7. arid at'liurHlow in 181KI, 
of long torn* {.KM'Honitlly tvxamlned j Thin aolliietioii Faleka pn^tsntfui to tho 
-. <wery art <>IlMtttioii in Kiii'o|H% ! British Mmmm on 17 Juno 1000, ft om- 
iea f an*! AuHti-alin* tf< ailvined 'on I fn'taen about AOO nieee,H, attd ineindcH ona 



tin* rmiitf<*w'nt of the art t.rraun.'K at I of Ute fi?\v original eojiieti of ijie fainouM 
Vicloria ]\fnHi-nm, M<Hournc, | fijirlitrnni or Portland vu-wi^ ami a luwalt, 

ptibiinhed in 1HHO "The IMorm j fjituir let tln\ ttntjUxfi j*ntttrij tind t*wwtuwt 
HH |M*nnderK and Arehiteet^ At : *f*r ; .Itritwlt- Mttwu-wl I!) Ml, pp 74 7(1), 
hin retirement from the mnnenm ho lived j A fourth eolleeiion, a mnall one. of 
!Vr the mont part in Itnly, and built for j Ohiwwt and oibt'r p(tree!aln with HOIIHJ 
" :< 11 reMideneti af Kloi ( i*iH'c% when* i g*nd bron/r/s, l^afcke retained till Inn 
died mtddenly on 5 .Ian, llHKi H* j dt*ath, ll wan HoJtl at (JhriHtiw'H on 
ri'i| on H Nov. IH87 (*itro|iw^ Franei*H, j 10 April Iftl0 t tmd fetched th Iar* mm 

\ ** * * *SU Md . . . M i '* *., , ., J *^ 



ler of JanieM Furvi'H uf Melhotirne, 
Australia, wltr* nnrvived .hifu. A portrait 
in *ifM {jtinl(*d by <f. K, H 



and uaw 



in i^jrjdon on &1 Deo, 

d in tlu? thnvwh eeinetery 



in IHitl) WIIM presented by hin widow 1 t \Vi!!eNden, 

in JiMl to thw Artn ("Ita!:^ J.i.>ver 8trtM..*t : lie married, on II! May 1847 Mn-ry Ann, 

]jt>iid<in, W. daughter of *)anie field, of Kttiti burgh, 

(Hie '.riiiifH, H Juti, intKJ s MMVN t*f Art* * Hi * l^ft * J eliildr<*iu 

I.JMli$, xxvii. Ull j .Hrynn. Diet, of Pninh*m ) bbnvinh (,'hroitido, 2 .July 1WH), II .].')<. 
ml Ku^mvcr^, tUOIt ; pjjtlf !Vo}l.* iif flu* | H*OI> j I'ltn Tiinw*, !ii) !>mC J1H)JI, 2t)i April 
'oriiKl, J807 j A. iJntVi'H, Ho,ynl Afiwl, Kx- 11>I<; Krett^rit'k .hitt-hfleld* lottery nnd 
ibiiorH f ' I1MI5 j privnte iiifonnaliuy.j .Pui'iM/'Ifun, .HMiri ; private infonuationv) 

w.-ao, 1 ' " ' 'i.w 



and 



art J 



. 



NO 



. 'FAliOKK, 1SAAO 

eiili*etor' iww.1 beiiifiM,?tor to tho ..iiiitinh i 1.^***-' HAWKKK, MAHV Kj,r.xA'iitmi, 
MuNouin, bom in -J8I.O ( Yurnionth, WHH ! IH48-11HM.] 
onooliwwuyoliililrw.1. JliHfatlH?rnn:*v.i ! FAL'EINKK, (J/KHAll LI'JTO 
^London mnm iift^r lm HOJI'H birth | ItK)8), Irinlt htotoriaii, iun* In Uufilin ilii 
and ootniiitmotxl. btwiit*^ jw an art deak*r .; 20 Hcsjjt, !8Kt, wan {]i Heaond uou of -.Mir 
in Oxford Htrout, whoro in U crnirHti ! Fnuiorivk Eiuhiirft Kalkiaor [q. v/Huppl.tll. 
.be wan joined by bin notin, 3)ftvid From .tlw- .Hnyal Htihooi, Ariagh t ha wmit 

wn ovvoiuidliy- to tha . Uiilv'oimity of Dublin,, " grmluatliig 



The 



Pal kinc 



B.A. in 18BI! and jmurwlin}* M A. in I MM 

At college he wrote nn i.'HH.ny * Mji^iuky w 
an historian, whkh nhowt-'d tiwf hr thrn 
formed hi eoiu't'pf km uf ih<? Mtudy f hto' 
lory. In 1885 ho WHH Ht^lwl |nv*id**iit of 
tho eolfrtfo PhiloHofftikm! Hm'iHy* Mwh 
intaroHltsd. in pnlitiw, h t'.nttl!<nl hto pm*i> 
dontial tukln^H* A K*;w V*.*ya^ Ui lM:npiji/ 
a kind f appenl fr>ut *huu*w \\-\riw fi III^ 
old, which \VHH HJi|*Ki'Hfi*J ffy lit*' r/v!Minv 
of. tliM third r'furni Mil. In IHHi in* wnw 
called to th*i Iri^h Iw mn! in IHHH h 
it.* work ftdiv*'Jy on Iwlutlf of tlu* li 

O 



Annnh, lit? nrrvai r*u 

\vhoHo 
oii of 



ITWI- 



Irish land 



1H!)H 



mm-it ihan^li.*.. l< 
hr niH>rit*rrrl fJi* 



thin uj'tpointuu.Mtt' ht.rntuo ft. 4 nnuiu:Ht. F*r 
th< iirnl half tf Itln work laHiliiiy lay in Hi* 1 

'M, for Mill Julli'l 1 hittl tit t!n.' 



-mainly 



of 



it 



Hut 



tlw 



i- "H 



M*.u" 



!MH 



A I'. K 1 'X Kll, 







, l.. 



on 



*i 



! 



i' It i: It .1- in 



jt. 



*JVmv*- 



* n 



A 










tluvlimi purl of hi *llhiMlmUm>* u( 

Hintury and To|Kigm|tfiy, lunlniy **f Urn j tho juttium nnd I^ld inM* 
8<watwnth (imtury 1 (IU04). 
motw !K>k, 'l&way* n*lftH 

(HJ09), cWt with tlm fiiima century. In i 1'tuMin .in ( ft t 
J-?, T ^ ftppiihUjHi, in tlw niin uf j In ilto f,,U,>%vin 
hir -John ihomtM CiUiwH |c|.v, HH } *|I|, il\ 
umior the* hlHUri?J miinumtri)iti j 
jwon, with tlm duty of Siting ihti 
Ormondtt jfiujwwi, Fmm HN^ to 
w^urntw uf thitMWWHt<Hsnth.wt 
npaml, oontelniiig ovw MK) 
npblo. contribution to :|j w mw 
fcwtory, lliolntKKlticiUQnMiibowiiiiiiwwrr 
of hftndim vwt mawoA of vidim<m. - of 



iiiu'thc .rU ul 



and in thin IMotkmary and In Ohambent** 
1 Oyolopodia-of Inglirfi Literatim * ha dait 
with mow of tottom, In 1003 ha oditad 
the poerrtB of CharloH.Walfo and ehuiiuiui 



fur 



mmiy inuWtn | 
'e 



f Mr In jiiiiw 



41$ 



bill on. tlm mibjwi 
of 



Fane 



Farjeon 



was elected a bo.nc.liw of tho 



Innfi, and in 



ISIH'J ho wan ktii^htecl. 



Ho retired from hin oflieo on 22 Jan, 1005, 
when ho wiwj made a privy eouneillor, 
Falkiner wan one of the most prominent 



members of tho general nynod of tho Church 
of Ireland, and in the debateH of that body, 
eHpeeially on financial quentionH, lie fre- 
quently intervened with much etleet, Ife 
wan chancellor to tho bwhopN of Tunm, 
(Jlogher, Kilmoro, and Dorry and Raphoo, 



{ 
*oard oi' 

Hospital, better known UK I he Blue Coat 
School. Of Uu'KHchoo! ho published in HM.H 
a hintory, which IH in eflWt a history 



part of 181)8 ho WIIB flag Ke.utonant to 
Rear-admiral Bouvurie, the HUpcrintondcnt 
of Portwnouth dockyard, and in November 
was appointed to tho Daphne corvette, at 
lirxt oil LiHbon, whence he went out to .tho 
Mediterranean, where he took part in the. 
reduction of Aero and tho other opera* 
tlorm on the coast of Syria in IB-IO. On 
28 Aug. 1841 Kannhawo was promoted to 
tho rank of commander, and in September 
1844 went out to tho Kawt Indiew in com- 
in and of the Cruiser, 11 in conduct in 
command of the. boats at. tho reduction of a 
pirate utron^huUl in Borneo won for him 
hit* promotion to captain on 7 Sept. 1845* 



of Dublin from tho .Hentoral ion to thn ] In the. Russian war oi! 1H51 lie com* 
Victorian era* Mil kiwi* purnued literary masufed tho {'ownaek, and uftcrvvardH tlie 
interentn j he wnMe on Hwifl/w portraits llaHtin^ in tin*. Baltie and in tho<Jhanw;*l; 
(Hwti^H /*mw tfVfaJ9()8, vol. KiL)< and a ! from May JHSrt to^ March 1850 the (Jen- 
eoilfH'tion of bin VLiterary MiHerllnuicH * wan I turion in the IVIi ( dit<'rmnefai ; from June 

it* ; ' 

piihlimhod |jtmtliunumHly in IPOll Ib* died i 1B51) to A\ml 18!! ! t.he 'Tmfal^ar in tlie 
at Funehnl, Mai.leira^ on ^22 Mareh . 11H)H (ihumifl, nnd fr<*m 1. April 18111 he WUK 
He married twice : (1) in IHIII Adelfudo wuprrinlt ndent of Chatham dockyard. In 
MatiMa (/A !B77) third dajJghU'rof TlirmuiM | Ntvember 1S(I!J \m WIIH jn'omof^d to l>o 
Hadieir (if linllinderry l*urk f county Tip. I rear jMlmirul. und in iHf5 v\as nominated 
|Krary ; and (12) Hobhiiv llaH (d lHlt5)jhird | a Jon! of the mJmiwlf.y, From JHtiH to 
dauKftter of N* li M'lniiro of Cloverhill, ! 1H70 he, WH-H HUpr*riis!^ndent at Malta 
county Dublin* By hin firnt wife* Im had j dockyard, with his Hag in the llihernia* 
IHHHO threes wonn, including Caesar Litton On I April hn became vico-^Iniiral, and in 

~ ,* i ..,.,., * il * .-..:. ., j, ... .... 



Falkiner [q* v Stipph M ) an<I four 



I.H71 WJIH noiniiiated a (IB, From 1H70 to 



IH7I! ho wufct commn 1 ntler'inchief on t-lio 

A portrait by \\*nlter O,Mbrrnw in in the I Nv*rth American Hta!i*in ; during IK7(MHwaH 
NafionnI fiiilliTy, Dublin, | i>rerijlent of the Huynl Nayul (.Ji.Jli^o at 

\i\ binjjfmfihy by Falfuti^r'n liau^iitrr Muy, I <reeowieh, in HUuceHHj.tn to Sir Oooper Key ; 

'I'lVo 1 ami during 1H7B *J wan commander if M^ief 
at .roiirtmoutli, On 27 Nov. 1.870, hin nixty- 
fiffh birthday, ha wan plaeed on the retired 
'It. li. M, H*t, In .IH8i he wiw noiuhuit.id iv K.O.ll, 
und at Queen Vietofw'H jwbik'i* in IHH7 wan 
advanced to CuO.B. He ctjntiniiiHt to take 
an a;tivft inlercHt in nuvid <{tu*HlioiiH 



b 



FAN.K. ViOLKT 



vic<preHidint or member of council of 

,homMStok<s,f*w<m- j the Navy ftcconlH Society till shortly 
port, on ^7 N'**v, 1HI4> wtw eldest wirvivintf ! bt'fon* bin doitlh, lie tfied. on tJie armiver^ 

* - - - ' " ^ '- ' - ^ - ' J i"' #*'! J* t d t "I > '4 J * J'ii i^l 'V I'' * 1 

wary of Trafalgar, *2 1 < )ct. I titHL J| v married 

rm II May 1HKJ .fane (r/, I1HMI), nintcr of 



*f Ih 



.K itrui \van g 

r, who, after 

n ihr* M*nrt*<nilh in 



of 



Htth KthvHnl.'ViKtiownt (Janhvcll [>j. v,|niul luul 
fotir Hona A<hitirnl of the FltM't Sir 



in 1771* and the Muinur ** 

^ of the navy 



of! 

12 April I7H2i 

-Uov<*n|rt wierw < iw n . 

mother witu Fraut?t^ thuighter of Hlr 
How Whitrfuord Dalryiitpto ' fq. v,], of 

at Oihmltar uml in 



Arthur 
third 



Farinhawe, 



in IUH 



Diet. ; Jiurke'M l^uiukui i'lt- 
lm^, Ml 0t. iUOO j CJmvaii, 



hi 
lio 
and wan. 



S) a urifi 
tho navy in 
U> 'bo iitniUwaiit lit 



Nitvy, vi, H<1 vii. liHM-JJ; itiforr*yitkm torn 



tli0n In . 
tho HtuiUngff,' In wbioh, and afiorwarilit In 



the 



i ' he. ervl on tho home 



. 
and Lutuort ntHtii,)tvi, During Ilia greaior 

i^bff fljftw 



Sir Artlmr VauHliinvn, J J. K. L* 

I'AiUKON, BENJAMIN 

!!8^1il03} jjovoliwti scx*omi ion of Jacob 
FttrjtKW (d* 18(15), t& Jowkh inoralmut, by 
" IB wil I)2imh Loyy of Dml wa,s -bom 



In London on 12 Msy.lSBi. Eduoatdd at 
a |iri?at Jwibh mhool until bo waai 



Farjcon 

>J 



<> 



P'armvr 



fliiloml the oflfon of Uu' ! Ti^ilm in 1*7*1 nI in 
* Nonconformist ' mnv.spuprr. At fb<< <ntl ; Onttun-l. ji .. ; Hv< N 
of thrco yearn, umvillhign tiiwufnrm to i MirpuV* fin*,w:.-iii^l vrr.M" 
the Jowish faith caufioti a (ii8,^rpriuntt: with i '<!nf,' \vhirh lmI ulrrwly 
his parents. At wvwikH>n IIP 'wburk<.*i ;: auflinn^if ilrj-w*i-fi".>Mf:u. I 
for 'Australia, travelling Nt^mgr* ; during j \vit.-h iluri.v ffiwlr iil 
tho voyago he pnuluwtlwiimMtmnln'rH uf a J ruiwwtfn* frirmnl by M>n 

an! .' lq. v, SuppL I.I J i" 
lnMtK ' n |-rrvt.'M ffi> rir, 
wml- withniil *.bnr MTii 



*< i 



- 






? 



From tho goldllt-kiH tf Victoria It* 

to Now SfoalantK mi bmriuK of rk'h ii.iJ ; i.u;.:U. .y i*'/i 

thore, 8oonafiuw.i<minwth.*.|ii'Ht tf ^'l'-i, j In ^i-.t^brr I^V 

ho Htittlt'tt at IhuiiHlin aw it. jminmljM, .11^ ' Ant* -rira 0>'in nn*.* 

aftsiHUHl (Hir) tluliuB Vo^I fq, v* iSHppl, I j * f'b.uit* n tJrsi.^/ 

in the itmnagomoni f th*< Mlfn^i"i'#ai!y : t^ttjruii rbni rt 

ThnmS tho iirfc daily paper crtf.nbl&iii'd ; i'*rl !'f*nt,j';if-. : id, nn ^n Ji! 

in tho ciokmy, \vhih' Vttgt'I fonwinl in ,. lun rnnn-ni'-* tvrrr *:r^ni*f'-*t ^tni ^-r,rri 

I86L Fafji'oii tH. i a ' 

i>.r ; hut j 

iHfy hh aitibitittn, a-rul hr vvrufr u iMWri, ,b : v-t:pb ,Irf!i-r.;.Mft ; 
CliriH'tophcr (.lotffckw/ lor thu wiviUy ; (Mnr i--*w** ;nv\ rm 
itnt*H/ in whirb VV^*I u-t^ nbo* ' jnNt'H ; t, ly !''*UJ 
f a play *^\ Libui RrvruwV ^n*l ;. F^TJ*-MH, si uniii:i 

jitcH In \vhit?h th^lt-'H-dtM^ pfifl 1 * ' in l.l' Unifr*! si<iti^j, bolMji^** 1*1 
woro taki*u by Julia MattiH-wM, win* Hiib^< i j;nr'i"uut^-/,fi,ilv lt,l t .r/'imv 
quontly wrm a n*ptnti*.n* in I/tndnn, \\\ \ T^n*y V^ti-^ 4^", I'**."'-'. i ^-l' 
ho riMishofl at .Dtifttiliu it 



.MU 



in 



man t-ory *S 



flm S 



. y ntt it* 

torn Diokon^, Fturjwm h* iHIIH wiiirnw to 
Kngknd, Hi! tmvtilkl by way of Ntnv 
York, wlioru ho cWinwl ' 







ro* ; r, <* 



y *.*. *** ' 
:jtuirhin K 
-j** bi..u-:i 



tha 

chain bom in th AdHphi. 
ivoxt ibirty-liv yuarn h 
to novol-writin^ with 
fiuooofm of *0rlf 

inLomlmii{l87i); 

of 




u ; l^r M^Lc 
iu ! i^liibiirti 
tlit* j r|:H*nvli*'"M 



toil, Tlu 



Vi..i*.rM. 
ui iil a| |i,-iH 
tin?*! I.IM i.'** 



and-KtaHW* (1874s ww wJit. HH)J), 

ami in many ooh volitional ...... 

novels mainly treating of Jmmbte III 
such as ^J'OHhtia- Marvel* 



In 



rt'ti HIM') tii 

d*ibi!J lit tin* 



tfw 



ADI) 
it^ 
ytw uf li*r *lrf..b. 



don's Heart* (1873), and *Thn Uuflhw* of 

Dickemfl, Farjoon wan jmiiiiig jiofHiwrity, 

but ha -turned later to tho Whitationti] 

mystery in whleh Wilkie- Collins, 'flxeoileci, 

and there his ingenuity w morcrelTeQUvii, 

'flreaf Porte fiquaro 1 (1884) and The 

MyBtey of M, f tJlis * (18W>) ara 'favour* l.V 

abio oxamptes of his work' in this kind, ! B 

His best novel is tho melodmm&tlo * Devlin .buf, 'and ,.,,,,, , > 

the Barber J (1SB8; newodit. KK)i)/ A play. Ki, Mary^ wiibln'ib.M^ilr 

by Inrjoon f 'Homo, Sw<x*t IlomV'waH f In* VirUirm nml AU^n Mi 

produced by Henry Neville ut th Olympic wkWiUir ilnmiti^ J*y' ' 



in 



in Jttlt, 



* 



r 



iitir 



Farmer 7 Farmer 



at Harrow at tho (mil of 1B62, In 1864, in 
Hpite oC conservative HcrupleH on tho part 



f Hie authorities, he joined the, ntalT of tho 
Htfhooi an nninic t.eaaher. To wordn by 



Marrow intiHt<>r co JioWKK, EDWMU> 



J. It I ho coinpancd ntimerotiH 
\vhksh won great* popularity and 
i an integral part of tlio ptsr 



of tlio BohooL In 1880, whon 



'In Doubt 1 and ' Kitty'n Breakfast 1 (188). 
Her best-known work I'M porhapw M)eeeiving 
< tfanny, 5 whieh WJ.IH extenHively reproduced, 
An oil -portrait of MIHH Farmer by her 
brother Alexander belongs to Mian M. A, 
Waller of PoHdteNter. 

(information kindly supplied by Minn M, A- 
Waller: ( ''ainJOLNicn of oiln and water-ttoloum* 

v 3T ' ' f^t 

Victoria awl Albert Mumwm j <*ravfl Did- 

of ArtintH, Hoy. AfwL Kxhihitorn, and | Dr. Henry Montagu Butler, 

British liiKtitntiwn Kxhibifcorn ; Cat, of the. j HI nee 1859, who had given Fanner every 

liny, AfiwL nd titty, Int, of Painters in j enooura&erwmt, left Harrow, Fanner aft- 

Water Cototm< ; Art. Journal, KMT), p, S!24."| ; eepted an invitation (previously offered, 

t h 1 I "f \ ' * ' * "* 

.\>, b .u ; } m (, (| um declined) from Benjamin Jowott* 

FA 11 MM It, JOHN (18,ir>~H)Ol) t ! Master of BalHol College, Oxford, to be 
mtiHieian* born at Nottingham on Hi Aug. \ eome organ int t here, At Balliol be reiiwined 
iH'lo, wan elrieat of a family of nine* Hw till liin deatb. Among munerotiH other 
father, iilMo.tohn Frtnner, wi^alujeniantifju> ? college ru>t-ivitiiw, he inBtituted* in Urn 
turer atici ankilful violoncielliMt; hw mot her, eolleg*} ball, with tin* M astern full ap- 
wlioHO maiden name UJIH Mary Hlnekwluiw* proval, nlaHHittal K-?c!uhir oonwri^ on Sunday 
wiw markedly umnvinkml, buf f jtoMHeHHini eveiiingH, wide!) arouHed for a nbort timo 
uf <!onHidei*iil>le meehjuiieal inverttiveneHH* aoriHiderable oppoHition, 
An. ncU% Henry Farmer* wiu* a nomponer Tliere w<n' mnny Hid<uutI k fH to Farmer^B 
IUH.I the proprietor of a guiu^ral munio untiring eiH*rgi< 4 H, In .1872 a body of 
wHrehotwe in Nottingham. !%rmer \van frieiitlH ffnnded tho i I arrow Muni School . 
afjpreittieml to him at a vary early itgn nn inHtitution deHtgiied fa HyHtcjnatiHt* \m 
ufier Himooling ut Hwoknall Torkard aiut motfiod of inHtriwatiou in (slaHHiorJ piano 
lit Nottingham, and taught hlniHt.lf to ' mtimo* Hptioitil Htrwa WIM laid on 
pltiy fu.iuu violin and harp* At tfio ago ; tily ol tho work of Baah* tlto 
of jfouirl<^n ho wan .went Ui'tho Owwrva- ' fionn.1 iinportaiicto ol wluoh Farm or 
foriiim at !^eijr/JK* where im Htuo*M*d imtler one of thn iirnt in Mnglauo 1 to apj 
MoHebt*len ilaitly* llauptmjtnn, and .!'! !*. He WUH a-lrto or^ of tlu earlieHt nnd 
Hieliier, imd HIUI^ in thu 'l^iomm^kirejK*, eijajn]>iorw of Brahrt'm. For thtihiHt twenty- 
After three yearn at Leiji^ig lie moved to tive ytsaw of bin life hin method waH iwlopl^d 
<-ol.iur^, ntudi<Hiu}MiiTS|>iuMltiittiir<*hi'^rHi.Hi !..y tho UirlM 1 Pul>lia Day H<sliool t'omininy, 
th.n ebi*ml work at* tho opera .and elwnvhere, for which (iw for many other Heftooln) ho 
In IHfiJ! hi* returned it* Kuwait*], and l4ok net.wl m muHifml rwlviner itnd ii.iHpi^tor* 
a miHJtion in the l/mdoii branch of IIIH From 1HIM5 ouwimln ht wiw eiiiiminer to 
fatner*H huu* h*ijii>HH, where, though the tho^oeiety if ArtH, and he WUH alHojmHily 
wurk UHH very utiwHgt'Hwl, lie K(ay<sl til! en^jigmt in terwibin^ and in ltwtt.imij< in 
the *1*ath in IH^7* of JJJH mother* who liiul nehooig and in intivei>itieH iminldr* Oxford* 
Mti'MMgly i.||i*mHi an artirttia t?ar4*er llo ; taking up towjiriln tht> entl of bin life a 
then run away fa Kiimih. Ut mjpjwrt him further intoreMt--t!'M' iniiHics of Holfliern 
wlf by miiHia-tcwiliing* nolely inliiienemi ; and Hftilom.: Ho died at Oxford n 17 July 
by the remdeiicm of' Wagiwr *fhtn at the i !.lK)l f aftnr a long paral.yiiw il.ItHH. 
liiui*; he hwl hc*l[itMl in th* prodi4atit.n of ' : Farmer married, at Kurk'h im 2H Otst 
*r* at tViinirg, ami lii^l **x- j IHHi), Mario KlinaL-mth Htnh<*1, tlattghtw of 
a ^trriiig relation fro'm the ; a XUrkh wihooltmwfc'r 5 two ff their mwm 

lit . 1861 Fiirmtrr returned to Kngland* j I^rmer^ puliliHhftl. iioiaffomtionH tnoludo 
afttr H0i0 (iuut.uatkmtt of forttine* -win* i mimerotw tton^H fur li'arri)w liiUliol* Hi 
to giv<i tiatly '{tiatto jwrfontiauwH ; : .Andr^wH* and 

^riialloim! Exhibition of 1802* ThcM autl lu Hokli^jm* (1 : H?H) antt *T 
m with Harrow mihool! whiah gava j of (.'liriwt 1 (UW)s a fairy o|.mra *( 
him hk oliiof wputatiotn wan & fruit of thin (1.HK2); n * itoquitim. in moinory o 



Hamo oid^ Ifarmviaim who Harrow frkmtb* (IHH4); and ' mwy warto 
visitml tho p^hibition and wort* iitruok with of nmnilor (iiiiumttiorm* 
l^ariiior'M playing inviUxl hliii t> tako uhargo j ywtm of_ ohaml^r^ini^k^ and othw 
of a Minalt 'iivtiilaal iiooioty (wnommotitwi 
with thitohoollloi.f) In which thty 
", He took up WM 



rcmnln In MB, -Ho afar* editad- many 
of Biwh ftntl other Htondard com- 

for 



awl schools' (1880); 'Hymn* nwJ rhorftfr* ! (H.A. IHHM), \'l:lw Link* *4 iWt.h ' (KS.A. 
for schools and collngrH 1 (iHinl); VDttfw i im'J). tn I8HJ W wi^ r!rH,*,! ,VR.s\,\ , 
(iommu, rhymes and g fnitl JIM! ni'tv) ' rind in JlmKiiw vHi:r h r t''W'vr*j ir I,ni-irlMii f 
for children * {l8M)f SScwlrt nwl .Hlm% j willing ! tr 
songs for soldlew and unilurn 1 (lH!ttl), '" *pml 
He had a remarkable* gift IVr writing [ WKIH 
straightforward healthy ttmw Mtrtbl* Cur 



wit MM* r 



|U!*t fin* 1 * Wr| <.)f 



uniaon Hinging, and to t 

he [himself attaoliwlirfiM import a 



.5'" 



n 



ftonality, with a 
ethical iiifhu*uo' of j 
! K>ulari^:i the* 



In!i f 



iirt-l *'\l 

MM ff* ir 



fr* 



did 



VV 



which ha mow!* 

A 'portrait hi oik in in fl** 1 
tit Hamnv school, 



' : 



f 



., 



, K, 



n 



FABNiNUHAM', 



*r, f HIM 



at 



JH 



With list*. ''%t ! if."j<'H'<ji M| njin 4 







in titt* 



Jlv*- 



, inti 



it 



Uiw tif tfm 



younger 
of 

tore, and 8uan i'liwk him wifo, 
a*p|ttwatiofliihlp In thci ahop 
and dooorator m BlaiigowHti 
about, tlm mmrn -ti 

mt, Wlllmm CJ 
won , ooiwideraWj.; mpttliittm tin n |vnt^r i utt llm.^ n*-jirn!o ."r <M ift.* in 

?i ' Aftor feliowjn Im limit* in 
aouth of HcoUttftd, !>Viiubaiwm 

to hm njfcUvo town, nncl ith hin ir.r * M rlm , m w.)' flt.A, 
tha fowwmw of A, ntui .11, totr- i^t^r f, 



-- A , lit* cfavfili.tl 

to tho art. of kuulfteapit jinliuing, w 
with little or no regular tmintng, to 
long -practised IE a desultory way, 
first appoaraiioo at ' the 'Royal ' 
Academy, in 1868, "was with a 
Iandseape> ; ami Us' skatehing oxu^,*^., 
had alreadv taken him as far AS Ireland 
but Us mam Eubjtoti throughout -his earner 
were found in Us ."native, 'glens and iht 
Perthshire and western UgbUtntis, 

About 1872-i VarqidiMsbn voinoved to 
Mmburgh, and..- until 1888 had a studio 
thero at 16'Heardy Plaos His ''Lust 
FUTOW; exhibited at the -Scottish Aosdemy 
an 1878, wa purohasod anti engraved -by 

. the ^ Royal Association for the ' Promotion 
of Fine Arte, It w0i followed by * Noon 

, day Rest' (BAA. 1879), *- " " 



ll fai 



or, 
- 



it'll* 



,i,,t-| 
i . 



, i 



rm J 



17 
* * 



mmt 



Jrviiw, w 

iiil 111 IWIIi, 



till | 8i0Miiiiui4 II *fK 



> *y 



Farrur 9 Farrar 



PARBA.B, AI)AM ( STOKE Y (1820- | manner, he by ' hi physical pimmco height- 
1905) pn.f* : Haor of divinity ftiulo( f ,cI( ii Hi*iMti('al unod the dlcet of what ho mhlS 
history at 'Durham born iu Jrfmcion on Whilo at Durham* although ho planned 
20 April I82fl WRH son of Abraham KcdcH j withotitcxtjcwllng an EngliHli church hitory 
FttrmrimmidiMitfflwi\VV^i(\vmi<ionfew>ntM% ho only publish wl a few "wvrmonH. Ho dud 
hy hi* Btwnd \vif<\ Kii'/alK'ih, diujghtor of at Durham on .!..! *Jww 1005, without imn<\ 
Adam Storey of l/wln. Kdycatoi at th< | H<* married in 1804 Sarah Martha (J.B24- 
Liverpool fnxtitutp, h" nuitmnflatrd in 1M4 ! llJ0J>),dfUig|jU<rof KohoH Wood, a " "" 
at H't Mary Hall, Oxford* obtaining a II wt ? mhiintor. 

diuftirt thofhialclnMHiVuiNohooiamiaHwom]. I jfiuiwlmm 2 *Tuw< 11*05 j .fminw! of TL 
Sfimathc*mat!^iindgra<iuafiitg B.A, inlHfrf), \<wm\ .StmlicM, art. hy 3)r, .Sninlny, Dtitohor 
In 185! ho wan tlw fir.st vvmmT of i.hi.i prto Hion j Durham Univrktty Jouriml M 
fotic.h>tl in rut'moi'y of Arnold rf I'tughy, uith .IU05 with lint of HC 
an ^*wav on * This C.tiH-8 .f l.b< 



ttml l)tjuy cf t Lin 'I own of CaHhaKV and i FAHKAE, KHKI.M5MCJ WILLIAM:. 

in tho fallowing ytMi' j;rcH?(:'f'dfH.l M.A, and (IH'U IIKKI), ii(*an <f (Iffiiierbiiry, horn 

waNi'R*id MidM*llfr)tiwof QufM'ii'n rJ*IU^<s *>n ? Aug, 1H31 in iht; fort at 

111 two JdUdtwHrtivw ycnrM. IKH'J and 185*1. he:* '. wan tlio Ht'Ct.nHl MOII ol; Uhaite 

* * f^* 1 I * f j 1 if'" : 11 1 S, -t 

\vo.nn tho I)f*ivv*''i' on/.i^ for ft. tl'i*^ : Mf'*jifft'ul i^*Hay iMtrrur, {"lUVjilniM <H tho vlnir('h m 

htM thrinff< fii-in^ r*'8p^olivf'ly "'Ilm Oi'H'lrtno i SonVly, !>y his wiio (^-rolitus I'lirncr* 

ofth Trinity * and *OritdHi8iii/ Ordjuncd At llw n^ of thrw lui wart HIM if with hw 

dtnwion hi 1H5^ find 'prit^i in iHfKI, It** < i idi<r lrothir to Kngiiind, and wlsil^ nridcn* 

biTiHtw tutor ii Wiuliwm (.'oHvgi;* in 1855, th<.* wiroof two tnnidnn atmirt at Ayl<?8hry 

adwl both iw* inathrmnlind niodiTutor atii'iidi'd tho Latin woliotil tiit*r(\ HIM 

' i^r in t-Iaw^'H In IHfirt, IJ<* \VIIH . pfirculM ntjiH* to Kn^land for it thrw ywrH* 

!*riit*!t* 4 r at flio Clhn|H*l ft oval, furlough in tH3i), an<l faking a lioiwn 

in IHfiH* itiKl lianiptt.m l<*durcr H.i. tViMtloton Hay in Urn IN!M of Mam ncut 

ut Oxforcl in 1882, n<l !am B,U and thoir MOHM to Ui' nnighhourlng King 

"I.>,1>* In !ifI4* ' : William *H l^ollogo, 'whciti they became*' 

\VWItiatOxfortJFarmrptt1ilWmlhiHflifef : Iwrnnlnw in th hotwo cf Iho hcnclifltcsf, 

literary work, *Ki^'t'i in Th.M.ilngy, |JUM*| I>r, t>Uiiu Th?MsuItur nnd mmifoiiol" tli 

HrrnifiViH h*foit? ih> U*uv<*r4ly ot'VHford^ Ayl'HJrury homt* and tin 1 cwirnpiirativa din- 

In JHf*!J* iul *A CtiHi'iil IJiM*lf*ry of l'V:m t'<ird'(*rt and rotixhwHH of tlin (?o!iojj;o ar 

Thought; fho i^iiiniton L**t'futvH in !8($& iJiwrih^d l-y Kurrur in hin iimt ntorv, 

In tl'm- fiiriiiff work 'js wiRht *tM l.irin ' * Wr^' m 'W* rt4ijy;i.nm ioacliing waw Htrintly 

of thii <liM(tovi*i'i^K Htitl n : H>IimdM of ' *'*vanj/,i?!i<?ai hut tho Hfandiuti ol Hcliolrtr* 

itnd iiiond Hf'i(fii'i*H to lw?nr whip wnn inli*nor. In <*i^!it ytarH Farmr 

.t iiurMiottM of th^ott'i^y* 1 Th rtw *** n< ^ hwid of thw Ht*lt*io]* d<n r *lu|ing 

_ ____ fur*> firovwl J*Virwr i* hw li : ^^ ntroitg Ht*H"niiniia whi{4t diHtingntHiu*d 

Iimrtun! Hfw.l fJcar hinfuriun of tdna*. In hh Ui rough !if. Amon^ -.JtiH H<jhof.>lft*llowH 

I*'Vi.rfHf urvH nppt*int4Hl. prof<9wr>r nt '. w*rt.4 Tljotf HW KtwJ'.r|i|. v.Suppl. .11 )* 'VhoifJHH 

.ami tn fSWfoiHwmt* t^ntmnf th fiiiwitfU Hrown [>j. -v. Hii||>L 'I| l( niHl >! H, 

jV*.mlhiUiJuM..mwnrfl,Nhou)yjh \ B*wly* in IH47* -when < hm fnlhcr Wt 

his travHiiHi tvitMy in hm vai^ntion. mitoniy ! India and hcwtniu *n.utdi"ii'i4liargo of Kt. 

thmtifjh Kiirwp 'bt in Ania Minor, hi : *IUIKJM, C*lf*rkownt), .Furrnr ^livtjd'with h3 
Jifo w*w kltmtHUtl with hm work nn tiiw?hi*r ; pHi'i^ntM, ntnl. aiioniliul Kin^'H <i,!l<.^o, 

niul pitftu^KT ftt Wwrhiim, II i rni]t>ji#m\ ! .riH*n*furtIt,<;wing to hinHttm^^M in winning 

BandAVt who di^ffitol'hiw iwi *E Inirii ; priw^s and Mt^solrtivhipH, hm titltu:jatti>n ct 

*!,* ilinthimi if *ny of tho dbtin- :' iim falht*r nwUiing. Jlo WH tirnt hotli In 

of tlio ioKi <x*ntury , . * i utrimiiiiiun at |.xdi.>ti UnivvrKity itnd 

,jaw oommaniling wirv<?y i hi tin* t^aiuhtatiou lor hotHiurH, nmigrad-u- 

.,...... anctt{tmi poworot' Jmjm'H- ! at**tl liA, in 185& 1U ahbf comi^titor 

theimtkoit word ij|;tf)n niitlu*art>i*H * . * i wn (Sir) JW win Arnold [<j. ; V. Bnppl, Iij 

iff knowkdgo wan'anijyiilof^llo; niul hin ; utid umww tho )>n>fHHura' F t> 1), Muuricw 

method ww lite that of tho ('*noy<?Ii:ipttHiift, J {.<!. v,] t*xt ( i'fli!cl a ntrung inlhi^tieo on 

Hewiuiflover'inoroftthtmiothiin in cliwl- torn- '.From .Mi.wr.ioa ho Imrnod 'n vcrnor- 

fytng,-dlvidiog,:iind sulKlividin^ Hi 0x> : s ntk far CJoIaridp'a jwligkmir find jihflo 

nerifinoo to the itudy of nntural iwionei> j Bophiuui writSiH, J.ti Octotor 1S60 f 

dtOTteated hi trofttmont of iitomiura and j want to Trinity Cfll^i (^nibridge, with 

the history of 'thought 1 01 wmimttitdinii iarnhip nnd ft 

... ^ w ,* W 



b0ight and ftppearanae, and -of- 




in 1S02 bo obtoijied a. Trinity Gbllcgo 



Farrar 



ICl 

t ' I 

drawn freely on Inn (','wihwte' r*pnrisr*:<H, < i*w! Sow/ 
Ho took no piiH in giwu'M. -In ^ i "* h< : rf^h**! it 

WOfi th(1 C'luUK'^liof 1 ^ IW'flltl (of KHgllHlll j |*|i}l*'*l:s| 

vorso with ft jHipni f.u Ih** Ar^Hr r*T*'n.. j iir>*i H 
In 1804 In* wiw hrnrkchY! loMrlh HI ih* ! in Urn *!!**tl 

and \VHM it junior i 



rni'ifni<*"j i- 



I** 



B.A, in IBM, |i 
and T),i), in 1874* 



n 



o 



at 

E, B* B***!y and 
at work* T 
|'rj* 



, (', 



n 



iho H 
iflw aw a 
of hi 



Uti O 



ul 



*m : iril ; ' 



iilrt ami 
?rr ni t 



*.,^i ti 



H55J, In 



Norrininn 



n 
an 



**> 



a 



tiy hi* 



with (>!' *I wHMi, ' rin 



arritr 



a 'h*uiw^ut>fi'r tit. 



*. 



. 

for 
H. M liutlcriiet Vft^1mu'H'r*tinnH^iif- (HIM* ; T 

prButIrn t ^^timat**oflu.mjtHam'h*t*^^ 
In Li/f, }}, 1 }B) 'At ilnmnv, Fn 
all iim towura to lit^mry worli 
which hc folbwtxl tiiniu^h !ifi 
loft Harrow ha tind wun for hitwwll si 



alt In 



Mri 
u* 



He lxgan with Hat-Ion 

1 Krfo,' or 'Little by Liiiie, v a tub of lmti 
Hfe t ; partly atitoblogmt^ioifci, which 
.retained it popularity ; -titiriy-ftix * 
appoarod Jhhiii iifetimo. * Brio ' 1 ^ ^ 
moUownom and the organio unity *:*f * Turn ! o 

I*,. _.. .. . . *"! * W*,' !*' '. S 



7th 



lirown's 'Bohcml Dayni 9 wlvlelt 

ft' yoar wirlior, . BttVit .,,,..,., 

thwragh it'-vivldiw' and Mtaoority, whlilli 

uwwifinh idoaliHm. Thoro foiiowod'in _ w 
Julian Hoina': a Tab of OoUecHi Lite* 
(18th odit. 1905)* In 1862 *" " " :;: 
<>f' the 'World of School 



} wnu ft 
udar th 



.., . . 

K. T. J, 



tit ml v ii ii : 



-.*-.. 



n m 



r* 



hii, 



n 



if , 



tit. 



( 



It 



l**i!4 



in 



t:r 



.,'<*'..-'',< 

y>it*> 



Farrur i 

College in Mueeo;^toii to Cieorme ('Iran- 

( 

vine Bradley |<f, v. Snppl. II |, An out- 
break of searlet fever hod junt mum! a. 
pan in among parents but Farrar noon 
revived eontidonee and maintained the 
pre*4i$e of Brad ley 'H ruk% earned out. 
Mjutitary improvements and the additional 
building which bad been previously planned,, 
and began tho teaching of HOIOIHW in 
aeeordanee with bin priw.viplr'H of odnea* 
tionnl reform* While at. Marlboron^h ho 
made bin popular reputation by writing 
the * Ufo of Ohmt/ lie sought to meet 
the ri'qmremHttM of tho publtnherN, Me,wH, 
f .'aiwlK IMfer & fialptn, who suggest rd that 
the Hkeh'h should, enable readern to realise 
nhnMt*H * life more elearly, and to enter more 
thoroughly into tho details and nequenee 
of I lie gospel nnrrafiveM/ In 1H70 be v tailed 
iVdeHfino with Walter Leaf, hw pupil at 
Harrow, and bin fiwh was completed after 
hard work in IH7-I. Tho wueeeHH was 
Twelve odiltonH wer* 

H '' ' 

in it year, and thirty editionn of all Morfi 
Hixf*?i fit iljc aiithor'H Hfetirne, If hiw had 
a huj^e nrde in America and hi.w been 
tran^fafiHl into id! t lie }] 
'.Dr'ftmto I!H negk*et of the 
of lite ooutmwition of the ^oHpefn* and tlie 
floridrty whirh wan huhifuat to Farrar' H 
tylt% inn * Life of CbrJMt ' eombinetl honent 

robiint faith with wide and aeenmfe 

larnliip, Tlie value of t! 

bi*en rerooniHed i*\ 



Farrar 



. , vj-iC' 

//a 



ni the VLife of Si, 1'aul' fWih .MHh 
edit, 11HM), nn able nn*l Ihormijjth Htirvey 
of fhe I'aulim* epiHtleH nnd tlm problem?* 
eomireleif \viih tliem, itnd the wont vuliuUihi 
of Farrar'** ivritinwH j in tf fhe .ICarly ..MmyH 
of C*hritinity ' IJHH2, /* edlln,), in whleh 
the review of ihn writing t*f Mw ^<* w 
TeHtament wax eofnpleled ; and in bin 
* Liven of the I'jtlhe.rN : C!hvjreh fl.JHtory in 
'* (IHHII), an itlleiitpt to bn 
dt..\vti to the end of the 



5 Frti'wr tleelined the erowti living j 

of Halifax:'* but ne&t year ho itee*pti*d a [ 
tmnonry of WeHtminMter with tho reetory | 
*! St. k Miir#!Wt*i [tH-rinh. ili HU 
n pnmahr Imtli at Ht* ' Mnrj#*rot"K 
mid lit tho Alitwy wit** jirownin^rHl, and gave 
him tho ttittytiiN of rwi;c;*ring tho ehureli. 
Ho thorotigidy n^or^ttniwH-l it* Interior, 
putting in ' many Mtoitu*:}. ghwn windown 
and ftfumdlng *10 # CHK)i *:)n tlio building 
At tho nino tlm ho nought to reHtoro to 

olniroh 'of tho. Hntifta <f (>mi 

largoly. mutt?mit<d. 'In 1SIMI ho wiw .chowon 



chaplain to the HOUMO, a,nd filled tli^fe 
|>osiiion with disitiiu^ion for five yearn, 
AH a parish prj(.sii Jin oarnoHtly fatsiMl bin 
pa-roohial reHj>nHibiliti<^, and tho drunken- 
mm in W*\-*tnnrmt<ir shnnH nmdo him a 
pledged ab;*taiHer and an ea^er advoeata 
<tf iempenuiee. In 188^ Im wan appointed 
archdeaeon < tf Went minwt er. 

In 'IH77 ho rouniHl a storm of critieiHm 
by a (ioiirno of live- H<M'mcuw in the Abbey 
{Nov. Dee,) on tho HOVI! atid t.ho fntnro 
life, the Bitbjeet of a, e,urrent diHeUHHton in 
tlie 4 Nineteenth Ountury.' Hn ohall<ui^(Hl 
the do^etrine of ftei'nat piniinhnu'iit', Tho 
HermoMM wr*re publiwhcd with a preface 
and other additions under tho title 
k Kterna.1 Hope 1 in IH7H (18th edit- ]|M)i), 
and the voluutt.'H trilled forth numuroim 
replies, of wiiieh tho most important wn.8 
R. II i'u>y'H 'What. M of Fiuth IIH to 
Rverlantiitg' .i*untahtont V ' Puney and 
I^Wriu 1 wirrwpowk'di and in Home meaHiire 
Farrar modified his (lotsition in * Mewy and 
J utUfmt.Mit : a, "K*w l^tnt W<r<'!.H on 01 
f'*HeliafoIogy with reference to }>r. .1 
* Whftt in of Faith " 1 { 1 HK.I ; Itrd wl.lt, 
FarmrV itniuhing largely r^fitniUMl that of 
Iiin n.taHttr, F i> Matiritju, but ho reaaluMi 
a far widor andtenao. At Farrar^ HU^goatitm 
iho oiler wan mad** on Darvvin'H death in 
IHH2 to biter IUH I>*dy in WeHtminHt<^r 
Afbey ; Farrar wan one of tlio pail- 
1/e/trerH, njid pi'i.ni^hed a nota.hlu funeral 
nermon on tfctrwin'rt work and ohanwvler, 
lu | HH5 Farrar made a four inonthft* premth- 
ittn mid leelurin^ tour through Uitnadu and 
the UuiiiHl StrtieH, Ilin lee,turo on Brown- 
ing wan reekonetJ i\m b<^inniiHt ff that 
iM.MrtV popwliirity in America. 111^ preaeh* 
ing ereateti it jirofound improMHton. JliH 
1 Hermonn mtd AdilreHHeH in Am(n'i<ta * 
appeared in 1^8(1, 'in the mum* year hit 
nerved m Ilam|tou leefurer at. Onford f bin 
Hele(!tifn beiny^ an untiHtial eomp!ime.nt to 
a ('iunlmd^e divine, Hin tlieme wan * Tho 
IjNory of fiHerpretatJon,' utid win* hnndlwi 
with HuhnJurly oJTet;t 

HIM broad vievvH lon^ hiiwl^rwl hi 
promotion, but in JKilfi ho ).ujnm0 dan 
of Cknt4*rbury on the reeominendation 
of Lord HoHobory. flo tlirew hhnNoif 
with enthuHiiiHin info bin new duties 
Hepiiir anil r*?Hioratioii of Canterbury 
Cathedral were urgent, in threo yeiir 
fin . rusHtHl HMHME by public Huiwrij>tmt 
Hit* roofH wwro tttiMh* watwril^ht and tho 
eliajitor lummi and cry fit thoroughly restored* 
Jt improvtHl tint* catiunlnU norvieoH and 
tiiiwlo uiw cmthmlrifcl a aontit* of spiritual life 
..for thti towi nnd dicxioHD, . In l'S0i) Inn right 
hand wiii affoctofl . by munautor ntniphy. 



'^'^% 

l-l *l t*t'* #: 'i f* 

1 nil I tit 



which k>wly atfiufei nil hi* 
After a kmg illw^H lit* dint *.m 1*2 A!r*:h .. 
.1303* He \VH Irtirit'il in l..horli<i*t<<r>'iTri 
of tho cathedral* war Aivhbif<iit.:|j 'JVwn!', 
In 18CK) 'ho wnrrifd Lucy .Mary* hinl '. 
daughter of IfywIfTiu C,,!{ir*l*nv M( tho Kn^t ; ; 
India O>nif)finy 1 H nmw, liy wh**n l tn*l 
livo HoiiH and Hvir tlnugl if TH ; 

Ilirt [.;'( rait by H. ^* MnrK/t u-"^.^ jaini^f 

f'% -i J * t /'III v 1 k i ^ i i I ''" 

or miiriftufiHigu i.'<ii*jf*o. in iSiV*. nun ji 

i'at'k'iiitjrt.', fy * Spy * tt}tj.irviri.*ti in ' Vanity 
fttir * in IMIM, iJmn i.'Wwr Str-^l,<i nr-A ; 
H<m*fc in \\VMitiiinHfcr. in ntuni^! uftrr him, ; 
-lAvrnir ^^cflfHl a viwl |Hjjulfir iiilhii' t i.:i^" 
upon tho ivitftioitH f<'H?iin^ nwl ruh'n^ nl 
tho ittiddlo t;l.tiHHfvt fir fully (ifty .v^-af-'i ; 
by vitiii*i cf hi*t Hithu^inHfitt nliinv- 1 * siw'ir- 

fcj ' " , n ^ 

if not H-hva-VM ciiMi;!.riiiiinut.iin^ nt*I M! ItM 



Ilfl 



III 



Ihr Th"n 



H-irf* : ft.ts 



til.,' 



V* ^IfS |Jj hi li.ru M | 



v it **", 



) > < H. 



I I I 



' 



ft 



luttltiinll lit IJji- 

f ntan 



At 



mcl.' .l;iiW* for . 



TKp M*-n 



iiotmr tif tho 



.i 



M 



: 1. '"Lric* t1' .Ur* 



and Form Mwwgumi'iit,* :lMIJ, 3, * 'lily 
in Li^'tNHth Htli i 



illl*i'l| 4fiii'it 



In Arlv I 
(!iiidii 
s ' Miit 



tho ItayHof Noh'i/ |.m>1 ; 8l.lt rMJIii, 

15* * Boi'tfd 
IBil ; 4th 
(JhriMt AH 

7. ' 
of Si. Chryo(|toin f ' 

'Known/ .1S07, ' 0, *Thn , 

10, 'Tho Ufa of Uv<* s ' Ftirlliur Btutlim in 
tho Life of OhriMt, 1 Mm. Two 
from hlg worki have Imm puUlinhdi 
tho titloH- * Wok of Truth antl 
(1881) ami *Tr0iwura Thought* 1 



iiiti, 



WWgm-phy j . tffie Tltwm, 2:1 

1003; Memoir by. Dw I^ 

^^.P 11 - 1 ^ lit.-of. tho. 

I my 5 Dean . .f war an 

/; '^tW^lin CprnMU 

S" liu , 
i Ihroo 

, fay A, J. . 

U. M. &iHwmr, and H. M. Hutlor j- F&rmr*i M*n 
I -havo Known, I7, and othor worku, 

autobiography,] ft, |$ 



11! 



ni| 



S*l 



* 'h 



rt* 



ill 



V in .1. 



H"9t> 



II, 



in 



*tit|iniiy 

' i 



o( * Ftml i*Uj 



Farren 13 Purr 



On 21 Dea 1 BOB nhejohH'd, John IToilingH- Hivnlfi 1 (1 Fek 1874), the chambermaid in 
VH eotijfwny for the opening of the) 4 The, Uiawtetino Murriago,* with PholpH 
ety Theatre, appearing an .Spriglitloy in | (I! Apr, 1874), Tillmmm in Bheridan'B ' TJio 
tho Gmto.' a'comody adapted from j Oitio' (1'J May 1874), Luoy in *Tho Rivuk' 
French, ami an Robert in W. 8, | (2 Mny 1877), rind Botfly Bate (5 Doc, 



Oilberi'n burlesque * liobert tho Devil' j 1883), Sho well MUBtained her reputation 
thai daks unlit her retirement nhe i by werfonnanoeH of UtHuIa in ShnkoHtKmro*;;? 



From that dak* unlit her retirement nhe by p 
wtti* ittflopftmbly ruModaitui with tho (Iniety j * Mtwh Ado about Nothing ' (Hay market, 
Thwitw, 'playing with mteoeHB in every 1.2 Deo, 1874) and Maria in * Twelfth 
form of cwtorUUmwitt, from faroo, Imr-jNighi* (4 Mar. 1870). Pathon wan com* 
impm, and <*omw opera to old Knglinh j hined with comic power in rolen Mkn 
tw>MM:ly antl Sh/ikeHpeaman drama, undor ' C'hntieney Newc^oiue in l)ickf>H 1 ( Battle of 
the nuuiageitieHt either of Ifnllin^Mhend j Life * (2H Dee, 1873), Smikn in * NioholaH 
or of hin HijeeeHHitr, Mr, f!e*.)r^i- Kdwardi'H* j Niyki:*by* (iJH May IB8!1) Ham Wllloughhy 
A^ a liny * Nellie l^trren * proved at- her J in " Tin* Tieket of .'I^*av Man,' as well an 
liri^ltteHj, Htid in Ihiit ea|in^Hy hceaiiKi tlut ! In Nan in * ('{i,xl for Nothing/ 
idol of the (..Jaidy ffudieueeM, 'She eotild i in IHHH f) nhn vii-iiteti America and AUH- 
play unyfhirijy;,,* \vrt.4* llolIiii^Hheiiri in 'My ; IraJia with Fred LiwticHmd the (jaiety com- 
Ljff*liine,' *drt'SMin y tiling way and do; pany. BiifuuiuIr^hf'rlaHtre^uIiy^appeamnoo 
Hnythin^ wifh any <jtmntil-y 'f H ( ** wnd at ilie (luiefy HH Nan on Apdl 1801, for 
tviiht.wt a fin^e'of vtilgurity, * . * She the * benefit ' of tfio munieal diroator and 
Mitgltt to g*i clown to therariesd poHferify j eoiupojier. Willieliii Meyer LiUx fq, v Hujiwl. 
nn <|HJ bent [.irh'tiutm! boy ever wn uj : jn i II. |, SuIing wirn nfti'rwardH for Avmtralift 
the ni age HIWM 8ir W'iiliain 'I )av<?!tiuit intro- a^ain, nhe ojieiied at the PrimHHH*H Thwito, 
dueed Iwlkw in the timma in lh( reign of Mrlbturms**n 512 Aug. I Hill, m <..)ijH'i<n'-Kl.l<'m 
UhitrieH IL , Kh*Mvn e^eiilially a boy ; in Fred f^eHlie^ ImrleHquo * (Imdor-Kllon 
rwititw *4h leadift^ boy of her tlrae and ; wp UnrLaiti'; but befom tbc end of the 
for twenty warn i trim! to iimihor 1 * doubles 11 tour H!KJ w*w Btriaken with oardiao go-ut 
and fttiknV whih iiltimately oompoflw! liar wlthdniwal 



won IiumeiJHf^ jpitlarify In rolen Hke from her profenHion* After returning to 
Wel!t:T in * Bnrdell ?, Fittkwiitk* (24*btn j Kf inland a partial ree<tvery allowed hor in 
JH7I) imd in eoiuie rifn*}!!^ jwrtw !ik<* ! 181*5 to uiitleriake on h**r <HVJJ atnunuit 
|^pnrd!**ih l*i*ti*rl. Ji*'.i-'t'?f+'^ * i)in<Ui.vNtrtnt ' tie* innnn^'Hieitt of (,,hr Ojwra MfMttiquo 
{J7 1'Vb, |.H7*i). l>**u l^'j-sar in If. l. Bynw'H ' Then-ln.?, Tti fentilfn wero tliHaHtrouH, and 
* Litllti iJoMVHHrde .f$/.an v (^H Aiig/i>*7*}) i in Uwn* inontlw itH her Havin^H vaninitod* 
in Jl t vr*t.M*,M * Tim .li(*ii'wiHH ' A ' h^nefit 1 p^rfonuaiiee tn 17 Mare h 

IH77), FitiiHt in bin i at 

(1*1 Uet, JH77), <'rt(nn in ! fede t Imnight lu*r the wibHtwitwl mm of 
Hi-i^t'w 'Tht* Forty TliiiHM'H* (UIJDtHt, IW.J), ; 72WI^ whieh *niHtimi her an 
itud Atftddin in Hee* ; *n*M hurleHCjiie of thai provinion for Jifi% 

21 Utnn IHHi)* I-iit s r, under Mr/Uwrge* ; the right to dBpomi oi twtetltirdH of ih 
iHniia^Mti'^ii, nlie j'tlayisi on i'lijiital Htim by will, but 1000A waft 
5 wifb iit(1tMHiiuifii$ m^H}:tniu? ; fo.r il.id HlrtbliHhin*.t at hop rleath of 
nl in *IJflie .litek Hhefjimpl/ \ * Ntl!i<t 1'^trren ' bed in 1.1 
bv l*nry i*iit<iiia[i*r Hlepheii^ anil WtJfiftw \ iwid HKH.I/, for tiivH<m 
VnnUt\v wlit^j wlim wiw flr^t aHHoeiftted^ of* tlie ; ; cn!>urituvi* 

wil.li Fr.**l !.<*>wHtt f>], v, Huppl, f'jj nhtn SiihH|fiertf! * Nellie F 

" f. 

by * Ktobitrtt Ileisry * (Jill Metn IMH% I'Vaiikun- ; ' 'f.j.vdii.i ThuwpHon tit the l. rf veeurn Theatre, 
*i*iiip' liy th iwim* HMtbtirn (24 J.i^, 1HH7), *m *2 May IHVH), *w luM-i'i* Nell, in , 
mul Hwy Illiw lit * liuy ,I*laH, of tin* llhw^ ' of tlint 'wutms H|Kwiul!y written for her 
A* it T*.*rr (Fml l^*Hlit*) itnti ' nii filially In tbo 



In old aoitu^ly It*r f.*i^t purtn inoludrii IJnkiumi * on S April UXKI, nt tho oW 

|; (i>mry Unw, ! <liilty Tlnmtr^ wiiih wap than opened 



In * l*mU.m AwiimiHM 

Hoydart in *l*hM'ft : for tiio liiwt timts Him tlitni fmin 

J^_.. . . t u .. Jt % f .. . * .L t . uu jt ^ rt.l.i 'i.,11 A t J i"i ' l jfa^-A M'ft tl * 'i. i- V-l *'b** *4i/ii':L, i *'t .lt**4 ^ v ftft't ft %% lh?4 *"* i*I it>L '4 . 




In BitikemtefKn * Hypoorlta/ with Piioitw j cH.inoouwe'o maraw .raoono-at'A* 
(15 lltto, iH?) f Lytlis Ijtiiguwli in *Thol VNftlllo FarwrnV onboutidad ipirltii and 



}* 'i rt*f * 
ill 1 1 



MHrll 



humour, hc't" rcwly **tuv MJ[ i.iri.il"rv. ul. 
genuine? Hynii'mlhy with huniuit u*-/ 



over lint tivvraK*' I 

IK'IthtT tiill Uor It 

a wholly ngrrt'iilil 
voic<% btit tit*' 



grr?% JSr <**< nmM in 

, I1r #\\\w\ With , whi:J I** 1 v 

" Ih* 1 inj*uii 



..An 



H 
IMI 



t\vn 



<* w}itrtt 
iMt cm thn 



SJ 



.J.I 



at 



UWir.lotlii'rWrtMttH*.M-tr J, S 
JMtma Krtvill*. 
fMIJpl. M> WiK*.*r 



v,, 



N * 



after uligiii (numttg In tlir mtintry. 
Ixurfon cttliut In tlif immi* i*f 
at Uio Btriiua IhwUrn, ttinl^r hi 

. On ft 



4 to tl 
untii*r flu* n 



f*f U'iliaiu 



On 



in ItiH lrullr Urttry'n 

wiw ^r^titwt with 



. , &t thu IfnyiHuriu't, 

Kuokfttono,, m Oititalu AimotttUs ami won 
i< tout if loci with tiiu furtum<n uf that 
oithw in juvouil im&wly or light 
until 18(17, Kin morn InttsMihttf 
woro Uuilxjrt iu Browning '0'" 
Birthday * (25 April 1883), tiw 

[ ff^ * f % # UJp * 

Trial, in March 



now 
iti 



nl 

. ! 
will* 



in 



27 



n 



1,1 w 



unfit 

ft tut! t*t 







M i 

{28 March 18(14}, and K^muo nn 

1867, In Ootobcr 18(10 hn WAM i 

Mm John Wood for flw St. Juma 

h umMwnxi an Brtaml In Daly'* 

of Vfcrcur Frau J (25 Miw 1870), mtd Arlluir 

Mintou in * Two 'Utonw' (4 March 1871), In 



n- 



\vi 



it?l I"|-Jt ;.::,',. M. 1;-|<.: :< -J 'J'lM't*'' Iv 

I hsr I * * fl i^- '\" I "I-,, :if m i in*-' V' i: > 'it* 



JH?VI 



m ,!,, I 



If I! 
' 



(Vnuil tit 



jw.i 



ira 



Mill 1 ' 



Mir Afiiitun 



Urn 



ttl 



IV, 



Pausset 

Elizabeth DavieH, who was not eonneeted 
with the utagr, and by her had as wurviving 
isHuo a daughter,, who lived privately, 
and a Hon, Percy, an aetot% known while, 
Inn father win on tho ntago (from IS 
an William Farron, junior, an<1 mdmeq 
an William FurreiL 

ll*HNtWH Dramatic Lint; W. Davenport 
AtifimK'fl DieL of the Drama j Prof, Henry 
Morley'rt Journal of a London .VJuy^oor ; 
Mmvhray MornVH I^MH^VH in Tlieatrieul 
OritidHrn ; DiiHon (,-<ok*,H NitfhtH at the Flay ; | 
.Joneph Kmtfhti* Theatriral !Noti j .M ; Dramatie \ 
Year Mm!*, 1K02; Taller, art Sept* IftOI. ; | 
(Jrei'n li<*om llonk, JW)8 ; Dnily Telegraph J 
JJH Sept, H.H)H ; private injforntation ; p 

W ;i 

FT 11 * 



I 7 ayrcr 



FAUHBET, AN f I.1RKW ROIJKttT (1821- j 
J1HO), tlivims l>om on Kl Oet, JH31 at | 
Siivrrhill, eo. Fennana^h, wan tlio wn of ; 
tin* litw. William Fansnet hy IHH wifo i 
l<)li'/.ibhiifit. daughter of An<lrew 
provt-mt of Sii^o. r | 1 h. Cumlly, of Fre 
origin, hml Iwun settled in eo Ferman 
fur tnoro than a cenf*nry KdiKiateil iirnt 
at DnnjUannon Ht>yai Selnxil, h 
at Trinity College iHiblin, 
Ht?holarftii.ip in 1838, tho llmt 
HeholarHliip JIIK! tho vi.a(**a!uitioc' 
for \M\ti verne and CJroek verne in IH-11, tlio 
viet^ehaneeiior'H (*re<*k verno privie and tlttt 
Berkeley goM meda! in 1H 12, lie ^rmluafed 
11 A* in !K43(wnior iiii.u!i % rator in t^tH^ie^), 
und won tlie viee^ehuneellifr'H Latin verw i 
jiri/,s both in that year and m 1844, He 
obtained I he divinity terilimonitttn (Heoond 
elann) in 1H-I5, amlgradnaf-ed, M,A in lHiO 
proeeeding li!> and ill), in IBHtf* 

f'*n grailnating, .lAiUH8i.it fieeame itMtutt'sc^H* 
fnl *enjieh* at Trinity C'olleg(% J.)llii, hut, 
drawn to jmroehia] work wan ordalnetl 
deiteon in IH47 uiut j>ri(^t in JH4H hy tlie 
I4H.ho|i of t')ujr!iiun and w.<rvt*tl from 1817 
to JHfiO iM itnrato of lltHhoj:j Mltldl(*hn'i, 
a llnrhiun tiolliery village Frt>m 1H59 
jiiiill !HM death ho \vi.w vi<,*ur of tht? poor 
imrlHh of Ht* (Jiithhert'H, t ^ork, In 1HH5 
ho witH t'ttm'io a prebendary of York* A 
good Mtthoinr uud itn elot|ttent 
ho \viw an Vvangell^itl of ntrongly 
nyin.patbic,*Ki tuul wrtHi mueh in 
o,f iili cfonviat!t>n^* II dicni at York 
S' Fcslb 1010, FaUMAt^t WUH thriet* nmml : 
(!) in 1SH1I to Ellsmbotht daiighi4*rof Wiiliaiu 
linavvlw..*!), of York, by whom h*> Juwl threes 
non and no ckughter ; (2} in IB74 to Agnen* 
fiau^htor of Major l*ort^r, of lltmilniry Fort* 
lioniion, by wliojn liti Iml uiu* HM ; awl 
{3} in '1889 'to IfmBcm* datmhtor of tht* 

1 i dl ""*'" " ^ Jt ' 

, ' vwar of 



Mliowod wound Hoholiuvshij) in 
critical editaoim of * The ComedieH of 
Teroneo' (omitting the *. Eunuch 1 ) (1844); 
of MoMor'H ' Iliad; i.^viii, (1816), one of 
tlie llrHt,. editions in EH ft linn to tako ac- 
csount of the criticism of Wolff, Kiobuhr 
and Uroto; and of 4 Livy,* i,~iii., with pro- 
legomena and noten (J849) ; and in tram- 
lations of tho *Ho(.mba' (1850) and tho 
* Metloa ' ( 1 851 ) of Euriiiides. Hin religioim 
pu'blicationH, nioat of which had. wtdo 
(sirculutiou, w**ro: L *8oripturo mid Wio 
Pnvyer-liook in llnriuony,' 1854; rcviwod 
ed, 181)1, an annwer to ohjc^tionn ngairmt 
the liturgy* a. VO!H. iL aiid iv, (tloi), 
EetjIesiuHteH, MaJachi, CJoriuthianH I and 
Revelation) m t,ho l C'rltieal and Explana- 
tory I'oeket Biblo; 18IKJ..-4. 3, Voln, ill, 
lv., imil vi (I^abutf and l^rovc^rbB) in 
flu? '(Jritioal, Experiineutal and .l*ractical 
OotuttHiiitary; 18($4 70. 4 'HtmdioH in 
th (JL^PHalnw,' 1877; 2nd edit, 1885, an 
application of tlw argument from uu- 
deHi^uml aoimndwum />. * Thu Englinh- 
inaii'H CJrilifttU and Ex ptwitory l$it)lo 
C !yolondia,* originally muwl in parts, 
In vijunjo furin, IH78, (L SSi^rw of thts 
JH,* 188 L 7* * Commentary on Judged 
B* MIttido to tho Btudy of tho 
Btjok of (>>fnm.n .l :> rnycr' iH94, % UK.l edit. 
H!0;i I^tUHMet ittso fii'Ht IranHJated into 
Ktu$lin!i *L A. Ilen^erM ' Gnomon of th<s 
Ntnv Testament* (1r7), with nolen and 
u iifo of Beii^eL 

|;1liftH*rtl, IS i'Vh, 1WJO; 
April 1U1.0 j private Informal ion mid JHT 
luiowleiigtn | A, ft li 

FAY.HBR, S.u.t JDSKI'H; (1824MD07), 

Hur*geon*^*iieral nti author, horn at 
llymoulh on (J Dea, 1824, wan nemmd 
Holt of tin* wix W*M and two dayglit* 1 !^ of 
eofumaiider iiobt*rt John Fayrur, U,N. 
{17HH 1H40), hy hin wife A#nw (<L 181), 
daiJKltU'r of* 'Richard WiikinHof). 

Ilin fut lii*r on retiring frrHii aef .ivo m*rvltte 
in the navy, e:om mantled Hieam|aaketH 
lM*tweeii l*oil jjatrielc and I)ona^!uufets and 
LiverpoiU arn! New York, and wan tht'W a 
jiioneerof oee?i,n Hleivm jtvigati*t ; in 1843 
m ewmmanded ILM^H.TeneiloH an antation- 
nry ^mviet^hip at Bermuda* In tfowph'n 
t!w family lived HUeee^Hively at Haver* 
W*Htwi.>Yt.'Iiu.id wlttnu* ilt/nt''ih. rnado 



liraek* W*Htwi.>t.'Iiu.id wlttnu* iltnt'i'ih. 
tl'u-t aa<| ; iiaItaniM* of Woplnwortli, Ha 
<Joli'?rlg(.s and John Wilnoti ((Jliriito 
North); at .'ihtlrymplo, wlu*r hti wn a 
pupil f the Kwv, It Wullftoo (iaS^-6), and 
nt .'I^vi^rftool, whero lie Htitdtod natural 
Maiwtcnu ut H day school* In 1B40, after a 
brief utittly of ongintonng ho mado.ib 
to Wufc Indies emd Bouili America 'as 



Fayrer > Fayrer 

w * 

of thfi Thon*e in the ww W*l ' itolniitu. In Junimry 
li^iiuir mail *twwn-petot iwrviw, In ? piwiMmt nf ihn 
1843 he accompanied hi* father to IVttnln, wi 
whar an outbreak of wllnw ftwr inelinwl . in 

himtothflpwifwwionofmwlioim', Kn taring : Kmtlnjjloftl w*Hiy mul #Artlti!i in 
thOharingOm^HiptAllriC>ptl*r JH44, " whifh iw HiwiHy imrri^I mil in 11*75. 
whera hi' fellow pupili itwlwiwl (HirJ lh> nlt m-n P|'iirt| 
William Guyw Hunti*r |q, v. Httppl. IIJ oml : VH, thmi Princ* nl Wnl^ 
Thoma* Henry f!tisl*>% ho wft np|KMiit*Hl : In IH<W ho ^w^ mml^r 

at tho Wentminntrr Opfitlmhnifl HfiMpitnK j 
In July 1847 h wiw wlmiMfii M.H.Ct.S, | 
Englfttici, IxxHimittfC F.BXLH, in I7K, On | 
4 Aug* 1847 hn rewivinl n iwrtiniiiwiufi in lh* ' 
n>yM naval mottioal m^rvioe, hut Krnm renignwl ! - 
it to travel with !/*nl MMmtKfl>tinitnln j 
through Fmtiw, flrrwany, AIW! luly. j 
While At Pnlrrmn thn Hinilian n'VhitiM 
broktt out, tittt! Fayrr, with hin frinul Mr, 
Matt, mn\ of tlm wi*ii>kmmn 



hinn in Mar^h 



of 
whwa Iw arrivwl lit April 1H4H, IIP 



Or* S0 June 1W50 Fayw lft Ki 

to tonnwie nwttHlnnt nuf^*fin lit 
, HIH tvun tuition wiih tti*" inttitiii 
nrvioii lanttnt for fiirtv-fiv^ v*r<*. 



in In*li<i in 

in n 




nt Fort Wiltiatn 
on 00t ISIK), ho wwnt two ymra ni 
Ohlnmxm* ChnrrnpJI In tho Khiwi Hilin, 



In tho Ft 
Bftlhouiiu to 



war of IH09} IK! 
In July 



apjpointmimt of hufinrttry 

*a * -fcl <lkl A idi it ^^ 



Oa S^ 








on 17 Hoy, Ift 

In M^rch I85B 
telotigt and 





kit lot 




April, on returning to 
of 




H tiupttty 



n 






, %irn 



with 1)10 



i tut ft 



l*7fl. On 



in tHOA* It* w^* 





Fayrer 



the University of Edinburgh at the 
tercentenary of (jalilco at Padua (Duo, 
1892), whan ho inada a Npeeoh in Italian 
and received the honorary degree of 
doctor of philosophy, On 11 .January 1800 
ho was made a baronet, The remainder 
of hm life was passed chiefly at Palmmith, 
\vhere ho died on 21 May 1907. 

He married on 4 Cot* 1855* at Lutsknowv 
Bethia Mary, oldest daughter of Brigadier* 
general Andrew Spews, who wan in command 
of the troojm there; b,y her ho had B!X mnm 
and two daughters IJJH eldest Kon Robert 
Andrew* born on 27 June 1HAO, died on 
28 Peo, 1004. lie wan museeeded an Mcemul 
baronet by hw eldest Hiirviving won, Tt8oph. 
who joined the Royal Army Medical (JorpH, 

DoHpito official ami pmfewwmal oallH 
upon bin energies, Fayrer wiw a prolific 
writer cm Indian climatology, the pathology 
of Indian dineawB, minitatiou, and above all 
on venoiitouw Btmken, 11 in great work on 
* ThttThanatophitliaof India, 1 the bent book 
on the mihjeot, publish <ni in folio in 1 1*72 by 
government, was ilhiHtrated with admir- 
able coloured pittttw from the life by native* 
momlwrs of tha Calcutta School of Art (2nd 
edit, 1874), The book embodies all Fayrar'i 
experiments and rosoarohes, accounts of 
which were forwarded from India to l)r, 
F, (J, Webb, who put them into literary 
MhajK'. To Fayrer w inquirifH indue the 
et1ic?H<iiotiH permanganate tr**atmeitl of 
Hntiko-bitt'rt, But hw main eon* 
were thftt tb^re in no alwolitie 
und thitt nafrt-y in only to be 
attaittmi when the bite in m.mwh a wwitmn 
tin to make the jtpplwHtkm <f a Jigattire 
botwmm it and tbt? benrt poxHibits togetht^r 
with tlu UH*I o! the adt.ua) aauti*y. TIu.m* 
opinion** were Htimowiial m<xUflcHl afU^r 
norno Jator cixfx^HmantH by Fayrc*r Bruntun, 
and HogcirM {/ liuy, Soc^ HH)4, ix%iii. 
32,3} | it wiu there. Hhowit that rooovary 
might* bo ox}K)'otod'i! a iigatura worn applied 
within half a minuta or evat.t a longer 
aftc-r a biUs tho ito of tha Injury 

ing than iriaiwud and 



of potassium rubbed w. 

Of his other writings not already men- 
tioned the following arc* the most important! 

-----.*** j ! n 

Observations in hurgoQy 
,1863. 2* 'plifiioal Surgery in 
1888* B* * Osteomyoiitis and 
'Heptkuomia and tbe Natura of Visoaral 
Abtoesst 11 . 1167* 4, * Fibrinous Ooagulu in 
tha 'HeiMrt and Pulmonary Artery as a 
Oauso of Death after Hurgioal 

1867. '.. * "' * " 
Obsorvationa in *-- * 1fl ^ a * 



Preeervatlon of Health, 




Perm 



edit. 1804), 7. * Epidemiology of Cholera, 
1888, 8, 6 Sir James Ranald" Martin/ 1897. 
0* ' Recoltoctionn of My Life/ 1900. To 
4 Quain's Diotioimry of Mcdioino * (1882) 
ho oontributod artioltis on * Effects of 
Vononi ' and c VanoinoiiB Animals/ and to 
'Allbutt's SyHfcern of Medicine' (1804) 
thoso on t HunBiroko/ * Climate/ ami 
1 Fevers of India,' 

Fayrer^ portmit by Mr. Bydnoy P- Hall, 
in the.. Royal Medical College at Nctloy, 
wan unveiled by Lord Wolsoloy. 

yt, 1 Juno 1007 j Prtxj, lioy. Hoc., B80 
Kayroi-'g lUvoIIoritionH of My Life, 

' (I. P. (J. 



FENN, <:n01iU MANV1LLE (1831- 
180!)), novoltHt, born in Pimlioo on 3 Jan* 
1831, was third child and the? oldest of 
t-hn.H.s mm of Cliarkw tmtl Ann LotiiHa Fenn, 
After a Hcanty wluoatwm at privatti Bohools, 
Fonn nitidiocl at tho Batteret*a Training 
(killt'gi* for Trachow un<lir Hamuel Clark 
j'q, v,J front 1B5I to 1854, and became* on 
leaving inant^r of th nmall national nohool 
at A! turd, LtncolnMhim. After i*omo cm- 
ployinant as a .private tutor, lie moved to 
London In ciueat of work* and beoama a 
printer* Puronairfng a axn&H proa* at Orowla, 
LinoolnMhiro, ho tarUd' * Modern Metre,* 
a littlo mimiwims entirely in v<*rMc ivhlcli 
Wfw Hct up by himnolf, and ran from May 
In October lH(i2 In 1H04 Fcnn bijoamo 
part proprietor of Ihn * Htrt, and EH0x 
Otimirvur,' publiMhtKl at Bihop* 8 tort ford ; 
but thiH vt'iituro provtHl tu> tnoro wuoooasful 
Aftt'r ondiiMtf aiHappointruanti* a afiort 
nkotch t*ntU.ltxl * In Jaopardy * wan aco^pttxl 
for 'All tho Year Uouna* In lg4 by 
]>iakonu anti attrttotixl tho nottoa of othar 
<*<iitor^, ManuMoriptu warts soon aooeptod 
by Jtunwi Payn [%. y. Huppl 1] for * Cham- 
bara^ Juurtiai *' and' by fcdwarcl Wai ford 
Iq, v*J for *0nco a-Wk.* * Roadinga by 
Htarlight*' paporn un workinu*olaHifi" Jifcs 
appc^artxl in i860 in thu *Btar nownpa'|)or 
undor the editorship of JuMtin MoOarthyi and 
warts oollootcHl intx* four volutnon irt 1807 
Thuw noon, followed *Hpot uwd Biota, 1 
A. Mimlbr mmm f in tho *wookly Tlmm* 
undo? Mr.- (afkrrwarcb Sir John) Hutton. 

* Hoikiwatili Grange,* Fnn*i flmt boy'i 
Htory* ami * Koathorland,' a natural history 
tal f*r ohtidrcn, wero both pubUshed by 
Mowini. Urifflth & Varran in 1807; md 
from that data onwards ho produood novel 
after nova!, jn magaadno, nowapap^r, and 
volume form, with an industrious ' rapidUty 
wliioh few writers 



o 



1 V'" 



Ferguson 

%uo? 



u iJi'jUiKiH^iiUMi^iititl i>'tf iti ru : i-'-ianTfTif.'"" '- nr n ,i-"T*rtw* ff 'Vt^w j ' HWJoi*!*' *# 



for bov, in which ho often clTwttvuly 
mbodfed BtudiM of natural hbtavy Mid 
' ' 



wiU'.rlfiiD it* th*'r hou*r ni 20 Nwlh (Jiml 
C.Jwrgi' Hfrrrl. l*nl.lin ni.i. i rmm 



were 



iLnwhite in 'l870 Iw wwcmlwl Hgh I thm. Afl^r hrr 1iii^nnlj ili-Aili in 
Reginald Hawei [q-.v- HwpH- ,1 "J^J 11 ^ | fcif ^Tmir in r '" """"' 



' wiiSoh li< 



oritio of 



In IHH7 



\Viltmin 



wiili Mr, 



*'tij4iMi in Irr|tnl. 



a 



J<*hn 
tho 

of B. R 
and man of bttt s m ( A It 
&nd of gardening* I'Vnn 
vt'OfH on a rt*tcly 



of 



Ht, i*nlnr 
:$, ntut ' 



tl* ltr*l 



at Son 



Jibruryuf 

h'w itwuri* in iuinntrnrlitiK niiirmi'uni^nl ! Antrim* 



lwi i< 



of 



v* 



Alfwd Htmty 



to 

Fenn 
of John 
who 



died site A bng 
oti $0 Aug. 



II J 



marriod in Ittflft Numuttia. dutighU'r iditnlmy, faint **$ 14 

o! A!foni UnmtlnMn** \ Imrgh, 
him. By Iwr ho had two ! i>*trym]i! 



**f KUk^mut in 



in lit^mry pumtiitii. 




iwad llteraiy labowa, 



j*|,, v.J, H 
. 
win* 



* Tall ill 



Iff 

'* 



its 




. 'The boy*' bcwta met lh nwl Inr 

in AmJriw, whom *m-nil j IHBH !.,; ,,ul,l,,l,,, h-r ,,,, r -k ' Tb* 
unclr the gmicwl lilin of j Hiory of lh IrmU M.,rn (h. 
"' 



n|tiifittntil tli* ' ttntl bndmi, 'J vnl*.), mtd |t]-iiAAniiv If 



Fergusson 



Fergusson 



of that regiment he served in tho Crimean 
war, 1854-5. Ho took part In tho battle 
of Alma and was wounded at Inkorman 
on 5 Nov. 1854. On that day throo of bin 
brother oHloon* were kiilod and five others 
wotmdcd in tho numoroua encounters 
winch tho 1st division miRtainod, under 
(Jloorgo, duko of Cambridge, Clouo to 
him on tho Held of battle fell Im friend 
and neighbour ' in Scotland, Colonel Jamas 
Hunter Blair (KiNOLAKsfs Crimea, vol. vi, 
chap* 6). At tho dying man's miggOHtion, 
iho doctors oluwo Ferguson to tftko Blair* H 
place in parliament an tx.mHorvativo member 
for AyrBbiro, but ho remained with tho 
foresaw before HavaBtopol until May 1855. 
whan Ixml Raglan udvifled him to on tor 
upon hb parliamtsntary duties. On his re- 
turn home* ho reawvod hi modal from Quoon 
Victoria, and retired from tho army on Aug. 
1850, Although his active military cantor 
wiw thus brought to an early olono, ho 
remained an oftioor of tho ftoyoi Company 
of AroiwrM, wa** cobnol commanding th 
Ayr and Wigtown militia from 1858 to 
1$08, and alno nerved, in his county regi- 
ment of yeomanry, 

In 1857 he-lout nta teat for Ayrshire, but 
reoovored it to 1850, holding ft until 1868, 
Whllo attending to oounty bwinwin and 
tho dutioH of a landlord, ho dovotcw'1 
himKolf to liiH parliamentary work, and 
waa apnwnted under-Hwrtitary of India 
under Juord Oanbormi faro t'tsarr^ Lmti) 
Bofiittf* BuppL tlj in tho Itorby govern mt*nt 
of 1866, A yoar latar ho 'wm tratutfemd in 
a nimilar eapaalty kJ tho home offiao* where 
tharo WM neod for efBoient aid to QAthorne 
Hardy (ftfterwurdis Lord Oran brook) [q. v, 
Bvippl It]. Tho fmlilio mind wa agitated 
by trade* unkm.outragefti the Fonian movo 
menti and tho. raform bill After Dinriuuli 
Lortl Darby an prim mmiitar in 
1BB8 FerguiNBott was mode a privy 
oounoillor and covernor of South Australia, 
when) hearrivau on 18 Fab, 1SI4* Until 1885 
(save {or the : period 1875-80) hi* career 
idantifled witl tho oversea dominionit. 



and peaceful, the working of 

demands upon 

W j . 




MiitiiQM to hia minlatbra In orgtiia!ng tho 

, _. ' . a *~ _. , . . ._ . " l l*" HJ ^i . --JI.1*'-"* . >- 



ho engaged actively in county affairs, and 
on 10 March 1880, on the evo of Lord 
BoaconHficId's fall from power,' ho accepted 
the post of governor ol Bombay in suc- 
cession to Sir Biehard Temple [q* v. 
SuppL 11]* When tho now governor was 
installed on 28 April 1880 Lord Lytton 'had 
tondored his resignation, Abdur Rahman 
wa diaomssing terms with Sir Donald 
Stewart [q. v, BuppL I] near Kabul, and 
Ayub Khan was meditating tho attack upon 
Kandahar, which ho suocoHsfuUjr dclivorod 
at Mai wand on *27 July* Thus Ferguson's 
immtvliato duty was to punh forward 
BUpplioft and rfcinforcomontH 'through 8incL 
But hiH main dutios woro of an Oftiontially 
oivil oharaotor and cotutootocl with rovonuo 
adminisiration* Bt-sforo hiB arrival Bir 
Thoocloro Hope had carried through tho 
BU promo logiBlatitro the Dokhan Agdcul- 
turiflt Holitsf Act to enahto tho poasantry 
to flhako oil thoir indobtodno8 and moot 
tho unoyloni]cr on mcmi oqnai tormw* Tlio 
intrnduotion of HO riovol an o|orimont met 
with oppoiUon from tho poworfwl londmg 
olaiHOfi and alo from lawyara who oon- 
fiidered ooutraokn aoored'and the letter of 
bondi inviolable. Maw rubs of rgiBtm 
tion war requlrad, frtah courts Irntituted* 
and the ayutbm of oonolliation organiied* 
ForgUMHon, aH a proprietor himaotf, threw 
hin i^fmrionco and h(iart into tlio work. 
Tim Ac.1, whit'li IHIK foww Hinco ivtnoiulod, hiw 
ainimlaiifly viiidicafi'tl itH promo lora In 
another direction .h nought tho welfare 
of tha Dokhan paagantry, Tomplo # whfla 
immaniioly inoroafiiug the aroa ' of forot 
renemuit had novoroiy ourtailod foront 
privilege's long onjoyod by tho cultivating 
GtaH800" In uio uplands of tlio Ghat 
dbtrlotu* ForgUMMon removed mmw part 
.of tho bunion of toroat oonnorvanoy which 
Ttmp!o'had thrown on tho |)ooplo. He 
moreover inoulaatexlmodomtion'in aHueaBing 
the land. revenue and liberality in granting 
reinliilon< in timeu of 'Hoaroity, To enable 
'the itate to deal nwvre readily with famine, 
ho gave attention to the Alignment, of tho 
new Southern Mamth.A railway mainly 
<levi*od to earry food ituf0 into districts 
liable to failures of the rdn0*. In the ame 
spirit h oreftted tho lint agricultural 

JK ^ ,m. *^ _. ~ 



Anmmm for New Zealand* but after Diir&eH 
bfloa^'mmiav (Fab, 1874) Vngoaaon ra- 

ilgnei.flb pott .thtre in 1875, being made 
ICO.&LO. On hli return to England he 
tried to nNmma hfe pliamntary ewar, 
Hit attempti to m$bw> Rmme te lS7fi and 

In 187'Wiw ; BimM3oarfEl* 'But 



farms* In other departments ho turned to 



In the face of violent agitation h refused. 
to exerdse the olomenoy of the crown in 
favour of tho high priest of the 
wot. This holy mm hadAbeat 
of compiolty to oitd wmm$m t 



T?rnrm 

p*ti ' 



m Mi of ImpHy, Fowl of rifling Wny T 
giuwon oovomci long riifttancc* in hi* wvi** 
fcouw through ft provimm of I&MKIO unitum ; Om|rl. 
mile*. In parnwtnfw* of jntrfM'ifw awl in* 
dtofatigahlo energy h<* altmmt rival!*! Sir 
Riohairci Temple. if* did miio.li to ilnv<?||t 1 ftluh 
lha port of Homlay,ant! tcH* ffoc<|iint<i**t 
m education, Ifiying tiro fi.ittilftfinn *f lh 

nattvo Gtiltrgo At i*ontlii wtiidt IN mil*! liy 

to name* Ho wan juwintni in hU gnviint* 
monthy limwIlwH{Mn.Sir.riiiii^ hi!ifq, v, 

H), ami at Um fbpn of it by {Sir) i *if \Vru 



errers 






Mfl tin 21 t<Mi. in 



J'Vritit<Mm %v* ihrior* in<irri"<i ' 
<Vi)n i,n it Aug. 'IH 
mn. ntini^r iUtigM*r ,4 
flwi fft<tri|ui<tf 

il^ A f.AfM4M^-indHfici 



rrrw 
. v,|i 



n tv 



!i 



H*3 I.M 



dMtinption. With MbV aitl ho WAM niib : ; i.wm 4 O ml 
to Mtiiify Lore! Htpon liy iho itf^pn takpit in mi H .^H. 
Bombay to dovolon niral.and urlmn wit-' !*MU Kli 
govornnttint. . If lit** Jtomlmy ^wrnmmt , Hnn 
ww} unable to go A* fur A* that viwn.y .of 1 % 
wiuhwl, it wnt Curler than any ithnr 
provmpn injmltn, Alk^iW KITKIWWI* 
fldminiMtratinn n Htrniliay w*u m*wwiL 
and he wH merited tho Immiurtif ll,r:,N,l, 
wiiiob !t<i rwivi.1 on 2ft Prh. IKtA. 

i-ergUHimn I|H| nnl await fl>.< arrival u| 
IIIH mtoomwnr, Ixirrl fimv, nit nftnr 

for fht* S 



A ,|i,ni 

Kli*irii,. . w |,,t- fl j tVir 
n! Mr,nin, 8 Nurr^v, mul 
lVvl, wior ,,f 
Wl rv,*-ri h llfl ' 

' " 



Hi, 



i, v l 



w m.,,,1, 
imll i*n, 



A vr. 
for |,,. ,I 
i-. im 



. hurrying 



3 



n*nmt. a 



J H |,i,; $i 
. i.f Kglmt.... n 



poww on > Awg, 
fmm im (o IRM nn um 
ttw fotign office, and wmi 

and o 



f 



,. 

"TV, i 



, 
itamtary tnitml 

mry f 1 ,., ,., ^ 
wvl j ,. T 'I??' I 1 

' 



Ho poifonned bin dtitimi with yKHHKtW 




thi. Mfflcm until 



mif" * j-y in. "^ w&w ^ 

,m Ctourt Golly, aftanwd* 
fq. v, 



iraotor of tha BoyaJ 
OoKipa^y, tha Na&mali 




Cotton Growing Aaaodation 
day of the oonteaiw, 
*jw ovactakcjn by a 
followed by a deatraoitaa 
was walking in the atraot 
when ho was killed by the 
H wan burtod in the 



. f 



.iiii. ft v 
" 




Ferrers 



2T 




In 1856, owing to changes in tho tutorial 
BtaiT, tit ore WHH an opening for a now 
mathematical lecturer in Oaiutf College ; 
and tho Master, Dr. Kdwin (Uumt [q. v,], 
invited Ferrers, who wan by far tho beat 
mathematician anumgnt tho follow**, to 
supply tho place, 'Mm career was thus 
determined for tho rest of his life* For 
many yean* head mathematical lecturer, 
he was one of the two tutors of tho college 
from 1885. Aa lecturer ho wan extremely 
HucceHHful* Ik'skleN great natural powers 

*n :. 

in mathoniatk'H, ho poHHeswed an unusual 
capacity for vivid exposition, He was 
probably the bent lecturer, in his Htibject, 
in the tuiiverHity of bin day. lie wan 
ordained deacon in JHJ50 and priest in 1801, 

On 27 CM, 1H80 he wan doctor! Master <>f 
(lonville and Canm olle$*% on Dr. (Stunt's 
resignation. Me was admitted to the degree 
of IXIX oit 7 June 1HHL The honorary 
degree of LL.lK wan conferred on him by 
tiie University of Olnw^nv in I8H*J< 

For more than twenty years he wan n 
miMniwr of tho council of the senate at ('am* 
bridge: first in 1 80.% line! continuiWHly 
from 1 878 to 1893, wlion incrcaiiing infirmity 
obliged him. to decline re-election* In tho 
mathematical tripod ho aotad m* moderator 
or examiner wm* often, it in believed, than 
nny one e!e on reeurd. In I87U .'i'Vnvtx 
WIIM appoint rd a ^uvernnr of St. Pan IV 
Hehool, mid in 1HH5 a t/ovt'ww of .Ktoii 
C*MtW. H* wart t'h't'iotl F.H,S. in 1877. 

In 'hi wtrly dayn !*Vrwi*H wan a ki.n 
ui'tivemity tvlunwr, within the limit** in 
\vhii*h reftriu wtt then eontiuniiiated. 
Ho honrtlly MupjKiilt'd the aholiUon. of 
rdigimw t<*nt^* nnd tho throwing open of 
lilt (nt!o\vtni*rtl8 to free ooinpotilion ; ho 
irttrtxiueod into his isoliogo a inoro MyNte* 
tnatla Mtyl o^f trxaxnintttian than wan 
{iroviouniy in vi'igue. But ho hold wtrongly 
tha old viow that a thorough training' in 
t WAH eMHontiai to a nound 
For now Mtibjectut* like natural 
and nittohAtiicAt onginwriug* Iw 
want nyinpiithy* It.wna ulowly, and 
probably with HUMU reltiotAnots that lie 
wiw induaod to Aoccpt tho principle tlmi' 
diitlnotion '.in any "mubjocfc whkh wai 
3^eoognlsd and taught in . tho.' university 

fa?a a TaHd claim, to n Nehuiamhip or 
dtowship. 

It wm w a mathematician' that Ferrer** 
fame outaido the univcwity. Ho 
many contribution*! of Importanoo 
to mathematical literature Hte fiwt book 
wu-i * Solutions of the Cambridge Senate 
Hoe Problems, ISifMHU* lit 1801 ha 
pubiiahud a troatiifo 



ordinateH/ of which subHoquent editions 
appeared in 18(iO and 187B, One of his 
early momoirn wm on Sylvester's de- 
velopment of Poinsot* reprefiontation of 
tho motion of a rigid body about a fixed 
point, Tho paper wan road before tho 
Royal Society in 1869, and published 
in their * Transactions.* In 1871 ho 
otlitcd at tho request of tho college the 
' Mathematical Writings of Goorgo Qroon* 
( 1 703-1B4I ) [q. v,], a for. mor follow. Fcvrrom's 
irtrtttiHo on * Sphnri<jal I iarrnonicB/ published 
in 1H77, proHc^nk'xl many original featuroa. 

1.1 is cotitrihutionM to tho * Quarterly 
Journal of MatJwmaticH,' of which lie wan 
an editor from 1.85*1 to lKt)I t w<vro numorouH 
(HOU lint in tho liuy, AV*. Cat. jScitmtifiG 
Pnywrtt). Tlwy rango ovor Huuh Hubjocttt 
UH (juadriplaniir oo-ordinatoH, Lagrangu*B 
iM-juations and hydrotlynrunioH. In 1881 
ho applied hi.im.wlf to ntudy Kolvin'rt 
invi*Htigaiion of thn law of <iiHtribution of 
in equilibrium on an nninfluoncod 
bcnvL In thin Itu iniulo tho 
addition of finding tlm potential 
at any point of piui in ssoaal hnrnionio 
(Quart, JmtrtL Matit&matiw, 18B1). 

In 3S7i> Forrem wa troubled with tho 
flrat HymptomH of rheumatoid arthritfa : 
thin gnicitially InorcaHt'd until ho wa 
rtmdwd a tioniplok* Hfpli!, ,H't. diod at 
(ho Ctillt^* Lttd^o on **U Jan, ll'MKJ, at tho 
ngt* ol Huvi*ntythr(!>. 

On II April IHI.IW ho uiurriwi Emily, 
thtujjhtt'r of ilulin Lamb (q, v,], dmn 
of llriHtol and M'tudor of Ci>rpuH Chrinii 
Cillc'gts -Cttmbridgo. H had a family of 
ft HIT HOIW and ono dauglttor. 

Tlumi fa a fKntrait of him,, by tlio Eon, 
John (jollier* in tho oollego. 



[PorKitial ; knowledge t dtIItig and Uni- 
ity Iteotmb; Dr. Edward li<Hith*j* memoir 
in Hoyal Hofrkity 1 ^ i^'oa^iulniK 1 * ; Ifomrm 
F&mily ifintory, by 0> H, F, Ferrorn.j *), V. 

FBSTINa JOHN WOCIAM (1837-K02) t 
binho(i of St AlbanH, bom at Brook 
HOUHO^ Sttnirt4> Bomeraet, > IS Aug. 
1837, w*w* eldo^l Hn tif Riohaitl Uriudall 
Feiting by liw wifo Klim* daughter of 
IMwarcl Marnrnatt, of AMhby-da*lft-Zauoh 
A younger brotlier, Maior*GonorAl .Edward 
Ecfert " Fontin (* 1830), R.B, t ' 
F.H,S, wiw director of the ftoiunoo 
Boutli Kondngton (1893-1904|. Tha 
ctooer,dmi from .Micbaa! OhratiMi 
[q, v,], tho muHlcian, wa of German origin 

'ISduoatod at King's Bohoo! f Bruton, and 
King 1 ! Coll&ga ohool, London^ Festin 
graduitt^d B.A* from Tjiulty Cblkge, Cam 
Iridft, to 1860 (ttft 



Festing J ; **^ 

twenty-ieeond nonior optitms and in the I mnrrlnrl *t KmMpinh Sirncrt uf ..., 

same 'year was cmkirwl dwimw, betioni- ! f:rcl*H im 2fl I>K\ If*}?, it ml wit* l.mrixl *l 
lag piieet -in 1861. From I8CW Hi 1873 | Hi, Alhnnn, l.3utirM*ll- - "'- '- 

n ~ * . f*t ^ mit.- ...i. KJtf^*. i i.. i... *_..._. _^.. l<t fcl i JLfl 



oumto of Ohriii Churcih Wwt hi incnmry irt 8t, Allnw 
minBter. In 1873 ho was AppninUnl to I1KKL 
tli vicarage of Bt. LVi*i, Borwiok 8tm?t, i i*|*| w |*| tnr n t 211 I'tiv, 
a 'poor imriwh close to Btwim Dinl*, whlph i ^\ j| r , 4 , ( HKI^ : Hi^firi.l, $ . 

1.. . ..1 __..,..... j !. l,..^..ia, n*!K!j>f I*** **l ml *'** ' it f ^ *** MI &. . . . , s t." i 



* * 



a 'poor parin cose to tmm n wp | ai ' js\ MM2 j Ili^fin.1, v* .Jon, iwti; iVtii 

had racantly !>wn viwliHl hy rfmlrfrt. ; Afrir*(r.M,r.A. tn-1. l-Vh, IWW.J K, It I*. 
Fofttinc inc^fitm*c! hi r.*iitrttifH ho-n.^ f**r i 



ami i.n 111 Mnv IH?H i KIKi.U, WAi.TlvIl 

jpTW^'.^-p-w- W'B -"'-- '.^^---jf""*^ '" i t 4 I 4'*| j ^t* 1 !!! *'* k 

John Jiukon, hinhop of t kmftiti, Mllali.tl yitmjff.f .^tt >f jv.iwtn \Vi!ktfi hit 

Church, Albany Stwot. 1 ; hro tho chnmh ' ^ h ^ 

ohool im which h wiw nlwiiyn grcuitiy -, * 1^ Wf*, "*" 

interaiiod! wort A prominent fi'fttiim f ; of Olivrr t-rninw^II, Af**T niuvn.f.iiin n|. 

parish Hfo, white tho chtirch Itaolf wnn A I Unlvwiiy C.iillt^ .S..-IMH*!, 

jwognlww! oontw for tho high duirdi wrw tiij<lit |UI*IM^ |y 4* 

jirty, to which Fwt!n Adhrnnl, Ifn : Hrrl^rl. H,A, li. v,|, nwl Jnlm lyn 

oooaino rtim! di*an of Ht. i'nncnw in IW* : ll* *mvtr <ivn him !**** In 

and on 2(1 Jtmo IHHft iirnhriulnry f i **;*r*. Mwkitin^nH hi jmfi^i*in/ h 

Brondoebury in Ht, FIUI!'H (VfitnlmL jjniiil^l n*il*lw*r O^urf 0*tjwf^ fin<l 

On 24 Jutm JHOO Fwtitig ww mn^mi^ w\**> rw|^mlly vi^* n< T 
OtHiitif' oi r?v# />J*iiriW( wit c.i*i'i<if ijyjj * i**iiii" i n *i 

twigriad but wiw'wuinln tlw unn for !lf<< Al lirwl lif wurki*! i'l4rlly in nil, litii 
of tho fmbww at 1)rtlniry ^ Thj* rtioltHt of tf|tM'tilly * 

Aparinh jrkt of no f* 



bury, the* priino ftiiritHtor* hm! nikn| ltittt I**^V un<i IWOJ 

Honry Pttrnr LidUon |. v.J. who Iwl him* , VVia*r <i 

iae^anall. W* diwreh f| ?* , I'nintwn Iti 

of Si 



As bishop, TOilng provor 
eympath0tk townrcw hattl 
Whit in private ho 
to the Pmyer lltM>k, 
" " mftda him i 
olorgy by oooroivn 

,. VWW Iff 



Stmt, London, W,0,# twmr tht 



oMf milway ttrmW 




of 

in the tmm of fowp 
h@ mwnly dtroted UmMll to Hit Uiftl 



tion of wWoh in 

housa h WM preiaat oa I NOT. 

wan its asmstant bottom; 



{1890-1802), an president 

and a4vi8d oa nil thft 
of the mission^ development* 

Although no noholan h WM a 
reader, rfilng early each day te tkat pif 

He WAJI fond of travft! and 
water-colour drawing, H dlad ua 



in 



Old \V 

, but w 



high 
to 
udminhtmtiiin 




I 



mon, and * Como unto thcmo Yellow Bands, 1 
Art exhibition of oil paintings by Field 
was hold nt tho galleries of tho Royal 
Society of Painters in Water Colours in 
September and October 1902; 216 workn 
remaining in bis Btudio after hi death were 
w>ld at Ofirmtie'a on 17 and 18 Nov. 1962, 

By hl wife, Maty Jane Gooknon, whom 
he married on 14 May 1868, Walter Field 
had ijeven children. 

f Information kindly mippltod by Mm U, 
Ftold and Mr F. W, I lay ward Butt; Mftlior 
vmtl Bmgcr, Atlfwwim<rt KitaHtlor-Loxtorm 
(tittto of *k4th wrongly Kivon in mippUmumt : 
MOO tltialh twrtiftaaU) tit Hoiwimai Hotw*) ; 
(JravpH, Dfot, of ArtmtH* lloy, Aca<L and Brit, 
I nut, Exhibitor* ; CtotM. of Old VVato Colour 
8m;taty (thorn* of I8HSMJW1 contain ropnxluts 
tioiw of worki* by Fbtd) Viwtoria antl Albert 
Mufwum (wat^r-colourM), nntl tho Hamburg 
KunnM.mib j Tha Ytmr'n Art, 1891, fftt.mt^ 
p, 86 (portrait)! Tho Htwlto, Spring Nn. 1WW, 
p. xlii; liluMtrnUni Um<1un Nowi*. 27 Bupt. 
1902.J B. S. L. 

FIELD, Km WILLIAM VENTEIH, 
UARON Ftii <}F HAKVIUAIIC (1813-1007) 

judge, torn atf Fie!don f Bcdfordhire, on 
21 Aug. 1813, WM 'ieoond ion of Thomaa 

Flint Meld of that plaoo. After aduoation 
at Burton grammar tiehonl he was artiolod 
t<i MoMMnt.Ti'rr^ll* '.Bartxni & Ktimhs HoikutorH, 
cf Kx-dteri liin artititt*H bfinu; Hul)HMiu**ntly 

* "4* * k ** * 4 . * 

of LiiHKiIn*H ln. In. 1K4IJ ho bwatw* a 
member f tho firtn f Thomtwmi, l)j*btn- 
ham & Field, B&llm* Hull Oiwrt, K.O. 
Huving mti*riHl W4 n Htidtnt at the Middin 

iiimwiif on 17 tJmu 1H4C! t thi Inner Tcmpi^,, 
lio priustiHi'd an a Hjuwinl pjcwl^r from 
IH47 t<> IH50, and in the lattor yrar wan 
onlltid to tho bar. Ho lirnt tmvoltwl tho 
wc*U*rra oirouit, wlion* ho <wjoyi tho 
friendship of John Dukt* (ftft^rwitrd* Lord) 
(JleridgD[q. v* Huppl. lj* but noon oxoh*nKa 
ihi lor th Midland oinwit. H wmi quickly 
rDoognlfltxi an a miund and naifwtaking 
!awycr and obtftlntn! n larga junior pmoticts 
ohlofly of th kind known m cK)min<*rcial 
Among tun puplU at th bar wiw B!r Jamoit 
Fltejamw Btciphtm f*j v,], afterward* 
hii ollmgwti on tha bonnh. In February 
1864 hfi WM appointed a qu^n'ii oounMol, 
and in April of tho name ymr 



a banohcr of lila inn, Hs enjoyed for tho 
next nine yoam a * steady anci lucrative * 
pmotlod f atid b<QAm) tho reoognteod lender 
of MM olrouit* though Iti name w4 not 



In Fubru&ry 1ST5, upoa tno retiramont 



and tho trAnsfer to tho court of common 
pk*a of Mr, JiiRtico Archibald, Field was 
apj>ointod by lx>rd Cairns to fill tho con- 
sequent vacancy in tho court of qucon'a 
btnich. Ho wan the last judge appointed 
to that ancioitt tribunal, which BIX months 
later bocame a divinion of the high court 
of justice*, itwolf a part of tho supreme 
court of judicature. Ho was ateo nearly 
tho last person to bo made a sorjeant-at-law, 
and ho was, lika other judges !n the same 
Hituation,. ro-admittod to tha bench of 
his own inn when Serjeants' Inn was 
diHHoIvod in 1870* 

AH a jutlgt* Fii'ld showed pjreat learning, 
a keen and vigorous inttdtaat, and a some- 
what irjiBtubltV temper, whitjh was duo to, 
or wan stimulated by, a ahnmio disorder 
dtwjribed l.*y himnelf as a gtmeral irritation 
of (hf! wmwniH nmfiihraiio* But ho tiover 
allowed physical luoonvtimonao to intorfore 
with tht* ihorottgimcHH of his work. In 
his latv^r ycutiw ho also suffered from 
increasing 'deafness, and 'as lie insisted 
upon hearing everything that was said, 
prooootling* boforo htm usually kstod 
longer thin his impetuous nature would 
have permitted' in more favourable ciroum* 
stanoos* Ills Imtifcinw of manner oooa- 
Hionaily involved him in warm oontrovewy 
with eourwel, but ho nhowod no subse- 
quent nwwtmont. 

VIM had h)H nlutro m thc trial of 
important litigation* Me, denuded in favour 
of 'the plitintiff in tbo ilrnt inntanoa th 
rcmnrknhle aasn of Doblm v* tho Grand 
Jti nation Wntorworku Co., and his -judgment 
was ultimtttf*ly confirmed by the House' of 
Lords, whioh dttoidtxl that houses wcr 'to ba 
ratod for wator on the rati;d 'not the gross 
! tho siiflcossfui litigant oonduotoa his 



, * of mional taient"(N'oT. 1888). Tha groat 
.ioansing oasn of Sharp v* Wnkaflald wan 
also originally triad 'by Field. And. in 
Baton tv Angus, whioh fleoidos tho righi 
of tho owner of land to tho * lateral support * 
of his wtehi.wurV land, tha judgment of' 
t\w Hmt of Jxirds- was in nooordanoo with 
Fiold* answorn to- tho mnmtions whioh tho 
pw^m had submitted to tho judg4M 

In IB90 Field rotirod front the benoh* 
talcing loave of tha profession. In. tha-obief 
justloo f ii oprt Ho ww sworn of the priTy 
oounoii,- and on 10 April WM oreatad'ft peer' 
by tho title of Baron Fluid of Baktiuua near 
, Middl0wx. During tha next two 
ho sat fairly often in tho House of 



In 11 from Wa@ .majority in 



Finch-Hatton 

', Vaglijiao [aoo .Lio&siuni,* 



Finlayson 



A I'vrniirrr M*IITI*, AuMml 
7,111* Bin rloftinic vniira w^rr iMuwti ! tfa. #w/>r, j*ji, MS 

a*"* **. " * * " * '' " - " ' 



l*i 

in 



principally at. Bo#tior itwt fro ilktl ilirr ^ 

cm 22 Jan. IttOTiiuid wan huriinJ in. A family ; wujtir*! 

vault At Virginia Water, Firkf rwirrM.tf in ; hw rhM 

1864 f fulfill, cliuigf I tir <*f John. Smith, H)H ! H< ** 

died on 24 May I'M) without i*w. Jtujirrii*! l*Vl*'riifJot !.,mj?iit\ ami for 
.A oariottturo b **** i*' 



i**jttrh*lfaU 
| 



.A oariottturo by 
4 Vanity Fwr ' in * 

'** 
w 



o 



the Bar ; Wh*/ Whr l!M,il ; 

. f , ' - * * . j 

if titlttf 1 if M 

*'*1 I I I ' 

PINOH-HATTON, IIAUOI*!* 



ii t 



nil 1 1 ^. I c^l 

iv* 1 IP' i! 



NE. 



i, born At Kiwtwt'II I%rk Krnt on 
23 Aug* lf>l! wwi fourth IHM of t'iiMiri 
Willium Finch- Hat ton, fcimlh <*nrl *! 
WincUlneft fq. v,J, l.iy bin Ihirrl tvin*. 
Funny MitrMitN*t.tn, dmn?hi*'r f 



u 



brother* Murmy Kihvnril Cinrdnn Kinh- ^ 1 

Hftttoit, twclRh* I 1 **!! nf \Vinrlnlmvt (I HA I f<i 

!BiH) t M.I*. for h 

5} and th> Hfu 

WM- wc*H known nn a 

Flnah-HiitiifU wiwi i'diM^il^l nf Ktn, ntui hirwl 

mairxVuinlt'd Hi ffctlljo! {nlfi^i*, (hfunl, tn IM* I 

1876 ho joinwl A lirutht^r in yu*t*iw!itntl 
tbooobity tii!)HH3, Furminip 



Mrl*. At 



n* 



AM 







hill, in 



i|'-u 



*ul 



* . ietfim&flat namixi Mt B{Hnoof* but 1*14!** j II* 

want immpeotlng fc^r nda In ' 



rrgnttlml Hit* 



If'jf .-, " |p ~-w(tr wi-n" TI'Bf^T W**~ ^W ' " T T T n V '* 

further inland and about XOG fmm "Miujluty. i titiinwil^ 
Oold wan found t Mount Hritt*n iimiinhitmt h ln 
WMW bought in other i<Uimns but lm ' IU03 ** 
worMag 6xtx<ni f oiiiofiy du-inu in thti i HWi' 
dala<stiv oommunicAikm with th* rtmnt. I h*t 
mad tho Vimturu unmmtmwitivt), untl gulf, 
some dflhtorai montiu tlin Kltwli- vluitni 

ipc^imi of tlmlr dMhtu 

only 



nut in 



livwl m 



| 



4 A a<*i 



rinti)t*iiti|t Jr 

i, An 



always 



i I 



of the v Lopdon ourattlM 01 tib Mortli 



onemtto service fco tibo okmy, In 
published a roadablo wsotd of hfa 
Man expcrionooA in a book entltied * 
oontaimfag 

/. **-4. ib h*W 



of the 
on mdmdual intoooum, md 

vs of tha sugar and minbu 

final otopte on Irnpwl&r 

ttte action of Lord 
aa oolonial seorataw in deaJI^ 
New QUITO qutuitkm, (For a oritielsm 
of soiuo viows oxpragod la tho book 



* m no 



Ib wm biifhd in 




i, 

ii r 

k * ( 



I'l* 



M Ti 





Finlayson 



* 



FinJayrttm, a uwnufiusfcuroi' in that city* by 
his wtfu (jicwrgina Cumnboll, tho daughter 
of an army mirgoon in' India, His ddw 
brothcir, TliomaM Cftnijiboll Finlayson, WUH 
a dtHttngumhcxi aongrogational miniHtor, firnt 
at Downing Piano, Cambridge, and later 
at Hiwhohno, Mancht'-wttiiMind wanhon. D.IX 
Glasgow (1801}. JfiwoH rwnnvud hi** early 
oduoation wt the High Hohool of Glfutgow, 
and in 1.8110 untorod tho old collogo in 
High Htroot as an artn Htudtmt. From 
1 867 to 1. 852 hi* wan in Inn fathorVi bui- 
iwart ; but in IHM liu began tho Htudy 
of mtfdif.*m<% find gnu'lualod M.li at <JbH- 
ttmvri'rtjty with honour* tn 111 May 

Tlio vatmi of 



1807, with a 



on 



Finnic 

''' '- - 1 .'.., .- s . J.( J ......,.,'.-).'..., -L r ..... M ^f,,y,,|, 

wi* (I8BD) ho contributed an articlo 
ti * DiagnoHiH,' 

FinlayHon, who wan unmarried, died 
suddenly from apoplexy on D Oct. 1906 at 
hi rtwidunoo, 2 Woodaido Placso, Glasgow; 
romainn woro oromatod at tho Weatom 
A Inmt by McUillivray 



to his Bistor. Kin iriondw endowed tlio 
Finlayson Mc,?mrial Lecture (on a subjoot 
connected with medioino, preferably its 
IiiHtory)at the Koyal Fatmlty of 'Phyflicians 
and Hur^aonH of UhtH^ow ; the firt*leotro 
W(iH <JeJivere(! on 28 Fob. 1008 by l)r* 
Nonnnn Mooro oti th<\ * Behola Balernitana.* 



|<.JlaHow 



-Inuru, 



Lsvi. 



tm'thotiH of itivi'Mttgatiou in 



and allied 



ho j>ro 



Kl M.I'X in I.HW, i.tnd on I.H April 181HJ 
mad** hott LI A I), Jio wa adniitUnl 
of lim Hoyal Fat-tiliy of 

* ' 



niul Htirgf*or,H of Utawgow in IH7I. and 



\van mit*.tttwttvt<ly 
I1H>1), vinihir (IHIHJ), 



iibrarhin (IH77- 
(HHK)-:i) 



of ilmt lanly. Aftor waving an 



at tli* 

lui ww 



l)t.>H()ital. M.an- 
t<i Wr William 



Oai'rdnc^r [q. v, Bupph II] at t!w 

lioyal Infirmary and in 1875 wan 

m fn Urinary, 



t* tho 
ho wan a 
tititii JUH death* I. !u \VUH 
(IHK'MIK) and later 
ti ihw Koyal 



(\vifh portniit) ; Brif, Mi'd, .lourn. HKHi, i.i, 
Io*>7 ; information from Sir lire tor CJatueron, 



IL D. 



M,i), 



FINNIE, -JOHN (1H20-4007), 
ainter and ^ngnwer, non of .John Fi 



m 1 * founder, I*y hm wife UhriHtiun Mal'mkw, 
witM bom at AlK'rdeen* where* hts w^w bapf metl 
in the pariHh dinreh on 4 May 1820. After 
wrving ii|i>renti(shit) to a* hoiw 
at Kdinburgh arid a "japanner at 

ha tybtainod am ploy men t with 



William WaloHi a gloi^-paintor at 

whoro ho remained flvu years, attending the 



fur Siufe Children, 



of dwlgn iindiir William Bull Baott 
|(j, v/|, lit 185$ ho went to l'j..md<n wliure ho 
Htudied and taught in tho Otmtral Subool of 
jhy;;t<'inn i^**ign at MarHiorou^h Ttoimci till, in 1HH5 



, iind for iiwny yi'ari* w 



of (\w School i.f Art, 
ii'H' InHtitutlon, at 



I lb')i ejtllml the Me 

n l.iifturufuio | Livrrjiool, lit thin JH wit inn he oontlnuml 
Kiitntiurd of ! forty-one ytw* unit nix inoutiw, retiring 

at ('lirlHtnutH IHOO. lie in deHeriijed ad 
tea In and ! tb domiutttin^ jH*mnulity in Uw art lifo 
i of Uver|KMj! during that jwri<l. Mo 
Finliiywm"mw it iiroiiflcs writer o all .' hvmn to w*itd to tho Liverpool Aoadomy 

^.. i. u * *a j, * u ^ rf **** * ai j.a *fi ji 1 i 



tu iho .* 
Uottirmdy* He net a 

^ * M U H '& 

a Inrgc* find inif.Mirtant 
ft round 



of 



rit 



in 



of ' tixmbittonM in IB5IJ, iHoaiiio an 
of in 1801, a full member and tninteti in 

i nmwtuw] in fh*i * Clliwgow MtHlioal i Mtd 'wow pnwidtmt of tb ^toiuiinny in 
ml, ||*. wax <*HiK*dit)ly iriU^ftwti^i In :: . 1887 -Hi lt wiw iUw> f>r<^ident of tho 

iiiul gft,vo ii nuinixsr i ArtintM* C'ltib atwl of the Liver Skotahing 
of UnstutiMi at (Uax^ow antler tho titlti of : (.Jlub, lie jtini*d tho Hoyal (.kmbriah 
* Blbliogmpltieiil Ihnnitfwimiitttw on Ili||H-. i Ai*iult'iny in J HIM nd litHiainw itw trt^iwuurop 
0mt CJulcn* ||<'i"t>|ihihi% und KraMi- in IHII7. liii* <*i*rlUt*t ^U'hing, tb 'Hoiulof 
itwtttiV (ilKO,1-A) v tliu HuimUnoii of whkih i Winclinti(n%' datw from IHiil, After Home 
he-oontributod to * Junui*,* nn tDtentatioimi 1 *ntrly ox|Kiriim.'t** in etching and c^ngmfing 
medtoft'l journal. Jlin ow>itlm|H.irtritworkM i Kinnli* iwlopUMl mmtitint an hi* favourite 
w*i L * Olinieiil Mutnwl for thoKxAminA-l JIWHHWW in 1BBO. Though ha exhibited 
tlon 01 McHlioAl Oiwn, 1 JH7H; 3rd uiit, :! fhlurtH at tho !UyaI Aotuliimy f rota '186 1 
I Sit.. 8. ' Aocuiunt of tho Ufa und Work* j onward**, and alrnj at tho Britwh Inntltution 
of Milliter Pater Lowcv ili^ Kounclor of tho j and in Suffolk Htwt, ho ww bwt known 



Faoulty of PhyidAn ami Hiirtfwm* of 
;tiw,* 18i9* 3* * An A(H?ount of th*.. 
Worlw of Dr. .Hobort Wutt, Author 

;"1897, To 



* Keating'* Oy olopwdia of tto^ 

'few W <P 



in London by lib original m^ssaotint 



o 



y 
lie bfNUuno 



, oxhibitod at 
and tlia. Royal Booiety of 
grftvan, of wntoh. 
on ,24 Oofa 1887, 



*. I 



ofl 6 A 
contribution** in 



** in 

r4*ii)U 

tint** which aw mprwiiiw ly *prdinM* , i*nlnt|*l*ji'ii| 

of 



aiitu too mtitth nt i* in** j 

, AH H ItAUtlfT ij* 



**l . nA^w-^ ** 
l HMWITT, 
|H*A hn 



Art- <mU*-r 



nf Art, in 



nlH*l. li w 



in |**%ii|ii4**l furtit 



on 27 F 

Ktititltclotvn 



H July iHHtt, 
wurvivrd him* 
hi art* mimprinfrig 

Art 



Dibdin itt 



in Vir- 



; H, r, 



.p. IIP) 



til lS?I 



(1871) 

Alfctd WUfam 




Fitch 



f -" , 1( 

rttch 



FITCH, But JOSHUA OTHLlHa (1824- 
1003), innptwior of fiahoolft HIM! educational 
writer, born m South wark on 13 Fob, 1824, 
W&B floaonti HOH in a family of mat wmn and 
two daugh tow of ThomaH Fitch, a olark in 
Somerset Houito, by hm wife? Surah Tuokor 
Hodgcm* Both paronta woro natives of Col- 
ohofttor. Tho airiest on Thomaa Hodgoe 
(182&-IOQ7), Ixjoamo a Roman catholic and 
eventually WIM* attached to tho ' Marist 



education hi tho great towns (Manchester, 
Birmingham, Liverpool, and L<?odH), and 
from 1870 to 1877 was 'an assistant com- 



of endowed 

From 1877. to 1883 Mtoh performed 
ordinary official dittioa as inspector of 
East Lambeth. In 1883 ho became chief 
Inspector of Bchooln for tho eastern division* 
in ol tiding all tho eastern counties from 
Lincoln to Eex* From 188$ to 1880 ho 

do Franco, in Leicester WSK inspector of olwnentary training 
Hquan% I/nulon. Tlw third win, William colleges for womon in England and Walea. 
John (l8SSO-HM)2) t wan hnadmator of thn 1 He was eontinuod in this pant till 1894, fivo 
Boy**' 'Bntlnh $< ( luml, Hitohin, from 1854 | ytwrn beyond tho normal ago of rotiromont 
till 181*0, From u private j*tih<x>! .limhtin j from gmwnnwnt wrviw:\ 
piwwH'i to tho Borough Road Hr?hou.l, Bouih- 1 Owmnionally dotarlwd for special tlulioB 
w**rk whore h iiacarno A pupil tmahm* in \ in tho later period of hw puhlto Horvico* he 
1838 and a full itNNiHtnnt in 1B42* About ! jmiparetl in 1888, after a vwit to 



twr ycTirn Iiili^r lio \vii 

inaMtur of tho 

Dalnkm. Htmiiri hard in hi* nprini hourn, 

' 



IK* in 1850 



htvid- i* report on Anicriean rduoation wndor 
llnnd Nchool, tho litlo * Notiin rm Amorioan BchoolH and 

; in IBiH a 



London, ami in 1852 



II. Ai in tJio llniver on tho * Free ftoluml ByHtom in tho United 






In 1852. aftw trial work thero In thn 
'tit* Jolnini tha tftf! of the 



to the prlndjmlnliip on th retirement of 



. 



fq, v. Huppl. If], 
|irovwl hitttMHf a briltlnttt 
MtltnulaUng hin p|>ilM by IM'H li*i'tur<H on 
^Methtxl* anti by liw *ntliHiiw*m for Iitfra- 
turn, Tlvroii^li lift* h. laii! Htn*HH on tho 
to the teanhor of literary 



*, </finadA Fnwio, and Bolgium- * ; and 
in .1893 * "f nHtrmitiww to H*M. Jn|)ootori* 

with AmumdifwH on Thrift and Training 



of- 

Fitoh'v educational notlvitlai pawed, far 
beyond hi* - offioial work, Hf$ 



training. Aft*r 'ctontributlng to noino of 



in tii the politkiai nnnm with 
* .Pubtta EtltiiiniJoti s ' Why i n New- Code 
? 1 In 1852 he' heit>ed in the 

of 



orgAniiiiititm tif tlm 
fcho Intornationul Kxliihition, and In 
Lord Clmnvlllo, lord preidfrifc of this 
who on ii vJnit to Bortnigli Eoad 
jymm^ by Pitoh'n jiowor m a 
teftoht!>r f 'mado Wtn nn in*jHKiti:r -nf whooli, 
Tho til* trial amiignod t Fltoli ww tho 
county of York* 'with tho oxoopthm of 
portion* of tho north and. tho wwt, 
on tho Yorkshire 4iitrict 



vl.th tho Univoraity of .London wa- always 
clono. From IBfK) to 1865 and from 1B6H 
to 1K74 ho wan ox.anu*nr in KngliHh 
and hintory. In 1875 h wan 
to th HtMiato, and <u IUH rotiro* 
i in H#N) wan iuain a lift* follow* 
Miit-ii of hi* onorgy WHK always davotod 
k> tho improvomwri't of tho (ucafc!oii of 
woman, Ho "warn an original mombor ' of 
tho North of England Onincdl for -the, 
Education of Woman (foundod in 
and. ono of thoiio who helpod to 



found in 1SU7 the CoJIego for Women afc 



lion then; From 1808 to 1887 tm wwlitani 



oom 



mbMiion/ ho iimpootod tho omiowod and 
Kohoobi In Uio Wo*t Hiding- of 



Yorkihlft and in tho city and alttutv of 
York, M wttl an othor ondowm! nohoolii In 



the North . and. Bust Hiding* of Yorkrfiiro 



Hltohln,- which In J874 bmiania Carbon 
Co! logo, noar Oiirif.iri.ilga, Ho took m 
native part in- tho mtablinhmont ' of tho. 
Clirln* rtjlilia Day Sohool Company In 
IB74, 'ami wa-n loromoHt among thow who 
uncimHi, in 1878, tho now harU*r tor tho. 
Univflnuty of I^ndon whih -plaoed 'womn 
HtiKiimtM 'on ar|i,ml ' tormii with man. 
1890 ho with Anthony Juhti Mundolla f 
Hupp); l|and AruHtiwatiwiak fq* VrSup|3;13 
Httictatad tho woni.n* oollogou and sofiooli 
titnonff which waw diiiritnited tho. mm ol 

" f* ' _ . .. ._ ._ .... . _ ,_,. v .* Jtb 



(U),(HK)/, loft by Mm. Kmily Pfolffr[q, T*]for 
tho promotion of womon'ii wluo&tlem, Ho 
acmAultod by Thorim Holloway [5. T*] 
tha aonMtitutlon of Holloway ~ 



Kttham. and by the foundon of the Ibxto 

^i. ^^ .u U ^. u ^ cE'.r^ Am ''".* J**S* ~^l 4 1 "fc 1 



" J # 

* 



nn prwHiriil Iwhinjj **i , < 
n (if f*WTj*t*w. n-hrm hr nrn* t 
examiner In t\w thiniry awl |*rwNrt f j 

Hl) nnii mdf*rftMr In if**< ' 

*1|, If* 

o f.r I 



h 



tin 



Tim 
Enlunil 



and flt* : 4r 
m * ilt i 



n^* H- 



KtTXUKUAIJi. *,K<U!r; 



n 



in 



tin Knjrli*li ; **n# *4 William Fir ? 



?tir** nntt fiiltlrf^*^ in "" l 
Jm ftiwl M*tli*H|j*,' AVriltrj! n' 



w 



! Mi* tvli!m, iiiiw f 



\V 



. 

lion, nn nil wirnwt 
< raining of tlin t'lrti 



fnr ilit? |H.HIT 
i'lirr, ^iitl f*r 



a* 



[51- 



. 
l, If j ititil I'r, Hill, 3M*il*'r *f Atul r 9 .%^ 



tn ibe * Mlm tiiAtlK*iii<iii, 




education in 1804 
work* In 



frt,im 



wr ul 



on mdtiMtriA 
chiwk. In 1$ 
man of the council nf tin 

Hon. Society, 'In 1002 

- 
of ft 



i and 

DH & bo 

tin itHJKKi tn thi* j Hitiiib. 
.Nttidy ttxhibiUiitt ) im<fiu| 



*4 



ion of honour 



mndtrwi k 





i i 

It ftd 



. , , ^. r , wmir watw^w mi*%MKHi %*MiMrwlirMp|| Tp f 

aurvivad Urn wiihoafe bwtte, aS u> 
reooived a oivll Uit 
Lted on 1 April 190, 







Imt bi 

ei iito Mfigiii 

niittfiilar iiiwinht 




FitzGcrald 



of the oleetroinatftiotie theory of radiation 
first put forward by Proftwor Clerk Maxwell 
|q, v, ;|, He HiiflgfiHtod in 1882 the principle 
of this method 'of production of * (Metric 
wavea * which Herty, ued in 1887, ami ho 
contributed much himself to our knowledge 
of their proportion. Me took a leading part in 
the diHGUHHion of eleatrolynw, and wipported 
the view* Hitico confirmed, that * cathode 
raw* arcs trtjam of elwtrUied partksIeH. 
*He f>OfiH<wwHif<xtmni'dinary versatility, and 
in tl. dwjwnt HubjeetH waH more* at' homo 
than in the trivial, throwing out htminwm 
miKKeHtioriH s with Hplottdid prodigality and 
rejoicing if thi*y worn abHorbcd and vtViliHed 
by othern/ Ail bin wnfiugM ehMly emi- 
tributiotw to tin* period main of w'ientifw 
HiK?iKiOH-"-hav4 IHMMI eoilwtod by Hir * jowph 
imr and itumwi by thtvDuhttn UwvirHity 
M iw 'Tim HHmfiiir! WriHiJgH of th 



wan elwtwl K.Il.H. Ixmdtm in 
IKS3, arid hi I Bill! wa* awarded it .royal medal 
by tho Mfxritity for hit* iuvoHligatioiw in 
MtcHimtira! phyHi**^. In HJfM> hi* wiw rniwl** nn 
honomry follow of Ilio llttyat Htxifoty ol' 
l*>iin burgh. Ho ihotiHl an honorary m^n^tary 
of tlia Eoyn! ilybllrt Hoointy from 1881 to 
IHH0,ftnd an r^gintmr of Dublin llnivomity 
H<!imo]-af Kugim'ortng from !HH(i, "Ho wiw 
of tbo mniiunnatii*a} an<! [hyHirai 
of tip* BrifHh AHHtK>inlioit al'fialh 
in iHHH, pr**H}d**iit of t.hi i*hy*inii Hoi'ioty 
of ixindon in iHt)2--l) t mid Hminmui of tho 
Dwtiiin IIWH! i^-n'iion of tlio .'hmtittttifn of 
Elwitriiml Kn^iin^rti on itM founiifttititi in 
l^KI. For many ytwrrt ho wmt (*HitmintT in 
thyMian in t!.t lJuivt*r*it,y of .London, nnd 
lio took a )ir<ifttitu'ttf. part in flu* 
afTairM of in*!iiiu), m*rvlmg oit f bo 
ttittton&i, f iiiionuNiiati*, mid of 
bimilon for Irs'litnd, In w 
iwlf 



dlwl nt 7 Ely I'lnoa, Dublin, 
on 22 Ftto, 3I1K)I, ami wiw Inirioci At Mount 
Joroine. He inarriwi Harrititto Mary 
noootid diiiinhter of *lobn 'Howitt 
F, Jl.fi [o. v.l* antl bml by hr thrw* 
And flvo OAUgiitom. I! ii* widow wn** aw 
ft oiviiJiNt fMifitioti tif HM. In HMI3, A 
oh*TQOAl portrait domi nimut I 71 by JoJm 
BaUarYoAti Wongi io lib brother Miutrte 
An. unUrgotntmt of the impcrnvwi ort mi t 
whtob !orm the frontkjiirmaof tho * 
Worto f hAngi in tha tnginiHritig 
Trinity OoihSgo,' Dublin, 

(Tho TimM t '<5 Fb, 11)01 s Nuturts 7 
1901 1 KtocrtvkiiAAi I M'Arob 1901 j I J HJ, Hy. 

toL 75, 1900 1 JoumAl Ist Kteot. Kna, 
1 



FitzGerald 

in Col locks! Workn ; private in- 
from .Minn KittfUomld, Prof. "If, T. 
Trouton, and Prof. W, K Thrift,] O. H. L. 

FITZGERALD, Sm THOMAS 
NAOHTBM (1838-1908), surgeon, born on 
1 Aug. 1838 at Tullamoro, Ireland, was 
on of John J^itxQerald of the Indian 
eivil service. After attending Bt, Mary's 
College Kingston, be received his pro- 
fewnional education at Mercers' Hospital 
in Dublhij became L*R,0,S. Ireland in 1857, 
and obtained a communion in tho Army 
Medical fttafT, A sudden attack of illness 
obliged him to abandon bin courne at Netloy, 
and ho miulf? a voyage fa AviHtralia in search 
CJi*MilUu Arriving at Melbourne in July 
IHfiK, lie wan imtnediately a^ppoinlod bouHt* 
Hiirgecm at tho Melbourne JloHpital, and 
b(*id the poHt for two yt^arH, after which ho 
to pruwtiHi* privately an a mirgeon in 
mreot. In 18(10 he wan iuipoinfed 
;t)n to the htJHpital, to whian he WUH 
a mnmilting nurgeon on his rcnigna- 
in IIMHl lie wan Jilno ctonmilting 
ip the Queen Victoria* Ht, Vincent, 
AuHtin hoHpitok lie cxcalicd In tho 
part of bin profet^ion, and wroto 
. 4 . . for' modioal iouniali on alaft pctlatD, 
tratml pati'Ila^ cfub foot, drilling in bone 
fonuntioriM, and like nurgioal topioH. When 
tho medical Mehool wan HtarU'd at Mel- 
bourne ho proved hittmelf an goo* I atwieher 
HM he WIIH a Httrgi'on. In 1HH4 lie reviHited 
ir<*btnd, itnd nfier eKannnation beoame 
F.UX'.S. IrrlamL lie waw knighted In 
.181*7 on the ow/wion of -tho diamond 
jubilw of Qtii^en Victoria* lie VVM prcsi- 
dent ol the MwJiwU Socifty of .Vi<itorit 
Itoth.in 1SH4 and in lSIM) t utul of the Inter- 
ooionlnl Mixiidal Cbngrtw in ISBii In 1900. 
liti went to Houth Africa UK connultfng 
Htirgtton to tile iinperialfareeH thnn engaged 
In 'the Jtor war/nnd fur bin nervke*i wim 
motio. (IB, lie publwIuHl in the 'Inter- 
cIoni**l MtMlicjul 'Joumiti of AuHtraiitKia f 

Houth Afritttt, In whloh tho 
wwrk of the Koyul Army Modicuil Oorps 
tmtl the nursing tefl w*w oomtnondcKL 
He dh*i on B uly 1.00H on .to 
N.M. Wyrwsnm lx*tweon CnlrnH and 
villo, wbiifloifa voyage for his Iwrnltl.!,' 
wai burled in tho Melbourne gantral 
uumotry* Ho . nutrrlod in 1170 Mn*rgarat # 
daughter of JartuM liobertwn, JLattnooiton 
Ttt*mftnia t and by bar, who died in 1890, ha 
htui i*uo tbriHi daughtertt* 



, Unit. vol. 



F, 



r-m * , /" * | I 
itzGibhon 



nn*T f 

R5' 

lord ] 



ma ( appal In Maud. l**r in privy 
Dublin onES^Aug, 1837, wnn Hdna of ih 

m two >n* lutd A dAUglitor) if j on* 



AW*, 



MI 
in 



lilit> 



and a leading wi mbcr of thu Iiinh bur, liy 

his wife Kilmu datightor nf Mui fnftrmm 
<if BoifAiit. Hi younger lifMllirr, Ilmir 
(j. 33 Fob 

of tho It 

(krrU<Ux*0afiitt rlttwir al 
Trinity f Vi!iix<% iHtMiii. 

litiitM'U in 
, suui iCngliM 
ill 

H 

rinity (!iilit*is 
hn owM fiv 
Ofirti*Ufi 
Ami 

wan t'lylwl Ui Ihf lrili bar j fi 

(<ibi*n, I 



f l/ml*, M| in 
-'rr<l l 
niirl Jii 

I 



lf 



ti f 



rl Ur* roll.*, ni)*| 



of * . 
in tni 



im 



by 




u 



'*K 



in Hilary TVrm, I KM, with K 



bulli f**r 



of llit mum* 

tttgi^th^r on 

widoh brought thim in i!i 

Cjibiwm wni* WWIH flu 

on hi rmniit {tljt- 

Browner, lonl ^hwiwlior, but 

from Lord ('bamwiiur I i* HAWAII 



* In TtiitUy i 

t. . *^ 



n 





nr> i 



1 in tin |Kirt mii 

tlut)ugtumt tho country. Amortg thu . 
In whioh hi prowl Un mdnnw m wi 



Jtay 



., In wbtoh ha 
tl* OMtUnAl ftntfi Otibllti 



hi mwlv 

i. n. ,. W 



of mdUoal xpto WfM Kwl 



to Dublin 



WM promoted lord 



til anpML In 

" 



lff4$4t*J 



|*, 37 



IK* 
w*i ttiMU-4 



in 



r 



itt 




nt*. 



W 



1*1 



f 



'iwm** 

I4l4tt 




leay 



mi, nnd puhlihfd a volume* of 
_...<!'* drlivnf*! in thai oHion. On 
hi* dwtth tho frwmiwnn brrihrcm founded 
In hl mamory tho * FitafJibtoon Memorial 
Gymiiiuihifn' in tho gir!* nchoo!, tho * Fitx- 
(Jlbhon Manorial lluwi 1 in this Imytf 
fichooi, ami l\w * FitssClihtow annuity.* 

Ho 'wan ftlwo luitiva in I ho affiiir of tho 
Church of Ireland* nerving for mmy yew* 
on tlw di*riM*an bonrd of patronage for 
IHibltn* and proving hi* wkill in debate in tho 
gonoral nynod, Ho wo* almnr^ll**r of many 
dio&wfW wwrt* and Jny riinoomin nnminat<tr 
for tho awliiiioOfitt^ of l.htblin* Ho wa ruo 
of tbo ohiof |mtnntorH of, and a gmttirotm 
iKintributor t, *Tho Auxiliary Fund/ by 
which tlio grrnt doprt^iation iit tbo iriviwf- 
tnoittn of tiio obtiroli an*l tlw juivurty of 
tho inwimiitnifn wan mi|i|tlomontod. 

At hiit ctrmnfry boitm? at Huwfli, 



|mrlii of timn. of nil kindu of ditino" 
lion* In latir yc*ar bin n*gulnr vfit<rn 
CJv>r HiUitton |*|* v, Htipnl. II), 
of Trinity* Mcuwlgmir M(l!oy, 
ohn ( Viw*onl) Mir!ny, Mr* Arthur Hatfttur, 
and Wolnnluy. But h!fnot 
Intimate frirtut nntot^g Kogibh tKilltloianw 
Lemi Handoiph Ohurohlft, whom) 

wt miwl*i at Dublin 
n f w*n Ix>rd UandoJjih'w 
fathor thtuiukrt of MarliHtrttu^h, waftlord- 
. Sti1iw*qut*ntly thi'y winntanUy 
on fraftk arid tntnf!d*ntia{ 
wmtw tn bml Uandol|)b 
ptuntsu of tho <ihancmUor- 
p of thti oxi)htH|unr in IHi! f urn! 
lor < i 



by iho Ortlor to the Hohool and to Mrs. 
'Fit'/A.Iibban rc'HjX'cMvcly, A Full-length 
(Kirtrait wan paintcnl by Mm Harrison for 
tho UnivorHity Ulub Dablin. A portrait in 
judicial robcm for tho banqueting nail of tho 
King'A tnttH, by William Orpon, E,A. mm 
HuliMoHbod. for by tho bcmmt and bar of 
troland* A marblo Htatuo by A* Bruco Joy 
In to-bo-plnaod in Ht. Pfttriok' Cathodral* 

(Privato {nformation ; Winisiont 8, Churchill, 
' KamlrilHh Churchill, 1900 j Annual 
itiT(H>r& tf tho Mrtiwmk* Knmato Orphan School 
nf. frctitnti fnr I00 (Dublin, 1910), and 
(if tlw (Srand Tt-ly;(i (if .Ki'nc* and Accnptad 



Tho Irinh Ut'tu'irtHt Ootitmon Laws 
Tbo Irinh Hj.wirf., Kquity ; The lrih Lnw 



Hc-hottlrt (lr(lamt) EtsfKirb of tho 
Iliiyni CmmniHMinn* 1881 ; Ecltit'fttbnal 
HSnilowmrttt'M (Inland), Uoports jf tho Com- 
ntiwimi and 'ICvjd*?nt^, publiMitcul In 1880; 
Tin* Tinwwi,- J*i (M. IWJlJt Tho 'Law T 

2:1 <M., HKHI. ix 



and wan biiriwl lit thn gravayiwti 
ta tiui oltl niiiwHl ohunuli of Ht, Fin(an 
Howih. in tlin Dotiit of orimiimi 
In Englaiid thti lord ahlttf juntlwi oxprowod 
(i (lot.) iymiNiUty with tlw tonoh of 
Irrianti on hk wnth* donoribing him mi * a 
gre*t jucigdt a pnifonntl lnwyw, iwid a man 
of wide ncl viuiml learning* (Tfe 
Oot* 1000). Bttoh a fpfwronoo 
titlgtJ from tho hwioh of 
to avo Iwtm unprcowlimUjd (/< 
23 Dot, 1900). 
ri 



FI-KAY, FHEDKEIUK UARD (1831- 
"mkoHiKiaman noholiu* bom at 

, Broadway on 5 Hopt, 1B3U wa 

of Joh Oow Meay, llnon-dmpr, by hk 
i Jan^ Iloth fMynmti wra of Bomarsat 
f Atnilicm. Of itovon ohildran, throt two ons 
nnd a dat^h^r alono Hvcnl to maturity. 

iYodwt'k affording to family tradition, 
wiw ttblt* t road at twonty niouthB old, 
iH in 1H43, King^H Ootlogo whoo!, 
KmUsrio ifarrmon wan ono of hk 
, im roo to Im eaptahi, ditirj- 
gukfiing hiiuNotf j aliko in clmmicH and 
mnthfimiiUcw* In Oct. 1S40 ha jma$ad to 
Trinity Ooltd^* ^ambtidgo, hw parojjU 
acwom|mriying him in ordw tu provuio him 
with it htimn In tbo town, In hl^ saoond 
Trinity ha won an opon matho* 
Mohoiarahipt and after gaining 
. jollogo priswi t grndtmtod B,A. In 
.. an Uiir&onth wriuiglar f and nbcth in 
tho iioooncl olaw in tho oitutNioal tripos, He 
wan alw plootd tliirtl in tito oxiuninaUon for 

:...,* <4 * 1 4 I 



Ami, twtid dftitgh(ir at f nutato Atox*ndr 

n of tho oxohoquor in 
IHHUO throo wonn and four 
oklwit mm, Ctontld, fa 
* Wing the* third 
to MUin that 



r * It* f lij| 

'I 



Aptitude for highur 
cw lie obtained nooond plapa In 
olai t>! tha* moral lolcnoo 



trl pon 






the 

dintinotion *if figuring In four tripos 
Mirny juufc miwcvi a MIowihip afc Trinity. 
Ha procji^dod M.A* in 1856, and wa or- 
d,in0d doooon in tliat yar and priwt In 
1BB7. 

infifa 



Fkay 



Dioeemn Training College at Cliilbam 



From 1860 to 186d ho wwi nwjontl 
and head of tho wmmtiiio twb t I***b 
grammar school* Affosr nix twinth* in IH(V? 
as second master ami head of thn mo4h<rn 
division at King Kdwawl'i* Hdioul, Itirming- 
ham, ha was heaclma*l<*r of .Hi|}wrhoimn 
grammar Hclioo! from 18(18 to iH?2,nn<! lilkil 
a like pcwt atSkipUn grnminur wiuil frotn 
1872 to.lBTCl, wlit.'n ii abitiuiiintHl !< 
teaching proftwion Alllioygh IHH tfuobittg 
wtm nuiinly tk^voUMi lt> inalhtnniMitw nr! 
Boicsnctn hw -wan nn <inJii*nt itwtmtjUir in 
both oiaBuicH urtc! English uml inf<*nHU*l 
himiolf In ctlucatictriai thw)ry. Miwh 
practical values attache* to bin ' Hinl mi 
Ttsaching,' which im jniblwhrd in IW i nnl 
thera i in^mtity in bin ' * KliHwnl* f 
Engiiflb (.Jrummar: Hubtlionw of \VVr.|** (* 
tStmUmetw (Worti .Butkiing)' (1850, *2 fmri* 
ami Vl>gicai KngliMh (imnutitir ' (tHM), 



Floay wmuxl, whik* a Hflhw*!ii'u*U"r, * Tli* 



Book of .Riw<'latkm' (1HIII), a wiiimiirm <tf 
orthodox m*nnonH. .Hut \m imlpi.H'iiik'iit 
untl npooulativt habit of itiim! gnwltmllv 
aiicmatw'i him from thndhiiivh of KngiiunK 
and on 7 Fobnmry 1HH4 lit* rrlititjtHHb^i 
hiM ortlcrH, 1 1*' luul HUifUi.il ny tuj wtt !! irnlly 
{Jomt4/H phtltmophy witbcml- in** i jiiin(( 
the FonitivtHt rc'iigton. ' Tlirn* J/<'iim** 
on Edttoation * which liw dortiti^ii in- 



* i8Wi and {rttbliithfxi with n 
rodwio fbtrrUon In IBB*!. Im 
o more r>oondita niuxml 
tratad in IHB0 by privately 
a highly ootnptox nmthmimtfaiii nlmly 
* HiurmonioN of Houml ancl t'olour: 
Law identical* tlwir UHO ccmvwiiblo, 
Maanwhib Ploay wnn dtwothig li 
to literary work* From an narly 
he had intor^toci himwl! in 
and 'in. .spelling reform. 1 IBfiB h won 
the Twelyan prko for an imu&y IM 
phonetio ipHing which ormvinond oiw 
of the oxamiiaSi, Mai Mtillar, of hk 
vhitolodtoftl ja?oml. Th followed In 
1S7S' m& *Engllih Sotindi* and Kftflijih 
Bpeltog/ In 1870 he }oinad tbt nawly 

1 M 5|^ jfiU * V 4 hfc1|M u W ^ 



edited its journal, * Tht Bmllin 
(1880-1) "" " ' " ' 

J w<Yf i' 4 



twenty ywir* lo the* 



4" 



In 



.' Ilw 
H 

' 



an 



in 



IT |IH77) 

/ WIM! **$ 



tt.iiMtiii*iw 



H* 



AM t ! 



f 



Trni..- IHH1), 



A 



Mrnmn, 






( 



ivilh 



itt 



mtrtrjtJ 




the latter from aoopta oirthwmphy, kit 
the method of both ww ioanA 
In 1874 Bleay Joked tfa* Nw 



Hoowty on its loxmaation w- J'mianolEif wae#s 
Furnivall [q. v. Suppl. Ilj and h applied 
1 of hu manifold kduiky for 



of thti fiiunkyittMtiif Flb,l 
wcrt* i if It ' MlArtitnf. Hi* 



tn 



will* whit?)* I-**' 







Uimw tntu^i 
on KngUnlt dmnrnMo HIM! 



Anyriokiffy nbWIy in 
Miiitat oifU ' 




u ii 

Mm In ISm' 



Fleming 



Besides the works cited Fleay published 
* Almond BlosBom^Vvamo, in 1857; trans- 
lations of * Breton Ballads' (1870), and 
th 'Poetry of . Catullus * and * Vigil of 
Venus* (1874); *A Guide to Chaucer 
and Spenser* (Glasgow, 1877, in * Oolite's 
School and College Claaeiog*)$ and *Th 
Land of StMkMpeara' illustrated'*' (1889). 

[Primt iiif ormation j Testimonials collected 
by Fleay, 188$*70 (privately printed) ; Athon- 
ttum, . fluurah 1900 (by Dr A. W* Ward); 
Fredorlc Hftrrtaon' M Atitobiographtoal Memoirs, 
191 M 8.L. 



FLEMING, CIEOEGE (183&-1001), 
Teterinary imrgaon, bom ai Glasgow on 
1.1 Maron ;1833, was son of a working 
shoeing*ftmith there* Early in life he wsn 
taken by Ms father to Manchester, where 
both were . employed in tho farrier' H shop 
of -ft veterinary surgeon. He subsequently 
entered tha service of a well-ioiown 
veterinary surgeon of Manchester, John 
Lftwson, who sent him to Dick's Oollege 
to Edinburgh, H took several medals and 
prkes,- md In 1855 obtained tha oertifloate 




rooognmed a a 
loznft. At the end- of 



year he entered the army veterinary 
service, and norvnd In tha Crimea until the 
termination of tho war. In I860 ho 
vphmteertxl for tho expedition to Nort.li 
Oh!n% and wiw* present at tho capture of 
tha T aku Forts and the murender- of Fkin 
^rscsd'diig for his sa : rr!0M a maduJ with 'two 
olasps.- "Whilst In .China ha undertook an 
expedition 'beyond the Qrwt Wall, whloh 

W, '* U . * >to <4i " A WMM| ^ , :U> . I ^.^ ^ M 

on 



the diploma of'tto Royal Collage 

01 Veterinary Burgeotui awl in fiT^ 




yaaffl with the royal 

ir 





on to the srmv, In 1887 
B. and 'in liw he-vedrad 



th tltto 
diploma- 




Fleming 

Surgeons- Act, 1881, which imposed a 
penalty upon unqualified persons who took 
or used the title of veterinary surgeon, 
Th misuse of the title had become a 
pubHo Boandal Fleming was in gratitude 
re-eleotd prudent for three years m suooes- 
sion (1881-4), and again in 188&-7, His 
portrait (tolMangth) was painted by B, 
Htidicm, and presented to the college by 
subscription -on '7 May 1888, 'as a token/ 
according -to the inscription at the foot, *of 
sincere esteem and 'gratitude.* 

H& received in. 1883 the honorary 
degree of LL.1X from tha Utiiiraraity 
of Glasgow, 'He died on 13 April 1001 
at Higher lieigh. Combe Martin, North 
Devon, hk ramcbnoG in later life, He 
was three times married: (!) to Alia, 
daughter of J, Poake of Athenitone in 1808 { 
(2) to Suaaxi, daughter of W. Solomon of 
Updburoh, Kant, In 187S ; (S) to Anna, 
daughter of Colonel B, D* Pennefather o! 
Kilbraokan, QQ* Leltrim,. who survived -him 
md afterwarcb remarried, 

Memfog WM a voluminous wyitar, oon- 
trtbuting largely- to prof 
to 'iwiwal wiwn 



Anatomy of th Bomes^eatad 



uerman Neumann's * Faraaiten and Parasi- 
tical Disease of tho Domcwtioatod Animals ' 
(iS02j 2nd edit, 1905), Hi Separately 

J,blihed works include s 1. * YiYiaaotlDn : 
i It necessary or justifiable?* I860. 2, 



0rigto # Hhtoiy, eto., 1 I860. 8. ^ Animal 



, s vol. I 

4 PrwtioaJi Hoiw-Shodng, 1 1S72; 10th edit, 
" ~^ " . 5. * Eabfei and Hydrophobia/ 
; 8* * A Manual of Veterinary 

41 Policy,;* 2 vols. 1875 
1 A Tact Book of Vttadnai 
tnd.Ut. 1886. 8. * 

in the Propa 



i * 

* 




'/ vol. i 1884, 10, 
t-Koepr f * 1880* Hta 
Ubmry of WO volwmw of books on pro- 

"by him in 

TT ^f v%fl^w iBJB.iffiMP'w ^y 




FL1MIHG, JAWDE8 (18SO-10C^ 
ol Yoi4c t born at Oiwetor oa M # 





3> 




* !* 



r 



JhJli.i H i(fejBHftiw"tf'iJi4a Hi? 1 ,* -HM 4 t' i L 5? ' 



erf 



Ifauide I him atM*ntar on to Aug. I HA I, and 







hk f Athar hflng beaome ,' Appoint him fliwt bfohap til 

fcm&i&ir to the 56th w 

** * * * a i 

th to II 

Itepiwiibw 1 1876, movid ' wiutbi *daNiMitl iW 
to Bsth* HIi two bmth^ns* Wllllwrs und ' with IJm 
Frauds, war aont fcfi HumihitMt. bl tiltj* ' IHM 
mafcaly took orditra t William, n old* 
^Monod protiMitAnlt y^l ^lour of fliHat 
Clittrcsh^ Chiniahunit, in HAy 1000, Jamw 
want to King KdwAnl !*i pwntniwr 

u *. Ki.*,,. k j* * . jt, ., jt Wf 




to 



Bth In 1840, and to Bhfttwibtiry V|etori (|H7) And f*tiA|iliUti ta-nnUiHiry 
S niad^f Bwjwjin Hall Kemmdy la hur (tHNO) mid Ui Kilitl Vil itttiiv 



He was In 
n 



on 



pmowdfMlf*A* in IHAT'and till 
la 1864. QrdAintia daAOon in ISM And - of 




At.niuit 
mL I L wbih WM 



Stephen. Lmndwn 9 in the fNidtl* of j Mnytiiwi MtK nmbing in Jttil 

Wtoot B&th (JHW), with haifwd Um 07*000 

of All 8im, whtp hh |Wn eviin* I| by M*^ Wit to 
mwhiiii AttrMtiHl m*rl Mmgrw*. I lrtwe Iwo dtur 
He atAruxi oiftfliKw nf IniitntetJim in AlmtAiiilm- 4l Cbtrdtm Utiin* Home 

elooutimi ter working pfMipte j n inni s ^4 n^ jui^ MWBII ^j Hiiplul* tor 

* Jl^ 




't i 



ibbttry) 





Fletcher 



35 



Flint 



of Fleming by *8py* appeared in.* Vanity 

tJi. I~ 1GQA * . J 



Fair* in 

Fleming's personal oharm and grace of 
speech mad him popular, but he was 
neither a student nor a thinker, 'The 
Stolen Sermon, or Canon Fleming's Theft,' 
% pamphlet issued in 1887 (ora bodying an 
&fMofe in the * Weekly Churchman,' May), 
showed that ona of two sermons by Flam-* 
ing, published m * Soieo and the Bible ' 
(1880), reproduced- almost verbatim 'The 
/ a sarmon by Dr* Talmage 



{' Fifty Barmons,* 2nd aariai, 2nd edit, 1876, 



p< 312-21). Fleming explained in a pub 
shad lottor that ho had inadvertently 
transferred Dr. Taimage'u sermon from hm 
common- place book* Apart from some 
twenty separate Harmons, chiefly for special 
Flaming published a useful 
*The Art of Reading and 
ing/ (1806) and *Our Gracious 
fueeaa Alexandra * (1001) for the Religious 



on. Life of Canon 
, S 



on 
* 



on 



iteaond arm of Joseph 'FHttiroft Fletcher 
by WH wifo Mary Ann Hay ward* Th 
eldest mm, Flitorofi FlKehw, wan nn artist 
who exhibitor! five pictures at the -Royal 

"', dying at the ageof thirty- 



Roohester, and jcslnad tho Bank of British 



to 



employed in th Horary 
" i July 1887, .Hetdbar, 
taistm was dwotiid to the study 

ry* wan 



entomologist in ta 



y 

Royal Society 




Fletcher was a voluminouB writer* 
To the * Transactions ' of tho Ottawa Field 
Naturalists' Club ho contributed a * Flora 
Ottawaensis,* and with George H, Clark 
he published 'Farm Weeds of Canada* 
(1906), Valuable papers on injurious insects 
and on the diurnal kpidoptera appeared at 
intervals* Beventaen speoios of butterflies 



Ms .name* He died at Montreal on 
S Nor, 1908, und is buiiod in Beeohwood 



He .married in 1870 Eleanor Gertrude, 
eldest daughter of Oollingwood 'Sohreiber, 
O.M.Q., Ottowa* by whom he had two 
daughter. 

The Ottawa Field Naturalist*' Club 
erected in his memory a drinking-fountain 
with bronze medallion at the experimental 
farm and had a; portrait painted by 
Frankljm Brownell, R,O.A, which now 
hangi in the Ottawa public library. 

[Information supplied by Fletcher's daugh 
ter/Mrs. R, ,S. I*ake; memorial notices'. l>y 
the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Okb In Tht 
Naturalist, vol. xxli. Ho. 10* fan* 

>] ' " P.B. 

WF.TT^rT* TPATKVPir" /ia^fiL_TOlA\ 
JB^iJLIxJli JcvUJSJwJevJ, vio4o-"AWJLU] 

ph wd theologian, born near I 
on H March 1838, was .the sow, of Robert 
Flint, at that time "a farm overseer, by hii 
wife (born Johnston). His first Behoof was. 
at MaflFat* In 1852 ha ontorod Glasgow 
University, whortj ho dihtinguishod Umselt 
(without graduating) in arts. and divinity. 
Having been employed m it lay xnissloniunr 

.41 j U ^^ tf tlHM'V * % i * j I *J* JBU * ^ 

ntf T.n#l * Kt\nf^HH AfilttAmaTiAn ' rvr *^i**-^ 
h/jf will? JPJtMWic^ a r*r*ni7Uic*l'*'.Hjl \jk 



lor a short time aotedl m aMstant to 



W 

fiaproTed by visits to Gbrmaay 
On 4h death of Jstmw Frederick Pwtbr 
fct* v.| ia IS64 Hint wan elected to iwxnied 
him in the moral philosophy ohalr afc St. 
Andrews Univridtv, among tho compettnjg 
oandidatai bdng TRomag Hill Qtwti fq v* 
This ohilr he held till 1876 t wbea 



Fa, v*] In tho dlviaity ohslr of 
UniTmity* On this anpoiatmemt 

4 t MS **>fcv A Jpi * * ** "" ***"' 

mad LL*D, of 





iy migrated from the on 
to the other. Hint was awofated to a, 




Flint 



I" if i 
It J> 



on 81 May lias oomuponiUng mrontar nf 

tbe Imttltiito of Pnuum (Amiftnlft rfiw 



otam* morale* et 





|U*) mid WMM a 

. t *' " " 
Ur to fimrotft i . . . . 

work, & pitrfm* ham|wml by ; in m!w 'in 

r ^ ... -- , -. ....... tittif* hr livwl 

at HttMelbuiyh. Hi* fiHivnml tin* (aiflTnnri 



hy W _ , _ ..... , 

knightly Armour M nitMfiphiii*"df 



i** 



mrfdmon, 3 Royl 



m i . ,, 

Mint w n pmnn pun. l, ut w ll knit , 8. 

fartniw mm. 



* ** 



- -- fl- *,. ^w-ww^ro wffl T3P* TBT MJWTSt 

dktotlon to bin iihrioai garb. ., , w . 

ftw kMm^lai, and livnd mitoh of hh Mb 

^part, dtovotodl to bin niucUiM, alwayii a ! T^^-i,-, mn 

,ra nadfir of nxtraordiniirv (litittimci In iHHA. n *A 

1MkM*n *it. inu.f f., ~.Jf4 toiu.0.^ ^^l 1 * * . ^ * 

itt> poww of iiiiMtary, M (on Rw, i A), 



. 4, - 

?ih >lit 



vaa popularp for ha wnn ^tiwit !gg| (bcittim). v - TH* 
md kind i yat it & ^irf ih^i 4l f tim mil Itete rf taUui Sri 
mtly two m m nrivltml m amrnipiiiy iW/ WtoTSBl (L ^ 
him In hin walk. Ilia mnihotiii wtrtt < IHH! (ft-'" -^ - IM - 1 

dallbfim^, iiw mimpdilon nbw nnii nj w ! i,^^ y 

" liiwl r*wt 






l r' TIT^-B-^JI^ w^Tg- y i 

%m I 




A* ll J " TP 

to Wt My 



t 






oonohwtonH, and 

tti 

ol 



i -iintqR-wfftw* Tp 

nothlrtg 

* ,i at 







Floyer 



37 



Forbes 



a pioneer in the movement for the 
matlo class teaching of plain needlework in 
English elementary schools, was inspector 
of needlework iinder the ^London school 
board, founder of the London Institution 
for Advancement of Plain Needlework, and 
author of several text-books upon the sub- 
ject. After education at Charterhouse from 
1865 until 1869, Flow served for aeven 
years in the Indian telegraph service, being 
stationed on the coast of th Persian Quit 
On receiving his long leave, in January 1876, 
he started for the unexplored interior of 
Baluchistan, His journeys there occupied 
him until -May 1H77, and hfe observations 
surveys earned him a reputation m & 



bold mid intelligent explorer. His results 
were published 'in' * Unexplored Baluchistan * 
(1882), with illustrations and map. The 
riiyjativa describes a* journey of ex- 
loratloii from Jade to Bampur; a' tour 
n the Persian Gulf* visiting the Wand of 

"a journey 




to 
ar appendices on 



,0oti of Western Bataowstwat and on 




a post which he held until Ms 



to convert an annual lorn into a 
subfiitantia! annual surplus Ho induood 
th government to dovou* a portion of thm 
to experiment* in tho cultivation of trooa 
itnd plants u|>on tho soli of tb& dowrt* He 
took ohsge'o{ these spsrimenti in tho 
of director of plantations,. 



state railw&yi and telegraphs of Egypt 

m . i, . ju .a. * * tr S _ 5s*t W 




lor telegraph pole* 
aiding m alkaloid 
and other pf*jtii Havte 
of i0b In a clay in 

t 




to 
o! Its extraction*" 



the 

M tiha same time E nga^ad in %p!< 
Jta 1SS4 ha mada a journey from Haifa to 
and in 1887 urvayad two routes 

th Nil and tho Bad Sea in aixwt 



In 1B01 h wm appointed 'by 
to the command of an impor 
mort 



(akiut N* iat. 24). In tills 




Nord-Etbad ontre le Nil and la Mor Rouge ' 
(Cairo, 1893, 4to, with maps and illus- 
trations), For services to the military 
authorities Floyer received the. British 
modal c Egypt, 1882; with clwp * The Nile, 
1884-5,' and the Khedive's bronze star. 
Floyer, who was popular with hk natiT 
&&d a mastery of Arabic and 
an-ear for inmut difference of 



iaieot* 



died at Cairo on 1 Deo- 1003 
H married in 1887 Mary Louisa, eldest 



daughter of tho Rev. William Richards 
WatBon, rootor of Saitflootbv St, Peter*s> 
LinoolnBhiro, by whom ho left three BODS* 

Floyer described his Egyptian explora- 
tions in *The Minos of tho Northern 
Etfoai* ('Trans. Boy. Asiatic Boo.* Dot. 
1892); 'No to on tho Geology of the 
Northern Etboi ' ('Trans. Qtel. 00,* 1892, 
vol. xMii.) ; ( Further Boatea in tho Eastern 
Desert of Egypt * (' Qaogr. Journ.' May 
1893} ; and * Journeys in the Eastern Desert 
of Egypt* ('Proo. Roy, Qeogr. Boo/ 1884 



md 1887). To the < Journal * of the s Institut 
^yptlen* for 1894-6 h oontributed many 
papora on a 



Soc. April 1904] 



' knowledge; Journ. Boy* Asiatic 



V. 0, 



FOEBSS t JAMES OTAATB (1823-4904), 
railway manager and otmnoiMHtiur* bom at. 
Abordoon on 7 March 1823, was oldest of 
the six children of Jabmes Btaats' Forbes P 
a member of a Scottish family long settled 
in England, by his wife. Ann .Walker. 
A brother* -William* became managar of the 



Midland Great Wmb&m railway of Ireland, 




Soufch Ooait railway^ and o 
Alexander Forbes, B.A. Ek 
Woolwich, James ' wau brought up In 
London M an engineer, and tfKowtag 

* *^ .a, _ '*. . .!. ^^ *"f 



m 



om 

VT 



Una* Joining the Great western 



, he. waoliad by 
it of oUel goods matmgar at 



staff of the Datoh-Bhemsh raUway, 




on 



uianagornent, 
it poit, briugliag tho Un^ 
wge of ba^mptoyfr isto a 





light ortmimittai, * tlimrtor 0! tha 

T86 * ., *. n'?WPf 



HI* 



mwrly to intntiliiii 




bton line*. Under Forton'* kllful 

lino hdki Hi 

jointd tl 



r* 



told Jointly with that 01 pttwrnl [ ami 

, Am *i, 'Mitt, ^?., _^EV m. At. -it a. *, *^ * . 



, ftt 



Una ; ing in 

J, I "^ j. y 




fur Ui*uUln. II** 



til 



^iiiJity 

w wf j% ,.., 

b&nknj|Jt oonoorn! th MnUv>tNiltan Uintriot ! 

fttf Afcl*lty i* 1 



liui 414 nui 




, 'a- f . 

of mmk woii to kwyw, 

L t .. .. . _ -_ 1 Tl A * i i 



bring them out 





Ford 



39 



Ford 



[Authority above oitecl j Engineer, 8 April 
1004; The Times, 6 April 1004 5 F. H, 
MeOalmont, Parl, Foil Book, 7th edit* 1010, 
pt, I, 87j Dabratt ; private information.! 

a w. 

F0BD, EDWARD ONBLOW (1852- 
1901), milptor bom in Islington on 27 July 
1852 V was son of Edward Ford (A 1864) by 
his wH Martha Lydia Gardner* His family 
moved to Blaakhath while he w&s still a 
ohiM* His father, who was in business in 
th City, died when he was barely twelve* 
After ha had spent some time at Black- 
heath proprietary school, his mother deter- 
.mined that ho should follow the strong bant 
towards art whioh he had already shown, 
She took him to Antwerp, where tsha tent 
him to the -Academy m to, student of paint- 
ing, From Antwerp they moved after a 
time to Munich* There Ibrd studied under 
Wagmuller, who ndvissd him to tranilar 
his attention to modelling^ whioh ha did* 
Baforft leading Munich Ford married* in 



of Baron Wfm von ICrtuw, 

On rotuming to this oountiy about 1874 
Ford nettled at Blaokheath, whmoo ho nmt 
a bast c^ his wUe to the Eoyal AoMtuay of 
1870* This at owe attmeted altofitkm* 
and from that time onward the sculptor's 
oarwr wan watchmi with intarmt* Beginning 
with the itatue of Rowland Hill ftt tho 
Royal Exchange (1881)* his more important 
works are i * Irving M Ham lot * ( 1 883), in the 
OqikUiiJl. Art Gallery ; * Gorton f (IS90), the 
gromp of the famous gtonarat mounted on a 

^s 'iKu u -if _ ,u *** M , jimi * tt 




ddloata mod^IUag, and 



Htiterfe wn RarkcmMr r aad- M. 



w ' (bought by the 

now la th Tate 



i 




of Ms statues, which did much to extend 
his reputation* 

Ford waa elected A.B.A, in 1888 and 
RA.in 1895, and became a corresponding 
member of the Institute of Franco* His 
example had much to do with that awaken-' 
ing of English sculpture in the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century which 
had its initial impulse in the teaeMnff 
of Dalou at South Kensington and 
was helped by Ford's groat personal 
popularity* like most sculptors he was 
physically powerful, although of medium 
height, but, also like most sculptors, 
he overworked himself, and probably 
shortened his life by the energy with 
whioh ho set about not only his own work 
but that of other people. On the death of 
Harry Bates [q. v* BtippL I] he undertook 
to complete some of thatartiutVi unfinished 
work, pat at a tlrao when oommiadona 
were ooming In thick and fast to hia own 
studio* About the middle of 1000 he was 
attacked by a dangerous form of heart 
which left him, after a year of 
or lens precarious health, unable' to 
resist the attack of pntwiaonla from whioh 
he dbd at 8i Aoaeia- Boad, NW* on 
n Do, 190L Be-vu bui?id at Bntt 
llnohlay* Ha wai BurTirad by his mother, 



his wife, four ucms and -a daughter* 

The boat portrait of Onslow Ford in a 
head by John Macallan Swan [q, v, 
BuppL II], whioh in the property, of the 
painter'^ widow* He wins alio painted bj 
Mr. Arthur Haoker, E*A* f Sir Hubert Ton 




^yni -* * i -* i * ^ =W*fc * ^ i f 1 ' 1 ^ t *& K K '**"* ' ^ 

load witfe Abbaj Eoid, In St, John's Wood 



>l m\ . A/WM# * w * ! 

W0@u of 'iho Time \ prional 



A. 



FOED, WILXrlAM JUSTICES .(W-> 
1904)* miokttar and writer on orioktt, the 
eldflffe of mmn mm of William Ayfttsttw 
ford, of Ltnooln's Inn fteldi, by hft wife 

ar Juifcio, wa bora m London 

1 



Jnatibt {&.-.i8 

in 





Bridge Jtntioe (!u 166A, 
asfcar of Harrow In 



and at 



'oresticr-Walker 



'rtjpjsi)$^ 



Si Jofart CteUim Cambridge m minor 



inT874 ly^'g^tmtwl IIA. with mow!- 1873 hp WAA wIjtitAnt of kiA 

- ' .. %* . f fnaj^-M " . ., j, > ^^udu * a a. 

. _ nonottf* in IOT8. r* r 

,t in 1878. Ho wan A master nt MATI* ! AW! m .**^ m ..T- .- ,..^... 
^.^Ugh 0>llp from IH77 to IBM, And 1 Anw with Moih Afdrn, 
tern thAt yoAr till I $80 wan ttrindpAl *f ! Uiwiw* 
NebonOoU0ap,NwZi:*AlAnd. (fa to return j f bin 

> W% % 4| ^ 4 I A. 1* -* a-** l 4*% * lit . 

to Entrbtid h@ 

'*' j. -,^ 

to rotlred in 

Of flpiendJd phyniritin (Iw wn* ft. *1 in* j ftifwHiy, nr mi * 
jba hafghfc Ana wfnghvni In 1BSO ovar ! mi|tA|t*^i in mtiih 
17 fttoaei Fowl WAA AI ft odttk^tw iinn nf ! AfripA, In 





m tw 
* fmm whteli 1 Hfw AMig A* 







in i Hi* 



* 0* It Tliorntoii* 

hit 



Wr*i 



* 



44 



WI-'F ^^TBJIj vrvfsr m^ jw w r w(* *S?P w^ ^ w p wwt *>T ^i(n^*"n r ">'' TTT " TJ > mi w ^ 

runs in 17 mlnwtai In the* flmi inntngM v 
70 rwni in 40 minatoi in tht m*wml Im , . 
lor Mld4I0ie t*. Kimt, Hf WAH n *1< *w round 
arm bowler and it gocrf fluid 



?| v 

I** 



r 



CUi, i II K*n\ 
ttf j7n for* 



wrola much tm 

.fc0 

Owwiy 



-1 

Fiifwsiii^r 



nl ffty***it< AH| 



of pnmimoAi 

i April 



Mmmmk* 1 905 ; 



17 April 1644 

A jta* V ito Lft* - ^S 



piomotod 




Forster 



4T 



Fortescue 



He arrived at Cap Toto on 6 Sept. 1890, 
and wm them during the chief stages 
of the Boer war* Placed in command of 
th line of communication, ha performed 
his exceedingly important duties with his 
usual thoroughness, At the outset he had 
to pro-ride for the defence of a frontier 
1000 ffiUaa long, and waa activ in support 
of Sir Bedven Bulked advance. He wau 
twtoe mmtlonod in despatches. Dm 18 April 
1901 he handed over hia post to Major- 
general .Wynne, and embarked lor England, 
On 7 July 1902 he attained the rank of 
general f md on 1 Sopt. 1905 he succeeded 
Hir Oeorgo Whit (1835-1912) as governor 
and oomma&dor-in-ohief of Gibraltar, having 
iuat before, on 31 July of the name yciar, 
bmn nominated colonel of tho King's Own 
Boottish Borderer* Ho reoaivod the re- 
ward for distinguished Monrtoe in 1893* and 
ww nominated U.O.M.Q, in 1000. 

He died from heart failure at Tenby on 
BO Aug. It 10, and wan buried at Buihay, 

* 3T db.Mu >L JP *- H ' "t S 'W !l ifc j- : ^4 DM* ^1 K - j at m a * ^ 



dauhter of 



A* 




i, I'Sept 1010; 

Life of Sir Bartle Pram, 189,. .... . , .. 
itaedorfok Maurie*. Htory of tha War In 
South Africa (iHtKMyog), 4 yak 1906-I010; 
f I Times History of the War in tioutb 
Afrioa, ii, 114, Hi. 07-8 s Walfon! 9 * County 
FainJUssj^ Hart's and Offlolal Army Lists | 

Mi 



by hii 
(d 1887), eldest 

> first erl of 
ndon on 4 



was M.P, for Andom 



tho Hon. Hugh 

till 1859 . m 



Trlxrity 
,t 



1880 to 




. 

. Xleoted to 1841 HP 

ymoiath 'to the whig fatmit* to brid 

^^-Jt ^.^U, ifc.lt^^a^^*^ jwHlyL au JS?L r- J *. ^. ,,,*:' _ ., _ . * * 



exponent in 1843 the chartist, Henry 
Vincent [q, v.]. Declining to stand again 
for Plymouth, ho unsuccessfully contested 
Banwtaple in 1852, the constituency being 
disfranchised for bribery two years later. 
In 1854 ho was returned f or ' Marylebone, 
and h held tho scat until 1850, when, 
owing to ill-health, h resigned, and on 5 
Dtftomher was raised to the peerage in hte. 
father's barony of Foriescue* On his 
father's death on 14 Sept* 1861 he succeeded 
to the earldom* 

EbringtoH, who had advocated the repeal 
of the corn laws, wan appointed a lord-in- 
waiting in the Kussell government o 1848, 
and from 1847 to 1851 "was Mtscrotary to the 
poor law board. Ho was also appointed 
a member (unpaid) of tho Metropolitan 
Consolidated Gjmmfegionon&ewtirg in 1847, 
and was it chairman (unpaid) in 1849-5L 
He had no |>laoo in the ' Abordtjon gover- 
merit, but taking great interest in the health 
of the soldiers during the war with Russia, 
he visited in 1850 the barracks and military 
boipifcab. Contracting .ophthalmia, he lost 
m eye,-- and seriously Injured -W health,, 
His ipoaohes straauously ad vooated sanitary 
lmpzovmnts in fch itrmy f attd he spoke 
mqmnily on the Mourn of looal '-ffovm* 
mtut In London* After his devatioatq tie 
peerage, Fortesoue took little part in parlia- 
mentary life, Though a liberal by tradition, 
ha difTorod from Giodstone ou the Eaitem 
orbin of IB7S-9, and sat tm the crows benches, 
He declared hinmulf n liberal unionist, on the 
ham rule eontrovomy In 1886* 

A ociaI reformer of much- arnwtmwi, 
JLord Fortesoue ww the author of numerous 



in towns. 



deliveied la -the Meohwoioe 1 ' Institute 



povamment for the M0traplk* a latter to 
Lord Palmerston (1804) j * Fublio Sahoolis 
for the Middle dmatn ' -(1834) ; an &ddm , 
to th section of statistius and oaonomio 
oienoe, British Asooiation v Plymouth 
(1877) ; a-nd an address read at the Sanitary 
Congress, Bxeter (1880). * Our Next Leap 
In the Dwk/ m tbd franchise bill* a, 'ro- 
priab from tht * Ninetemath Century * 



lit favoured, the 
given to -oounty 





of the 



advooated tlw establishment f 
university 

iBWIb i MO* 




4 



1' 



T 



md pe$ke at it* twrlfcr 
orihMg tilx'rril t 
and religiatiH inUluii*nn, 
wan a good hott*r*iwn van tint butt mini 
who iwbituttlly iwd. cnli in 1/uidiw nnd 
make bin way to th Hwiw* .i{ t*ird* <w 
ii W*WIMJJ!<*| M in? -bunting 
tho rcn-NW.m to ib*' jjrrwt.t'r 
art f if Rxwrwrtm thndwlh *d Mr. I'*. W. 
Knight in J8il7. 

Thomri dk*l at <:'uMl.Wtill,S*>ufh Mlt'w, 
on HUM, IW5jm,vnm itwrdi'don II M*m*b 
184? (Mirtfiaiw August* C}mrilt CbwUm*. 
eiclwt <kt*gli4?r d""ili.i lii# 
JUonol 15ftwm>nDrimrr ; dli^ *1i*l m H 
1888. Of lik thirteen dttliiifn, llitt t 
k tin* ffitirih it |.rr**t 



xxi). 
thn 



n 



n 



nl S 



l)t<*ll*.'y U"P 

in ittitiim n*mr 1*it?t.*irift on 11 ln? 
ujul Jnhn WiHwin i libmriat* 1*1 
' lu Kinjt fHiri V. 'A itftUKlU***', 

Klr^tn'or* lurtrriwl Hir Mii'i*Ml llii:*k^ 
f Jirit ViH*nnni Hi, .Akhvvi*. 
jmrtmit in ui.in t*y f'klr*u l''jit.w IbMi* 
Hrf)) j,?* in |H'w^'*>to|nH 4 |..|<0 !iMf.iiy nt 
A ri4rt*,i [*iri.mit M! Ivirl 
|ij : HW : wi in* Vmiil Kmr' in I Hal, 
n* 
In 



FOSTER. 
(1E41-I904},! 

of talitiiig at 









1,1 -NBV 



minm mid |>rti 
I'i^yal Helimil i*l 



hf unwhifif^I 
i*f l/ml<m, and 



All tb 



in 



M 



*ni Urn 



In 



i*r 



if 01 tliii llnv, Cl 

Otarattiaf* tjtorn. at Ciut*ltt*fw!I tin 83 



tmtiimtiiw 



wmk, r***iw 



In IIW 




Et wnt to 
.folSBOlur 




mwy m 1 

a^JHtdftti 

Iti thi * 



ti! 



and IWUrt, 



fil^w tm Hi 
Kari'i ibyri. tin 

HH OMH4 HUII|ll|K 

_..- - ^^MUlhlUMl IfttW 

E A Utoti & w^rk tm 




"k t* 



F 



Ijtuguttgo for t!io purpose (Tram, 1867), 
ami m IB7CI, with William rtollwmy, ho 
published a translation from tiro Ifronoh 
of Prof. (Dijon's trofttiBG tm mining, 
ilw imncyitti work was a textbook on 
Ure anil htow* Mining' (IB1M; 7(,|j. <t!if 
roviwtxl by Prof. *S, H<riicsrt Cox, Hill)} ami 
ho wrote th arttoio cm Mining fa the ftth 
*hticm of tho VKnoyolopRjdift'Brftannioo.' 
Me wan abo author of a textbook on 
Minmg ami Quarrying 1 (Hi()3) and of 
nmnproim mwnoirM mi pajwrn In the 
lfrnowfimgn; of tho (Jvologfoal and otfaw 
cii*ntih KwjtM!H and In variouH Hokmtifio 
ppriwlicak From I8IJ4 ho aiitnti ' tho 
mi.iwrul Htatifttiaii imaitKl by tlw homo 
oflto, niul tho annual romrtM on minus 
1 1 imrrfc*. While* hn mtlmmHl conMidi*r- 
H r<fiutfttiM iw ,i gmfcigtot and metal- 
gmt, it wiw tut a miner and a mining 
ux]tfrt ttiat !n> wiut ratify 4)im'm<nt. Though 
at tho Imgifmifitf of hi* inHpwjtowhm fik 
ffwrgv in impomng tuvd rntmHif)nH and 
m iiwlntirig <m Ilia roforra and improve- 
twmt of tixtHUng mtithoda won littlo appro. 
fliiiM by ibo mining eommunity; h 
tiititimiuly won In both lili cUstrioto the 
Mtaem dikp of minen ant! mine^wnem. 
mwprfml fa 1872 Kb oouiin, Sophi* 
, Ntmmi dau^litnr of Arthur F, 
of Brlum, SwITolfc, arui had oim 
non ami two t JiutKhtwn. }H H wk!tw rt* 
ft.mvil iwt j-*iHim t>f KM)/, m Aiijf. HH)4 



gonoalogioal works began with 
of tho qnakor fatnilic of IlVwtor and 
Fomte (18(12; SJnd odit. 1S7I); of Wilson 
of High VVray and Komlal (1871); and of 
Fox of Fjilmouth with the Oroko:ra of 



(1872), alt which wera printed 
prfvatfliy, Thero follows! later pedigrees 
of tho families of Foaso, HarriH, and Back* 
houao, tm well m of Raikua 

lii 1873 ho projected iu * PcHligroos of tho 
County Families of England.' Tho first 
volume, * Lancashire Families,* appeared in, 
that ywar, and it wan followed by throo 
volume* of * YorltMhirw Fanili*j ' (i 874)* Ho 
prints! * GIovw'B ViHiUtkm of YorkHhiro * 
m IH75; in 1877 there ttppcurwl h'm 
' Ktmtimato Britannica,* part, only of a 
ooIIotUjott of jHttligmiM of uttUttadl gwitry, 
and hi 1878 tlw' * IViligm-s of *Sir Jofm 
Pcmtuitgtmiy Fifth ix^rd MuiusiwUir.* 

In IH71I ho puhliHhi.nl, in tsollabortttum 
with Mr. Kdward -..HoUtiHiH, Bluo Muntlo* 
HIM Ial>o.ri0UH * l\?M'ag^ J^aroitotago and 
Knighlagin* l<\)Htor rwrHUwl tho main 
mathmii) of Bir Bernard Brk* work; but 
aiming .at groator- ttoourftoy,- ho oxjOfiKd 
mythibal mwmim^ and plaaod in a Heotloa 
Qhaoa ' batonatoloa of . doubtful 



. 

oroatfon. Fo^r f H undertaking ww violently 
attacked l.iy HUiphou Tucker, Rouge Oroix, 
In i tho * f-iiniealugiHt, 1 iv s Oi on 'awcount* 
priiHtijially* of itw horaldry, and F^Btot ami 
IHH t;u>lii)ait< Bi'llimin dc<f**nd(..td tlioinnulvtMi' 



. . . ., ; 

Nutura, iB Ajiril HKH (ty Hilary 4eniii) ; 
.Joutml of .how, l Ann, tU) April 1004 (bv 

tlw pmtenfc writ<ir) ; Tmm. Am 
of Miiiliig fchiifaw, vril ill* 



FOHTKK, JOHKPH ,_ _, 

. ntalogiii, t.Kirn at tSuitninidl^, HuiK'brkiul' 
on i Mnrob 144, wan r!4t^t of Jl mini und 
utghtom of Joftoph Fontor, a woollen 
of i.iiNhffii Wimrmouth, by lik' wife 

K ' J *k Ml 'M ^ 

ltf"V tl 4 4 t-tf * V A'-k Mfe .'< *i T "Tt A '^J A K 

imiigiiuir of Kmaiui^i Taylor. 
, iiirkut Kontw, faunaor of tho LonUon 

frU^*^ lit" f * 4 JfiA Jfl ittAtia^t ' ^ 'S> ilP 'II 4 ' Jfc 

potutitg ftrtii of M. is. FoMir- &, Horw^ w^ 
gmndfathur. tuna Mylw Birkat Fcwi^r 
y. t .Htt|>ifl I| s th waUr*oIuur {>aintr 
unci!0 Hii anofMitorti wro 
of . tho . Sobtoty af Frianck from 
wrUt.(- thtu* until 'tha reiigimibn of 
hta -.teMuw a faw yan boforo lik birth, 
pHvatdy at North HhiehU, 



of itw horaldry, and F^Btot ami 

tlioinnulv 

in H jWtt|t!i!wi *A Hu.viw of a BiwitJW of 
Jomitiu l^VmUf^H l*<.rag<*.* * Thci I*tn<rji.ga* 

whiali wan rtviwuwed "in 1SS1, 1ES2, and 
uitimatisiy amalgamated with 
o'i^ whioit eulopixHl muah of itn form. 

In 1BSI Ifimkir aitabllihml a perio 



' - - ^' IT -^' ">^'TWWT ***-'Sijlt* 

London M %' printar, ' but wan 

. .-. -.v-ri- | ', gwwwQKloal HMowrah, 

to-whtoh- to;- had dvrotad Ui -Maura Irom 



.,.,/ which appotireti at irregular 

intorvab up tc> 1088. Thoro he printed 
Mortally tranHoriptlons of It^al artel' other 
rugtatora and garmloglwl row^roh^m* aoxne 
of " whioh (i,,' * Mam tori of Pm'liftiiiant, 

and othitirH wcro Ht.-unaoiaplcttni,. In the 
period kml thoro ali0 apimarml mucih"tren* 
ohant oHticiHrn ami >x}H)Hwro of current 
gcmti&Joglml tnythd in whiwh -FoMtwr- had- 
tho lutaiMtaneo of l)r, *J llorooo Hound. ' ; . 
MtauwhIIci 'Ifontor with heroio ' labour^ 
tranaoribed^ tbo acitniMaion rogUteru'oI-.the 
Inna of Court, and tbo' Inatitatiotta '-to 



a! flili labour wero. publiahed'' In 
at the Ban a'Biographl 
Oit* ClSSSJi *Admiaaioiui to 

M % 1 f i ' /*^ t TT 




X4at*- of all 






Dignitarioa In England nud Walt-n, 



4 <! 



OSU' 



In 1885 FtwUir Mdrrfok (n <*!< for 
publication tht> trawripiH l*y loi'|li 
Lemudi Ch<?8l'r tq. v."i "f th *U3trnl 

fUKii*'r/ Httd llu* ' Bit*h*| 
fgtHl^r f ^tarrirtg* 1 . LJw^ii'W/ 
which liiwt l***w*n *-lw i>rr:trt'i'l v wf .Mr. 



C.' 



from l.f Mn 



Matri<jIiAtif 



n 



vo 



II***- 

Mir 
* it* 



him 



n 



wim 



n 



in 



Urn 



o{ 



) J * A 



In twu |jnui}fi!i}^t^ * A ll< 
Extnumiittary * ami * A t*it.tty *f .K 

* in * ntHiif'-tH 

;*; i *| *"!! *fi' friff # i 

work iti<t \viili 



KI 



. 01 



anil 



UniiHh Mm 
ll 

jrnfitMin iurl 
c' '|'"-iiiiii!i' ' 

1 I 

- * 



. 



t * 








? 






Jn) i.4 I * 

rriil, |HHj. 






*i * \ 
if* K 1 



*' i.j,?. , n '" 



^ 

' "* 



- 



m 



***** 



JIA- in 

hij4 ir* 
r.*aiih 



an 



but bin umirgy'im a tmnwril^r M*l 

Ttw 



*imliriy n<l j 
ikiry, In I HAH 

in I HAW l!,ii. . 



|wtrtty.m 



Ifo.cilud at' Ilk 



t *. i *** 



, 1! Ifotimkrv andjwrtly ii.Mii|{MmJ*i$vt% 

' uf 



i.iii, 



, 



cm a-mc 



, -on 12 . Aug. 



t*iiioiii***l 



. 
of Bur&m Hill 



ilbrary of fao and 
liem ptentifuiiy 

cl!i|i0iw^t at li 
of riinl^ t>f wnn wtTw wnntrwl fur 



45 



I 7 oster 



of phyniology at tlw Jioyal limtifcution, j ology and hiHtulogy the hit tor. two boinjz; 
la 1.B70 1m .It'll, Umdoii for (!ambridg<% | ^nfitirally rogartltul im insigniiinani pai'tn oi; 



on bin aptiomtim.ntt, ch.iulty on Jixli)y*H j human anatomy* wro taught by moaiiH of 
rcKuimmtmuat.it:m to flu* mnvly twtahliHht.nl i kujturoH and tim exhibition of 



of j>n'fwfnr *! physiology in Trinity 
iii f-.!w following ywr an honorary 

him hy Uu 
wimploto rtagrm* bwug 



\vm* 



in IHHI. In 1872 alno ho 
F..K..SM awl hoeamn cum of the 
HanfJrt nf tfm BHtinh AH 



atum, ii post whbh hu .n^igmd after 



or inroBoopo. 



bu'ht itml Htjmcnvhat oxtonxlwl tihm Hi 



ly no 



plan boforo ho invited Foslor to join him 
in !,it>mlon ; but tho 1 irat OOUPHO of praclJtml 
hysiology givott in England ap pours to have 
that given by Foster. Jit 1870 Huxley 
i tut (id iv oonrHO of practical biology, 



with 



an onrj of hln 



four y**ar^* though In 1 tuwl.hnwd throughout PoHtur'n first aar on, owning to Cambridge 
hin lita Ui liikian iw.\ iv<t part, ht th*i working | wan to wtrodiioo practical (IhiHHtM in 
of tho n-^t.wiatiiH*. In 1.HH1. hi.? MJim^^id^d | phyHiology, pliyHio'logiisal t?li^uuHtry, IIJ.H- 

hinJMgical Hi*(ri'^t:try of tlw \ U.jlogy, and biology, aiul thosu wc.ro noon 
an >n'? tthifh \m h*?ld follinvcd hy a tilaHM in <5iii!>ryology. In 

<,*rdor to facilif-ato tho t'.Miduct of tliwo 
claHHiiH hfj <u-ujM.'ratil with Btmlon* 
Santl<jrMrm Laudur llruutoiu and Kltwi 



for' tAvr.nt-Uvo wtrw* In IHWt l.w w 



o 



f 



in wdtitjg a *l\*xt-.Bv)t*k for Iho Fhyni 



on, antl 

in fbh hfnit*. y<*iif WHH (sft'/itiHl K.CVif. In 
HHK h*< w-nrt **I;C!..<H! M.l; 1 . fi,r 1-ht* ilniv^rnity i 

cf i^)}tdt.nt. and thin lt.nl him to npply for! Itigiwi! Labaratory ^ (.IB7.'i). with hin pupil 
a dfpiity io |wrfr.rw Iho tiuliiv* uf hiw F." M. Balfmir in writutg * Tim ISlomentw 
'iritlgo |m'ifi*HHorwhijii and ihivn y*afH s if Emb.ryohgy * (IH74) and ubtahiocl tho 

. ..i > i , ' . t ..... i *j " ., i,I . . , 



to 



ioij, ' In fmlitkm 



wan it iiittrm), hut on tlrn irilrodiiation of 

ru! bill tw' joimxi th 



tr> the om.wrviiti vo 



on tor* 



th# lloiiwof f'JtJtumoiiMht* Hat ai Jlrnt on 



of anothw of bin pupiln, John 
Ncsw|X:.trt Limgl<y in writing * A Couraa of 
y Prautiuat I*hyiiiology ' (1876), i 

' 



which hiwtobgy was inofuded. ' Hi* 

wrn tho fewrutmar of th'oso conducted 

in tlm laboratoritm of zoology and botany, 



to 



in 



||.<tfounti i MUMMiKntfmMy tmtablwiitMi in 
irt tint gftv*i'n'ini>nt | Th jiiiMt of ttw*hiM$ *lv*.Jc.>ptl by 

, nctinbiy tin* | IUH! fy llu?tly rapidly Hprt?ad 1.1tr*oughout 
bill of 11MMJ, uuti fjiHilly t-roHHwl j i_Jn.'al/ Britain and* Am*riMa. 
tlw* floor **!' th IHUHI*, thr*nt;*H>Pili voting j ImlM In tltn valt* of *liftH!t 
with liiM lib^nii tp|Hwition, At thai of tmUirai p.hon.mtna -wa 

of I.IM:M.| hn Ht4trl for th 1 by l^liwf in th virtms of rcnoaroh ; and 



twivwit i.w a !i 



from .|.i>wim-tJuirax in 
'hurimi in th* cj*intU 



y 



.Mn 



wa* 
on, 



ntorw thiu* thirty yntrn hf hml Hvmi at 

it Sliwiftird ntntr C!amtiri1gs w'li^ro ho 
engtigcMl with imitiitr in anliniini?, . 
Fctitar wan twiow iimrrtmii (!) in 1H63 



to ; Oouriciitn (r/. IHilli), tiiutghUir of Oyrun 



new 



^ by' wlum ho' hml tw*> dhtfarDii 
'Miohi ( : Uifgo Ftmtur, M,I 



nt HIU.I li^iiio und at 



ho had a facmlty of mmimtmioating to 
hi* |>U]iiH. ll \vm tlirough hm mfluontm 

" 



that mmt'of hm early " pupiln 

thawiwiivtsH t*i original Inquiry. Tho 

of thmo, If. N. 'Martin. bt3ame profenwo 



in *lohns Hokinw 
patent! y 



ity, U r HA. and 



Ui rhwt,jlo|> 
In A.in<*ricsa, FtwU,^*** many oou 



patimm |>rvwitHl him taking a l^ati 

< ,U t ' _ f * , t *,...,,, J .f J L! )J* j. J, U t 1U1 / 



m mi original . 

<tj Pbmritii xxxv. StliJi for an 



timmni of hm' work). Th 



wif tr. trwid of hm ntitul wan hown in 
main, and alinoMt m>it% relaxation 



o 



<i hybridtjioti isovoral 

JRuit I Oromwtf!! ; ti(mHe liunUngfiDU. "" , But abUSly iriw, and in thow ohlfly 

mi. hiH gt)nmtion th0 oncuoyoluii iiootion* Now -and ag^ra. 
tciimhef* n writer of miiitnlll'b h ttubiidhod a hort artiole^in -one of 
,_,_ f .__ ,.^,'. TO .... An A tooh0r ho j tho hwrttoultwrnJ JotirnA {erf. Tk*-Gaf&fa. 
hvd -bnw iht> in tho dovtitojwitont of ) 15 Nov. W9V IS Fob. 1893), but a good 

, **j . t '* I * ..... i ,* ... t J . J! '1 * . I... ..,1 .^f1... t .on, tu,.*. JI1'. ji JitM*ll*ltu&*4 

It 



of tii' 



in biologioa!- oinoe. 

^'ii~ ^ 



part ; 




of -tto st&te of phytfalofy at' the fcim j 



'ester 



tho evid<m<w for and a^aitixt fim ffvtrowt - i,V1i 

r ^f"' 4." I W *'* (&**." iff *' '' *.w* IT w I |- L TP ?,,--.*. 

of vivid 'litfmry iiwrit plrtr^l it, Srri^iy, 
amongut trxt*lM.iokw. iu a rinH tiy^itw'lf. ' fVi^r 
IJ<jth at hfimn and ahronil i( luir! ti iiuni'v | in i M ( fa 



i fho Uti^r 



* 



n 



and part of it 



; tit*' third wl.iti*n , 11*0?; 



oritfinai tm'itv *f 
f v IVinu 



.KMY ST. IUMM, , in 



Ji. 



\\ 



>Vt, 



twmf ami Ki 
tf 



n 



for 



IH7H 



n 



ifn unit' wlifor ttttti 



lioii, 



rf 



for 



urn* ^rjw$*"r in 



*" 



n 



11*1* 



, Ju 1*^ 



*i 



r), In 
Him iht ilw lh 't!ywri * 



tho 



<f tltc* 



tttnily of 
and t4Hik 
|ilniin fur 



n 
jmrf iit 



*t 
*i 
tl? 



antl !hii 
tho mt varit^S form* of 



in 



a fttrong nup|RirU<r> Hw liillyt'iiw urnn 
mam impaeiiiUy Wt it* tii 
of th Internftti 

md in Iho 
to tho nibUoatinn f tho * InUf 



author, 



of W* 
wlU*r 



H0 

appoititecl by 

m t*> tho bou 

ha ftorwd on the 




ti 



nmii,, ti7 i 



mt< 



**i 






3- 



** 



London. 

Portrait of Him 
komw and by tho 
l in tho 



wwki t*liU*b li* Uh 



em. 



alntoci by Hur- ; 
Oullior ; tho , 
i of Triitity , 




i 



4 



77 



**-' i i 

%i mh 
l^lv In 



4$ 



47 



T 7 owlc 



4 ThD Poetry of Trobor. Mai* (1B8) ; 

'OrittU Olaf; by CMrbg (1888). E 
of * Dafydd up OwUym,* UHJ * lolo 
and Yorko's * Hoyul Tribtw of 
ware alno iwtuixl from HIM 



f Byguiwa (0\vfwtry), !) Nv, I1KI4 ; * Iky- 
tluia** "{'Uvtfrpwl). 25 May 1011 ; information 
from 'Mr. Ixnvm Jomm, BtittiUt, | J, 11 "L 

FOWI.-B, THOMAS WBHUttANK {185- 
1 603), theologian and writer on tho poor 
law* born at NurthftUf'rkm, Yorkuhms 0n 
2!* Aug. IH35, wiw wm of Thomas FowK 
Molimtur, iind of Mary WH brink, tooth of 
N<irthHl!orUi. A! Ur wlwMtion at. Durham 
{184H-5IJ) and Hi t/imrt^rhmtm*, hw 
Kac.U'f Cblk'p, Oxford, in 18114 ; 
after a Ujrm'a ntny llww ho gainm! 
mi. o|wft utiitoianfliij) at OnVf OoUngi.% 
uating liA in .1858 {M,A. 1WH). A 
tind(?t > grmltiaUi lies' look an antivtv jmrt 
n tha d*ifaUi at th tJnkm and wa 
in 1858, Mi intinml) mmm&lm 
Hill (im.*n [q. v] and i*rof, 



thnirn, went 
ing thought of th bdr, ho took holy 
"' of 



of Holy Trinity, Hoxtnn, 'Under his influ 

rt wum built, whitth, ntart 
n QOttmvtw* of httrdiMit*n. i*n*i 




*.* **laUHtn H^rti in a 

vu 
and 



wonowit? oonditiotiM* -In 
!SHS h bminnto vitmr f il* LukuX Nutfortl 
and in (1u? ^ntna yimr h 

' 



Church and 
* on (Jhupuh l\ 

unc 



tiiwri. on 

and iwo<j0H(ul.J 



n tHKir-ttw gimrdiiin tat'lpod to 
put-clttar raU0f t to which fw* -win 



aotivo*mi.Ki'(}oa 

to reoonmh' .now 
dJsoovaHNi with old wligiauti 
in UI.KMI . arUcittMi on- Evolution 
Outttury f (July 1B7B, 

" ........ 



pubHshud. in IBS I under tho 



To aooiftl oonoiy Im most, important 
contributionw wcro an . artack* in tho '* Fort- 
nightly Roviow* for "Juno 1 880 advocating 
tint! abolition oC out-door w\M and a csonoisb- 
manual on ' Tho Poor Law ' in tho * English 
Citmm* HorioH (1881; 2nd edit- 1890), a 
work which took standard rank at home 
and abroad. 

Fow.to actively supported the extension 
of tho franohino to thoagrioulturai labourer 
in 1,884* but h <lt.i(tl.inoi'd to' aooopt home 
rub in IB80 and for tlio next tan yoara 
wa proininnnt among t\w liberal tituoniKtw. 
lliH authority on wwial (j\umtion wan 
tindiniiniHliott To liw advocacy wan largoly 
cine this elation of pariBh and tlbtrict 
oouttoik tinder tlw local govtsminont act of 
ISM. in 1892 htt urgod tlui prudonoe of 
ol<tftgtj |.HmionH in a fmmpnlot) called 
4 The Poor taw, tho Friendly Sociotios, 
and Old Ago DoHtifcutionA Proposed 
Solution' (nwv odit* l5). 

Th<. Miiddtni doath of Fowld'M only mm 
hy hm K$oond wifo in 1805 trol<0 hin 
health* arid ho wa comgolkd by illnosn' 
In 1901 to retlra from Mip to Oxford. 
wfaaro.he dim! on 14 Jan, 1903* H wan 
burled at lllp by tho id<s of hl son. 
Fowh.j wa ' twimt nuirriwl; (I) in 1861, 
Barali Hunannnh (tl, 1874), rlanghl-or of 
inhitrd AtkitiMon, twi<licul prafttitiont.^ at 
Ri(!hntnd'York8hi.s by whom ho IUK! wwon 
daughttinut (2) in 1B7CI, to Mfifool Jano, 
dnught0r t*f ifttaob iHitam* a Wtmt Indian 
alto nurvivc'd him with a 



Its by virtuti of hm libaml oulturo, 
h!i thorough kow'liH,!ga of HOCIIA! oondifcionB, 
odpooifttly w rural dfutriatu, .ami hin pernua* 
Hive eb'quanoo, irifluonat)d jntblio opinion 
&llk*! among poiitioal ioiKinr8 ami tho working 

""* ' Hfe pubiinhoci workn, bcinidm maga.- 

s, rovittwy arid bfjokH ulraivly 

in 

^ proaahtKt ui Btoimm,' 
U^ooncitiaiion *>f lialtglcm 
cav 1 IB7&. ' 3* * An Ennay on'tha 
Eight Tmnslation of *V*i'- and mWm-, m- 
j^araudi AH 0x'hl biting tho Bilanoa of the Now 
' AH to thu OouiiltlttriH of- this Future 



Life,* 1877t 4* '*Tho -Divine legation of 



. ,. , in In the debat- 
ing. Imll o! tho Union Bbcioty, Oxford*, 

[Mamdr by Prof % . J, .Cook Wilson, Oxf ord f 
1W)3 . Oxfcmt. Mag. ^B_ Jan. - 1908 j St, 

f** 1^'Jii **i l\r It t T# t Y*rff "131 *'* Jflfb l^lfi. TtMlili'l IlJI 1 ^ iNfmrt< 

<4ti.Kt? p A^uiiiiru i iiujpi i fuinn ivutj^* JPOCI* 

WS j Charity Organiatip& Rev. &pi 1892 ; 
.private information*] " "" 



:>\vler 



'0\V IT 



FOWLEE, THOMAS (IH&M Wfi), f.r-- 
->! OorpUH f-hriHti t'Vi]U*g*% O&l<rd, im 
at Burton *St.atJit'f** UiirfiiMhw*, MM f Hfpf. 
ISS2* wiw fklftft o of William Ifrnrv j J.''nw, 

Fowler, IV bin wifn Mary An' Wr|rh, j l*ivr 



m it, 
/U.M.J { 
*f rt.H rjrJpjKUlo 

M.M*MIW, a 
Km**!. tf 



Mlwr til 
He! MJvtt.it /Mini 



mi t?n f 
* r.mw<r 



in youth. f.o htw witHir ty 

Fowler of Wiritf1*ni (w.n *tf _Williinn 

of Wii 



fh** H.t.tll 






II, 



r. 
**/ 



In !itMwiir IH-IH, 
o nf Matt, 



jm 



' J 



Hw^l, nut! 



M 



fornifH'i will:* 

H 1* Iru-in i 

t ~. ..| * :* I. W H f (l ,* * 

with Bnnvit, 
(n'<* for h 



11 
H 

, fit 



w thr 



'* 



!.!< 



it u-wM 

' *f * 



t 



I** 



in iirtfitr*^ vvJiir.Ii rtlwrtA* . ( 
lkr travrj, llu 111 ,\! l 



Brwn wiw ar*iu.iy 



. 

! fi* 
I f, 



^i t 



, l>.n 



of IB54 a ft.rt' 



!i 
in 
It* 



Jt$ i 
firm! .<xfMti 



*hi|**tf*ii* 



with 



{'q V* 







nyrnpathy with t.htt 



fnwl#*r wnx In 'full 



ur 



j tll!l*?l$ ...,., 

in whte'li hi! had toon tirmtifht 'tv mnk* 
up ftti adopted in ptfmmfmnoo ttbtr&! wuf. iwlvw, ciiw nf 
moderate, opinion in thtvilogy and pnlitkw. w^ Jfubit 
In 1886 .bo won . ordaintxl, ' and wpoamw 1* 
fallow and tutor, artci .in 1IH7 ub-m)Uir of 1 1* 
Unooin Colif^c*. In-'IBA$ IIP won 
Danyw ihaolojdoal privo ter an way -on Ifll1f4l Fwwfcr 
'Th Itaotrino of Pr0dtinaticm " 

_ the Church o 

It waa during tho t-r, 



id 



In 



iu| 

Viwiint 



I 
# a.i I Jnrnilh 



. ' I! 



man 



to first oanao into olcwc touoh with nl 
?tit%. busiiUMii.- 'Tbeneefortb-ho took" a 



fil** I if 

fltli wilt, IHMi 



*^, * 



Fowler 



49 



Fowler 






literature. Hie edition of Bacon's * Kovum 
Organura,' which oamo out in 1878 (2nd 
edit. IS80), contains a valuable commentary 
on the text ; the introduction clearly pre- 
sents Bacon's place in the history of thought, 
and embodies much bibliographical ns- 
search, for which Fowler had an apti- 
tudo. His monograph 'Locke* ('English 
Men of Letters* aeries, 1880) is notable 
for the historical setting of philosophical 
ideas, a feature already anticipated in 
hm Denyer prize essay. An edition of 
4 Locke's Conduct of the Understanding, 
with Introduction/ followed (1881 j new 
adit 1001); monograph** on * Francis 
Booon* (1881) and * Shaftcwbury and 
Hutchtmon ' (J882) appeared in tho 
*EngiJwh P!iii0HOj)h&rg ' wvkw ; th latter 
oontaiuB interesting now matter from tho 

* Shatsbury Papers/ 

* Progressive Morality* (1884; 2nd odit, 
18955 Is a short work remarkable for the 
insight with which moral exporicnoo is 
probed and analysed^ always with the 
practical end in viow of discovering prin- 
ciples which may be helpful for 'the educa- 
tion of character. 01 f The FiinoiplM of 
Morala, 1 part. L wan in print as early as 
1875, but -waft first published in 1886 in the 
joint names -of John Matthias Wilson [q, v,] 
and Fowler; part iL (the larger part) came 
out in Fowler 1 ** namo alone'" (HO prrslac^H 
to the two vohwujB and art. WiuaoN, JOHN 
MATOEUAH), Uko * Progw?8ivo Morality/ 

* Tho Briridpiim of Moralu ' m of perma- 
nent value; it u*|*rtwHOB ' with a ' differ- 
ence due to th altered ciroumwtanoefl of 
tho nineteenth century, tho philosophical 
temper and outlook of 'the* groat English 
moralistH of tho eighteenth century, and 
rotftina a flavour of thoir ntyle, Exu^t- 
new, and mm tfloganau, of atyltv wry 
noticeable in -the ormon which he 
preached at Mt* MaryX mark all Fowk>r*8 



3 B0c0nilH*r 1SS.I .Fuwler waa 
president of C/orpun ChritiU -CoU 
suooawian to hin friend Wilfton. Fowte 
eiDtered thoroughly into the lifo of hlH now 
e0I10ga f writing !t history, making hiinmlf 
fully acquainted with ite educational 
ite finanee, piloting ifc a'kilfuUy 

tbfl diffloultien of the period of 
wUoh folia wed 18H2"wh&n tho 

m&cie by the oommtaiionerK of 
1877 o*m. into operation^ .and winning 
the esteem and aneetion of wniom ana 
juniors, His exliausti ve * History of 
Corpus* puMished in 180B .(QdtoA His- 
toriosl. Society), is of speoU'latmst as the 
history of a * Etusitoaiaae loondAtloo. 1 la 



1898 ho issued a less elaborate account of 
the college in the * Oxford College Histories * 
scries, and between 1889 and 1900 he 
wrote a aeries of articles for this Dictionary 
on Corpus men of mark from Fox, the 
founder, to J. JVL Wilson, MB predecessor in 
tho presidency. To this Dictionary he also 
contributed articles on tho philosophical 
work of Bacon and Richard Price. 

From 1899 till 1901 Fowler was rice- 
chancellor o! the university* The work of 
tho office was exceptionally heavy* The 
Boar war was in progress, and ho as vice- 
chancellor, by arrangement with the war 
office^ was charged with the duty of selecting 
for commissions in tho army young uni- 
versity men, ready to go to the front* 
From the strain of inquiry and correspon- 
dence involved hb health novor recovered. 
Largely through his inlhumco tho opposition 
m Oxford to conferring tho honorary degree 
of IXUL. at the* imcnonw of 1899 upon 
Cecil KhodoBi whoso mumtemt cjiidowment 
the university a fow years after began to 
enjoy, provcKl innocuous. 

Fowler, who .was made F*B,A in 1873, 
and .hon>' LiD* of Edinburgh in 1SB2,. 
prooeod&d to the dagree of D.lX' In 1886 j 
and was .'elected hon* follow of. Lincoln in 
1900. Ho died unmarried in Im house at 
Corpus on 20 Nov. lS04 t and was buriod in 
tho ctsmottsry at Wintorton* In tlus church 
thoro a choii*"Hcrtm with inscription, wan 
msoUsd to hw memory ; and thoro is a 
tablet in the oloisU^ o! CJorjniH, By hi 
will he wm a bemsfaxstor of tho three 
college)!, Morton* Lincoln, and Corpus,, with 
which lie had boon connected. A cartoon 
portrait by B. T, D* appoarod in * Vanity 
Fair ' in 1BB9 (xxxl, 70S)* 



Alumni OxuuitmHtiM ; Tho' T 
21 '.Nov. 1004; Athtitwum,: 26 Nov. 1904 j 
Oxford. M*gftzta, 2S' Nov* 1904 j Lotto w of 
T* Ii Brown, ad. with mwmoir I.iy H. T. It witt, 
2 vols, 1900s Corrtwjmudcnoo of Willkm 
Fowler of Wintorton in thw county of 
Lliwoln, od, by lw graudwati Canon Fowler 
of'Durhum, 1007 j Orookford, HH)3 ; Who's 
W!i<> Ifil)!* s MinutPH of KvidDUco taken 
boforo the Urvivt^Hity tf Oxfani OomiuU- 
ttkman (of 1877), jwrt I pp. 02417 (Ifowler'* 
ftvldenoe tttkwx II March 1B7 and' 2U.Oot. 
1877) s '|)rivat information nuppliod by kin 
oouNin, iOftntm. Fowler,. -and othti* \ panoiml 
knowlodgo.] ' . *^ A* $. 

FOWLEB f iiE HENRY HAETLEY, 

flwt VliOOWHI? WotV8HAMO (ISBO- 

1911), statesman, born .in Bundorland on 
16 May 199$ t wm the ieoond bn of Joieph 
Vowtor* a WrfeyanmialiteTr-who ww wcra- 
of to Wyt ooxihropo8'.fail848y by 

' " / - , '. ' . , u 



-* 

1 r 



, f 
of Uht*#fi*% 

of Joint Itnrlh'y of 8iisHlnvj*<k 

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Bradford* uttci 



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John Hntltr, w 



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took ** ftoiivu jiwrt in 



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vn til 



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tion 

ahoAim U move* tint of 

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ho ww ititurfiiMi for 



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Villkri ftj, v.J,' In 



liiti 

riw 
tin* 



divteiotty for which to mi until 

upper hotiMi In IttQB, 
Zn Addition t^i'hii fowiiii^ on' 
oommoRMiAfiv-' tm 
of woU*ohoAcm 




with lib 



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tlit* ilttty | |i.iliiMMit I ho jAri*h 
bill thmtuth 



in 



itivolvdl 



f If i 'J|A July 



H*iVrriii*4rii!, ^IrvilgUs^liwI liMi |Mni|4in iitit 



Fowler 



Fowler 



events of his short tenure of the Indian 
secretaryship were tho (Jhitral campaign in 
April 1895 and tho revolt of the Lancashire 
members* led. by Sir Henry James, against 
the ^imposition of duties on cotton goods 
imported into India, In tho debate on 
those duties Fowler modes the speech of his 
life (5 Fob* 1806). Me explained that the 
duties would not be protective* because 
they would bo accompanied by a counter- 
vailing excise, and ho pleaded that 
parliament in adopting tho duties would 
be acting for the people of India who 
could not act for themselves. Tho speech, 
which contained the memorable phrase 
* Every member of this house in a member 
for India*' wan ono of those raws display** 
of argument and eloquence which alTect 
votflH/ The cabinet w*w tottering wiuni ho 
roue to apeak ; when ho sat down tho 
situation mm Bawd, arid tho government 
had a majority of 195* Wlunt asked 
Bubsoyjcmtly whether he. ktunv,^ while 
speaking* tho eiltsot he wa producing* ho 
ropliod '* Tim bent part of that ptHsoli wow 
never spoken ; 1 aw that I had tho hou&o 
' with moand I eat down 1 * In Jtmo 1805 
the government resigned after being de- 
feated on the -oordile. vote, and fowler 
received tho G*(X8*I*, in accordance, it is : 
underHtood, with tho wiahes of Quean 
Victoria. 

During tho ten ymm of oppomtion 
which followed, 'Fowler wan not a fmjiumt 
Hpe&kar in the iu:wHt% He devotod hwwlf 
to hii private uffttirn, and interested himm^f 
eapooially in the dovduptneat of tho tole- 
phono Hytow, Me wan appointed director 
of the .National Telephone <*>m|wny hi 18117* 
becoming pmudeut'in HKIL Yet when Hir 
William 'Hareo'urt [*{, v. BuppL II.] retired 
from the leatJerHhip of tho liberal party in tho 
HOUJIO of Cwumo'ttH in Dec. 1808 .Fowler's 
eiaimK to tha mmmmm k woro ueriourty 
urged. Tito 'Spectator' (17 Doo. 1898) 
doMoribod him an * a man thoroughly capable 
of directing the pulley of hk party, and, 
what i mows, able, if wd he, to govern. 
the country with power and di^ioretion*' . 
In th aitKt<Hi ooundiH of the liberal 
party . wliioli followed^ Bi? Henry wan & 
.strong up{x)rt(*r of Lord RoHobciry ant! 
' f' the vkt-premdimtB of the 

ague* Ho rwfuMcsd to join in. tho 
of BSr Henry (Jampboil-Baniu.^" 
on' the eouduet of the limir. war, 
ing that' tho war wa*i *jut and 
inevitable,* While thm trengthening t 
position with modevatp men on both 
ha ineurrtxl the hoitillty.' of the a 

But it waa argued by many 

TW wf " 




of the party that had he been ten years 
younger and * inoculated with a dash of 
audacity * ho would have boon choBcn to 
supersede Sir Henry ampbell-Bt:umerman 
(Lucy's JMfourmn ParHanwnt> 93). When 
Mr, Chamberlain startled the ccnmtry 
with tho tariff reform proposals in 1908, 
and thereby closed up tho ranks ol tho 
liberal party, Fowler, w wan natural in an 
old eollaagtio of Villiors, joined heartily in 
the dofonco of free trade. 

In the liberal administration which was 
formal in Deo. 1905, Bir Henry, feeling 
tho burden of hifl wovonty-fivo yearn, waived 
hiH claim to a near etaryn hip of statin, and 
uoeopted tho comparatively light office of 
chancellor of tho duchy of Lancaster, 
Hi Ineluwkm in tho cabinet was welcoitied 
by moderate num, who hoped that ho 
would (zeroise a moderating influence on 
hi** younger and IOBH cautious colleagues* 
But though, in Lord RoBobwy'H words, ho 
probably gave tho cabinet * tho soundest 
and most WgaciouH advice,* it in doubtful 
to what extent it was followed. Mo took 
little part in debate. Tho strain of constant 
attendance in tho HOUHO of OomrnonH told 
on him! but his .businous-liko administration 
of the affairs of tho cluchy met with 
tho warm approval of tho sovereign. 
In March 1908, on >Sir Hnry Oampboll- 
Bannt>rman*H rcswignation, Mr, Ampith 
formal a .miniHtry in whitsh J<\>wlwr retained 
hiH former punt, But lu.^ look th f>pl.>r 
tunity of ioaving tho Ipwor hoiiHC, On 
13 April HH)B ho* WI*M raiwd to tlm peer- 
ago m Vincoiuit Wolvurhainptcm, taking 
inn Heat in tho uppor houno on the Bawo 
day UH hi old Itiond, *Iohn Morl^y* Later 
in tho.ttiuo year (14 Oct.) ho bocamo 
lord j>roidont of thij council* Ttim was 
tho culminating point of hin ppliticsal 
careor and wa a romarkablo ^jomtion to 
liavtt boon won by a man who, aided by ho 
atlvontitiuuH .cirouttttano<m did not onto 
parliament until ho wan iifty, and owod 
QvarytHutig tlmro to hitwllciot, roaoiution, and 
oharactor- 

Boyond taking charges of tho old age 
bill during 11108, Lord Wolvw- 
m took litllo" part in dobata in the 
ol Ix)rd8. In- Dot. l.OOi)' ho reoaivod 
tho honorary tiogroo oC LLJ).- from the. 
Uaivomity of Binningham, together with 
Mr* MalCour and other dktinguished mm t 
on tho lint occauion when the unbamty 
oonferrod these degroen, Early in 1010' 
them wore iigim that his health waa fallmg j 
both mind and memory were afieoted* .With 
inuoh In the tAymwi poEoy of the cabinat 
he ww out of nympathy* But he retained 








t 



!,, 

ith oomptoto mil hut b<?iwh 
improved, but ibo dmh ol b wifv **i 
Woodikonw, Wolvcrbamploti, nit R Jn, 
Itttl ooniplotnly pnwtmtwi him. Hi ilM 
at \Yomllhoniti on 25 1'Vh, UU I, inwi win* 
burioti in TwtUwhtdt diuirii wt 
Fowler mrri.wl on t! Wet* lH-*7 Mint, 
diMighli'r nf Oorgf ffcwjftmin 
cycnift of. Cbupl IIm**% Wolvrr* 
btunptoii. ami HiMltoy I 1 ***, &bn>|whm*. To 
bar dttvotinn fttul wimi atmim*?] hi* 
much. Bliii Witt* ttiftilfi Lwly <.! Uw 
1 the Crown of Indm in I Him, 
Wdwrti*Jftn Irft mm mm., Itmiry 
who tjoeftitit) mwniti vtot lyitl two 



I** IW'H, 



It} 

iit 

Inr 



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liar ttmidm HIMHO wojt fm* in* 



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nf 

in 



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in ifo Town ii'ttlli \iVitvrbiMnplon f il in ** 
tto hail of the . Law Sootaty, Uititlon. A loi 
repitoft of-liiD ftwt b in-.iho pOMMMMiiHi of .. 

lib' mn* . A' aartoon lEirtmit. by * Hpy * ;,. '* 
in * Vanity "fcnAr* itt IMPS. ': ttr 

, . ,. . , iooit^N ; Mm, 'HftinUUin 1 * bimf nuh v* ^ 
ittli2; Tfaa Tinw*, 2 F*b, 10! 1 1 



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.. 

bom 

ford, ..Yoriuihittt on It 4'uly 
of tbrs m.*m of JAIIU^ FOK, 

..jftiili worker* 'by bk wile 
JHVont ' 

i tho mill * .but stow 



it fur 



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I*itirifi 
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liiti flml <*Jtrbiilt) i 
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t patented th-l"ox 
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un of ' 44 



tti 



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Fox Bourne 



S3 



Fox, well 



Jerome K, Jcromo and the publishers of 
* To-day ' for printing articles in the paper 



(May-Ang, 1894 and Jan, 1.896} which 
reflected on Fox's conduct of his business 
and accused Fox of giving largo tun to 
the college in order to give a wrong 
imprcBHicm of hi commercial prosperity. 
After sixteen day* trial, verdiofc was found 
for plaintiff without costs, tho defendants 
undertaking not to ro.pu blink tho libel 
(aoo The Tiiwa, I April-it May 1807). 

Fox took a kuding parti in* tho political 
and municipal lift* of LwtK and wan 
tlirk'f In Ntiaac'Huion (1BB9--U1) mayor of 
11 arrogate, which ho rt'pruHtmk'd on tho 
Wont 'Ruling county council. -He was 
J.1*, for LWH!H and* HarrogaUs and waa 
a maml*r o! tho Lc*gian of Honour pi 
Franco. On Inn return from a tour in 
Canada aw! America, Fox dkni of blood 



poisoning at WiUHttU on M Oct. 
awl wan bur wet at. Wood hot* o 
IjfMKlK* Thoro IM a marble bvmi portrait 
at tho Royal Ck*!!e$0 of MUBIC ; pamtwl 
|K)rtraitn an^ at Grovo Houa f Harmgato* 
whore Fox rcalded, and at Locda Forgo, 
f'ox married on 18 May 1859 .Marie 
daughter of Charlcws and Alia Blingor, 
left mm mw mn and two daughters. 

(Tho TiiiK'M, 20 Oot. 190; Prot*. Innt 
CHvil KngiiK^nt, ItHK? 4, vol. dv. ; Vrrxj, lnt, 

intrH, (.)(-!:-. "-THj. 11HKJ ; 



Journal, Bw, of Artn, lit Nov. III03 j IUU*H 

' 



Forgo (.Vmipnny ; 
info.rmatio!t v j W, B, (). 

.i-rUK| j^jt 4fU ''<m :^Bft-4 jt*-:i 'V ;U Jb-'ti '*.'' 4 '* i>' :< 4 >'*:'' '4 

FOX BOU EN K, Boo JiovftNic 

KP fox, 



and auftor.] 



AKTHUJi (1H63~19Q), 

Maltet, Somcrot 



phynician t born 

on 13 July I.B5**J f wan a younger non of 
ThomaA HomarU>n Foxwell of Hhopton 
Mallat and W<%ton-&uj#<rMarc by ' his 
iieoond wilci Jana, daughter of William 

' Hm oldr hroihor* 



of 



n 



n now 



oiHor 



of- political ooon*'iiy In th UnivorHity of 

,^ * : ** *^ 

London. 






awnton, Arthur 
St. 'John's 'Oollogo y Cambridge, 

II A* witli honoum in natural 



idtenoo : in , 1877 M*B, with, llrnt 




M*P In 1B9L Moanwhiloln 

ated B* A* at London with honour** in 
.and moral aoienoo- t 'and jputnuod Mn 
eduoation at.St. Thonuw Hoepital, London. 
In 1881 he became M..R.O.B. London, Ite 
became a -UoentSate 01 the B0y&! College of 

ta 1.881 t a member In 



1885, and a fellow in 1892. At the college 
in 1880 he read the Bra-dshawo lecture, 
which ho published in 1899 under tho title 
* The Causation of Functional Murmurs,* in 
which he deduced from clinical and patho- 
logical exjwicmco of canes and elaborate 
experiments the conclusion that functional 
iwirxnurs arc caused by dilatation of tho 
pulmonary artery immediately beyond the 
valve and are not due to change in tho 
viscosity of the blood. This view is now 
gen orally accepted. During tho winter of 
1887-8 ho fltutuod at Vienna, chiefly diweaaoH 
of tho throat and win 

After holding tho poNtn of hotwo physician 
afc Ht. ThomftH'H Hospital (IBBl), cnHnical 
at tho Brompton Hospital (1882), 



and junior rosidnniy mmHoul officer at tho 
MatichcHiicr Ohildron^s H<ispital, Pcndlebury 
(1SB2-IJ), ho waft f*k!tod a resident 
at iho CScmwral Hospital, 
(1884) and was honorary 
phyMunatt thcsn^ from 1885 to 1880. 
In 1880 lio became honorary physician at 
the? Q ucton*s Hospital, Bimtinghani, whom at 
hin deiath ho was senior honorary physician. 
At the hospital he was chiefly rapoitBiblo 
lor tho construction of the roof ward, only 
partially covered in, and otherwise open 
to tho air in which considerable uopos 
wm obtaititd in tho treatment of various 
apart from thoB<^ of tubrmmlouB 
Ho wftH also for a timn patlwlo- 
girtt to tlio Btrmiughatn Htispital for Wom#n 
and tlomonstrator in modioal patfhology in 
tho Qution^ Fiiculty of Modknno (at Maon 
Coiloga). known m tho Quoon'H Cblloge. 
Fm 1887 to .1001 h wo honomry Hbrarinn 
at tho McxUoai Iiwtiiuto* Birmingham., of 
.which ho mm prenidant at hii death, and 
ha edited for .a .time, the- * Birmingham 
Medical .Review * (1888-8). In 1906 ha was 
Appointed profofwor of tnarapmitioA in- the 
new Birmingham Univornity and roooivod 
tho degree of M.S<s. 
Of uh and rotter ved nature and wotvk 



health, Foxwoll dtwd, front tho roult of a 
bioyolo accident, in tho Wftrneford Hcmpital, 
Leamingtem, on i Aug, 1)K)0 and wan buried 
in tho 'burial ground of tho' Fmnotftoani 
at Olton. He married, in 1SB0 Lfwtte, 
daugltter of Charlan Koliin^ of Torquay and 
.widow of Bobort Foilook of.. Birmingham* 
He left one daughter, A. momorial tablet, 



designed by afapson, r. oiirimy 
Pollock* ww plaoexl in tho Queen'a Hospital, 
Birminghiun. and an annual prim for a 



in tfa* 

Hospitals, 
memoty* 



odowed iu 



Frankfort clc Montmorency 54 

FoxwaH'M rhif puWkfttinit, |w't. (rmn ; i 

4-l\r% I^SP'fiilwf'titWf* il^-f'f 11 ft*., W')WI J'*WHV'** *** s ' * 

HlfJ A** **" * *** * " HA. *.. *-,.! *.. 

^tfsnt*t* itiicl l^ui'itt * ' I ''^ ; . || J w^ \ i"^***,t)t i^ f^'ii'* 1 
0f fti*.str!i*!!*ii4re i itiH tnritt"i!'Uti**HM i** Hi** 



f : ri-*;mi 

, wtllH'l t'W |.Jr*rrilr><i $H ft 



phM- H 







: 



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' df 

prtirrii on Himfitf' im* im^!ii 

* 'fun !'**>' l<'tftttfl* "ii *1 
tlition of t-li VWnifir Sv>*U*w n) . 



m <r 



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FHANKKOttT UK 

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ul ^Iwgy^ 
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by t.tiptiJUi^ II > n1 

in titi llttivwity of $&m'l*.w 
iwtl griMlunU'ti in pwJi?nt?r -wlilt hnttMMrt In 
ohomiiitry .at ihu llrwi llHii, 
in 1877. .From 1H77 t4* tH7t* lu* 

imitirtil hlil*iry ni Uu* !iynJ 



n 



i, In 
ilw intuit! of ^rinUtiif* 



Hr 

n 
iiii 



t*iiiji|<iyml toy 
in tttfutft wt 



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winter 1 tlevotwl to 



Kli*imiili> . of 



li*tr*f ' tflHiWt 
iiilJih*l 



School of Mum IB London iiml'.tn wriunn S in 'lit! (til*' milt, itt&2)i Www lii* li^l!i 
for tha aflrioultural ' . " 1 miittn ati.Ht)0 octiiitHi wf w,*kL' 'Thu 



Early lit IBBO his jolnrd 
W-rightiSon In ^teblkhing wul 
tha 'Ooilogfs of Airrioulturo 

iti %'' * -. 



a 



laboratory 

, Fnsm paid viit* to 
1888 awl 180J| tj oxatttino the a 



In t 



Frechette 



55 




1900, and \vm butted in Gloucester ceme- 
tery* 

A Froam memorial fund, subscribed by 
leading agriculturalists, was entrusted to 
the board of agriculture, the income to bo 
awarded annually as prizes under special 
regulation**. 

(The Time*, 31 May 1900.] R, W. 

PBfiOHBTTE, LOUIS HONQR]fi-(1830~ 

100ft), Canadian poet and journalist, born 
at L(kiB f oppoBite Quoboo, on 16 Nov. 1839, 
wan oldest mm of Louiw Fr^photto, a con- 
tractor, whoso family was originally estab- 
lished In Ilo tip R<>, SamtongcC" Kin mother 
WOH Marguerite* Martintmu do Ixmiute. 
After education at tlws Quoboo Bominary 
and Nicotet (Mlego, young Froohotte 
p&BH<*ti to Laval 'Univamty (Quebec), 
McOiil Umvernlty, and Queen's Univorwity. 
Bottoming alaw-Htudentin Qutsbcso in IMl ho 
a iirnt volume of (BVeneh) jnxstry 
'JUnmm' in 1H8IJ, and noxt year wan 
to the bar, but did not practise 
* although be only retired from tho 
in 1879, In 1805 he want to 
hioago and there devoted himaeif for nix 
eorft' to journalism. Ho then edited 
L'Amiriquo,' and wan for a timo wwa- 
apomling awsretary of the liUnoiH Central 
railway in wiwHHion to Thomas Dickon*, a 
brother of tho noveiiwt, 11 IH poetic roputa- 
tbn WMM *ban^d by . Htsbond volume 
of VCMTHO * U Voix d 1 n" 1'kile ' (pt, i, 180tt ; 
ptJL 186K),in wbwh Ji nhfiwod thnatrongth 
both of km Framih patriotiwn ami of MH 
clerical ftntijinthto. In 1H71 ho moved 
to Mow CMcmsm There, whik* tho *iga of 
Farm wan in prtj^n^ Im rf>wxl hiii devotion 
feo Franco by fighting a clue! with a retired 
ilannan officer, whom he hail offendocl in a 
theatro by avowing Inn French lympathien s 
he had never um$& a wwonl teforo* In the 
mm year he rotwrncnl to Qt*ato 

Turning to ' politics, he immmminlly 
oonteitod' W tmtlvn plaee,! L6vi at the* 
ge&art] eleotion of 1871 ' in tho Utteral 
tntenwt > but in 1874 t whan Alexander 
HackonsRto [q. v] oai.no into poiwr, ho won 
the iaai Ho wa a ciaiwiwUmt nupportor of 
the- Mmkmw literal government. Ho 
failed to retain the mi in 1878 and 188SS, 
aM: : tliimeforwafii tlwotol to jwurnallBm alt 
the 0&<wi0s that ha iparod from poetry. 
He edltea -hii 'Journal. tlo'Qudljep,* wntri- 
bmted lasely'td * L'Qplnion Publit|u<j/ and 
during i8%-5 wm edtot of * 1^ Patiie,* 
He w:rota {reqTjently f too, for the Amerioan 
magazineis the * Broom, 1 * Harper*t* aBtl 
the * Arena.* Ii* 1S80 the Marofar overn" 
mt appointed him etack of the 



Frechette 

council in Quebec, and lie bold tho post till 
death. 

Meanwhile IMchotte was publishing 
further vohitnes in vorso : ' P61e-M61e * 
(Mimtroal, 1877), *LCMS Oisoaux do Ncige* 
(Quebw, 1880), 'Lee Flours Bor^alca 1 
(Dijon, 1881), 'Los Oubli^s,* and *Voix 
d'Outro Mor* (1880), 'La L6gonde d'un 
Peuple* (1887), and *!LeH Feuillos Volantes*' 
(1S01). * Los Moors Bor&tlos' and * Les 
OisoauK do Ncigo ' were crowned by the 
French Academy 'in 1880, and IWchotte was 
the recipient of tho tot Monty on priao' 
for the year. He \viw also made an oificior 
d'Aoad^Jiit^ lauroat of tlvo InstiUito of 
J^nnKstx Tho loading xinivorHttiofl of Canada 
conferred honoravy dttgrc^H upon him (LLD 
McsGill UnivefHity, Montreal, and (}uocm f B 
UnivarHity, KingHton, in 1881, and Toronto 
University in 1900; J.),Iafc, at Laval Uni- 
vtsmty in 1888), and in 1.897, tho year of 
the* diamond jubilt.^ ho WM croattwl CJ.M.Q, 
Ho WOH furthermore prewiilonti of tho Boyal 
Hfiobty of pamuitu BoaidH pootry, 
Fr6oh^to puhl.iHhc.'d prone workw, incsluding 
*Jj0ttrfl flBaHiki' (IB72), *MItoiro Critique 
ties Roto da Franco* (1881), and * Originaiax 
at Mtmcm$ii' (Montreal, 1S02), the most 
lively ana original of his prose oomposi- 
tionft* A oollootion of tales, * La NoSl am 
Canada*' appeared in botli English and 
Frouoh vri*i(nH (180J) 1000), F 
alwo atti^uplrod drama in * Ftflix 
(Montreal , IH71), * Paphicatt,' and 
niiia 1 (in iiv atft),i but tlwjwj, although 
vigortniHly written, lnak dramatic instinot* 
At hiHaoftth ho hiwl in pruparation an 
authoritative oditimi of lm poamfl. It 
appcsariHt poHthtimoufidy 'at Montreal in 
10()S (thmi Hericw), and" it oontain. all the 
fxxjms 'by whSoh FrMiotte doHkod . to be 
rmomborad. Age oftonod hii ardours 
against tbo ohwroh, and oonflcmuontly tho 
imolerioa! vor of *:La Voix d'un IkiM* 
find no plaoa in tliiB final cnlitbtu Ho died 
at Montr<*iil on 81 May 1.908, 
A a |KMit Frik^iott^ umw much to Victor 
go, both in tho mtxjhanuwru of Im 
| m th logwal motlnxl of developing 
the men. Hii tKHttry m hold in high <wt0om 
Fwinoh-Oanadiaiii!, who rank only CWmaale 
boaide -him. Hi frtend Honator ' Uavld 

n'avait pa lo souffle, la 
ot''do oonoeption de 
matti il avuit plus d*abondaaoe 

da tornxe, il otaitpl oo 
tootft pltw ohaud,' If FMohett 
Hugo's vibrant lyrtoal quality, he is b^ no 
meiui hii ansuooeisful imitator in patriotic 
writ* The test measure of Us tdttt will 
'be found in *La . Ugeade d'ua -Pimple,' 




Ten' 

In which he flom.m*mrtm with akiH, i killw! liar* 1 ** nn! rjiMtitA, 
vigour, ami vnrtety tlw hintiry *f thti j fwH 1,wl yH<.ri wfl 
"" anoh mar*, In iH-mtrwKt I** WiHiiiw Hmirv j irmti *li*.J wort* **"* ^'^'p Kn.jfJ* 
irintl |q v, Sttppi. lf] whnnp Kwwh ! th right *iv thti nty inati 
, v ,. .Ju*w rt rwwfttmi'ftt Afjfftinut Kr*^lih j to /***r/ Lwfurd tin- /?**/*, 1 
ntws Fr^li^ff** prwwt* tl.K 1 * ritittr Fwnuh* j '' F^l] 

wJiif*h fiMlni to 



r 



*. 



f 



uj'Kti 



n 



Hl-(*ltlTi- 



1! 



.mf 



311 



in 1870'Kmmrt, 



, v 



J] : T 



8htmirviviHl hrr 



with 



|fj?. 



nit* 



J, , 111 f>ll 



f.Jm 



* 



wrfr i MI (u 

At Tntttwortft, Htn 



* - 



m<) n t 



nr 



* 



ntt H -fttlv IH40, nut! 

^Hhim M,A, in 
nt < 



In 



.A, in ,, u HIM| ' 



, A 1 



(193), 
Way * 

B* 



Hi t) 



e* 



If* 



, n 

ImtJ**! Ml 



fnm !H4 t 



! 



1 *n A 



KT ta f ! nlm / lf ^fl 1 " 1111 ^ JW, 1 *! t&w*^^ 

tMtim^Mcmni^fmm !Hft4 *;*JHM I *< r , W *f mm* nm! u.i .Juiicta"'- ; {Si 
W^M AitiTHnrcXn iiiiMittthinit *f Mnwl^lWa i jgm !f , Murv lUuifht^r nf r 
nrMtwiihC%iu|t!i,C!|ifhi*.lUi IM0 f whfft - *'V kl^ f I 
Iw l^mtijo vfcnr t*f Anklmm, nmr IV: 
and privAtit I'hnplitin if* t Ju mrl if 
Ti! living ho htthJ until him 



* 
ift&wking, Wg IntrtKiwiw! u* tin* 

by WUUfttn Brtrfrink erf Mlml, NtiHhum 
ttefliutd, ultorwttniii of OhurtMgh. ilovcm 
frn HALVIN, FKAKCW KRNIIT, Ruppl, Hj. 
In NortbiimptDniiUro ha onjopftd hbi Hint 
oxporimioit wltli * 
with a IKKX! of homo 



**f Hyil, 



. 

ha hud hi limit port 

kmaiy ChoNbim p&rinL 

with {Hinsgrinoi an Bnntoa Mtw 

Swvthamby* tho moperty 

BwwkWwwl of iw 

. Next to penHcrlfMMi, 



o 



profornd gm!mwk f with whlob 



(Ht 



*i* r^ 

K. It, 



n 

Art 



North \V**i 



* M, IHMltt, with n |*litil*^ri|*liii 
of IWniiB, IL i f 



ti, N. 



d*t 1 I AliJl 

df Urn flye otitldiwi nl Hlr (ttmry) 



Frere 



57 



Frith 



.Bar Me (Edward) Frere, first baronet [q. v.], 
by his wife Catherine, second daughter of 
Liaut, -general Sir George Arthur [q. v.]. 

.Privately educated at Wimblcsdon, she 
want out at the age of eighteen to Bombay, 
where her father was governor, and m 
the following year (1864), in her mother's 
absence in England, sho was the hostess 
at government house- Profoundly inter- 
entod in the Indian peoples, she accom- 
panied her father on hia tours, and gathered 
a large number of folk-lore tales from her 
ayah (Indian ladies' maid), to whom they 
had been handed down by a centenarian 
grandmother. 



wan in tho Holy Land from the end of 
1906 to August 1908. Living mainly at 
Cambridge, she studied Hebrew, and closely 
followed tho results of biblical criticism. 
After some years of failing health, sho died 
at St. Leonards-on-Soa on 26 March 1911, 
being buried at Brookwood cemetery* 

[Miss Fr ore's books ; Athemmmv* 15 April 
1911, memoir by Bit Georjfo Bird wood ; 
Cambridge Daily Nowa, April 1911 ; South 
Africa, April 1911; information JdmH$ 
supplied by tlm faintly/) F. H, B. 

FEITH, WILLIAM POWELL (1819- 
1900), paintor, bom cm 9 Jan, 1810, at 
Aldliold, iwar Ripoiu YorkHhiro, WUH mm of 



With an inBtnwstivo introduction and William Frith, by 1m wife Jane Powell, a 
not** by to father and illuatrotions by hor i mombt of tho ancient but decayed family 
*iUr Oatlwrims Mm Froro published | of Fitss, ShropBhiro. Both parontn wore In 
twf*ntv-!<ir of th tataa, in March 188, j tho domestic employment of Mrs. Lawrence 
fc " * - - - O f stticUay Royal Whon the boy wan 

aoveu yoar old Im family moved to 

v 'u, A * a 4 i( 



wndor" the* title of * Old Doccan 

Tho work waw dtw^rviscily miccowHlul, and 



was four timcm reprinted* (fifth imjtfowion Harrogato, whoro the father boonm the 

18iB). Max Mitltar fq. v, Htippl- I) ! landlohl of tho Dragon Hotel Ho sent 

iH'nnicx! out that Miiw ' FKSTO'B tajm hot! ! IIIH non to uwohool at KimroHboroiigh which 

bcxim priswjrvfMl by oral tradition HO ! aPiwar to have bon a * Dothoboys Hall* 

aoouratbly that mnw of them wora nearly Ilio boy noxt pmwl to a largo Hohool at Bt 

word for "word tramdations of tha Sa^aknt Mftrfiparofc'u. near Dover, his .master bomt 

in which they . woro originally . told. . To 

Anglo-Indium the book *0p*m<xl up m 

entirely now fldd of scion ti'fics nwoarch 

of int?xhftwtibl woalth ; anl it gave a 

inipoUiM to th Httidy of folk-loro in 

Umtoit Kingdom, atul throughout 

and tlw Anu^riottH* (Sir C,l BiHi>wo(*i>), 

* Old Bi^nait J.)VH * hitH IwHan trannlfttocJ 



th 



Clortnan ana Marathi, ad rtKsontly 
Netectsonfi havo hmn inoludod in BtQac.rt 
* Bot>kM for tho Bahrain ' and in Sarali 0. 

Bryant'^ *HtorioB to tell tho Children* 
{.Now York and Lomkm, IH11). 

alH0 wrota a pantoral 



1 Ximi'i Triumph/ publwhod anonymously 
In 1809, oontaining onntH of poetio powor 

ltd tondernoM. One or two of bar nhort 
mmn iubwaquantiyappeanxi anonymously 

" ' ' " or/ but moftt of hat varna in 



___ CT . , naar Dover, his .master being 

insfcraoted to encourage a gift lor art which 
Frith senior thought ho could discern m Im 
son. Young Frith wiw allowed to spend 
most ol hlB timo in yftrious grotokquo 
tn.jrfonnanoB with pencil and chalk. On' 
lijaving ftohool ho had a narrow tmoapo 
from fmconung an atustitmoor. . Ho finally 
cmtorod B*i4 Aoadcuny in C/harlotto 
Street, Hoomsbury. Amir two yoars 
under SAWS ho won adniinwion to tho sohooh 
of tho Royal Academy. Whllo ntill an 
aoadomy ntudont ho ct>nonot>d portrait 
painting* ' Through an unola, Scaifa, who 
kept an hotoi in Brook Stroat, ha obtained 
a praotioo ohiofly among-woli-to-do farmow. 
in Unoolnhire t who paid five, ton, ami 

for hwwlfy kit-cats, and 




Mompanying her father- to South Afrioa 
' 



. 

whan he'wAH apjjointed high oomwiwiioner 
(Haroh 1877), Mfw Fror tficjre, M in 'India, 



dUUghtod to tho country folk* a-ncl WM a 



uet at the old Uutoh and Kng 
. Hero, too, ahe holptnl 

to diMlpate ' rwi.nl pwjudioen. Whan -*he 
and a sister returned to England in 1880, 
hortty befov* the. recall of their father 
fcha OladetotM govrnment they were 

' 4 M ' *, ""^ V * ,* il - t 



In latar 
o 



o .eontina&t /and IB Egypt* 



In 1SS7 Frith'H fathr died, and Im 
mother sat up houno with hor mn in 
London, at 1 1 'Ounaburgh Strtwt, In 1889 
ha oxWbitwl a portrait of a child at the 
British IiwtitutW In 1840 he ^winted 
hk flmt imbjoot picturoH,- oxhibiting * 

J. !,.., A ,, 1 jn.i,^. a 4l> M J WHJriJtM * fWj! ItlVPrtltt/t ]"lfi 



tho Academy that' year * Malvolio 

the OountoBft Olivia * . and * Othello, and 
I)edemona.* From that time for. many 
yearn ho was* faithful to subieots -from 
Scott, Bterae, Qoldfimith, Mo*re, Cervantes, 
Bhaketpeare* Biokens, and the Spectator/ 
an of which gava him the opportunity of 
dwiteg up Mi modeli in piotoasque 
clotlias, an4 of ; inflowing the odium ol those 
ycmng mm wbo, as tbe P-Baphaite 



nth 



viltJv hi* ! witd if**' 



tdfftli* In 



A fclfH'liuti ft* A.H.A. 

other wril-krirnvn j*irturt* u-hirh 

llf A*wtrmv 



in 



1, n 



* 



; '1W|n T 



thin Wtltiw 



ii 

, Hi:*W yi llir 'Tflllf* 



|.wrk*f! *4 hi* wtivi.iy on* ; * Knw.li.*h ;. <J<*.!!rryl; ' I *$'** anil l<ftl.y 'Mary \Vi-Hlfy- 

akin^ft lf>'i*lw..t Vivit^* Ajptr*' flHlTl; f M**nf n^n' i aunt * Bwilf nml Vi*t*?f*j4./ * Ti 
.< Oltlrn Twt*' 
tl^jk'^r *t* f'ov^- 



MI 



n?*M fitful ' nn*i i* 



| * V, ||, nmv ill ill" V*'I'n 

, lu iN^tl Frit It wrtfl |r* 



Mi^'* in t^7* r for 



Frst 



. tn 



*f *r*irn^r, Itilo 
"Dm Hl* 



r * 



thi? 

tht* Kti.mmur 

l*i iiii , 



, A 'r J**UT 

! * *'* 

i. hit 



Frill* 



n 



IHMII, In 



'|i*Iv 

in l.hr 

)ir 



; /w 



. 



l*r 



ii 



.if 



front 
w 



.i 



* 



.. n , r*>*. t* , i 

tunv in tht* r<yt*l ri*Iltwtn*n. .U l:w**i ! -m II Jun, 



VI 
, l 



now in 



.in Si, itKii v 



nd m 



" 



ownid by i : ffilIi. 



iUi t:4 A 



n tKi 

i 



**titi 



.'I'lt! 



*iii* 
*4 



ti 



f 



it 



The 



own pecntUitr tient in maftthiilHfiic 

crowd- were * Oimrl<M 'IIV limt ; WhittmAli 
Bundby* <1867) and *Tha fiMtm' d'Or, 
Kombunt 1 '(W.Ii 
pftinted twelve ymrss 

viaw of the lioynl Aoidbmy * {Ii 

* j> =*"- . " * 



igton 
* Tike lina for 



Street in 1880, 



numud* '-Frith*! 

y f 



if UMi. |! 



f'i j Ht t j * ' * 
*tf|*I*?.f" IS I * 

$i 

I 



on d ,fii** IMA f* 



lHltftflUnr la{ 

im ,iM' * 
i 



iffljh .3 u tj '* 



lohn l^t^b, iili Ufa mul WuA * 



iif l^tttth'tt 



I ; 





i *>**f^ 

i*y n 



1* t. * 



utt 



I 



59 



Fuller 



figures in. the right-hand corner of 6 Kama- 
gate vSandn ' (1853) and lie introduced 
himHo'If an patorfamiliaH with all hw family 
into *Tho Railway Htation ' (1801), A 
cartoon portrait/ by * 8py ' appeared in 
* Vanity Fair Mn 1873. 

im<?H f 4 Nov. HHW; Academy 
; A, < : .{ravoH*H Koyai Academy 
; private information; MTK, J. A, 
Pun ton, l^avoM from a Life, 1911 ; Mm 
K M. Ward, Rrmhim-nK'ttH, 1011 ; Frith ' 
An t fWograj *f t v J H87, ni u I BonriniHmKN'M, 
1888,] W. A. 

FEY, IMNJjy PALMER (1818-1003), 
legal wriUT* l.wru m Groat Onmmd Strct, 
Ltmtkm, on I l)i*c% IB1H* was Nceand HOU in 
the* family of four HOIM and four daughter* 
of Alfnxl AtigUHttm Fry, a^ootl Hwholar and 
, who \VOK amnmtant and for HOIM* 
a partm'r in the firm of Thomas 
la Kw* & (>*. wlwkwlo HtatkmwH* II in 
was Tan 8umh Susannah Wtjwtott, 
lit* wan tmmt'tl itffiT hi father^ friend, 
Unnby Btlnu?r of Norwich (af PAI.IMKH, 
JOHN], Tht) t*Uk'Ht nrm, AKrtxl 
Fry t wiv* tho llmt English bttrriUr 
to praotiHo in.CVmHtantiriioplfs.' 

JJanliy . wai oducalod at .Hunt&r Binmi. 
Aoiuli^my* Brunswick Bqtiarei Lcmduni a 
wt'U- known grammar Ht4inol 
by Jonafiian '.DiuvHon, whoat* Htinn, (J* 
I)jiwKtrt ('*]. v*'J 4if liirmiriglium 
Benjamiu IhtwHfUi (sulinfiiuontly pnypriclor 
of llu* H(thi-ioi ami long 'twawtror of th 
PliiloU^ical Hocutfiy), wt*i^ Fry'n Htihool- 
Jiluw*. In 181$ hit i'M't^tmc ^ c;ii*rk' its tho 
law board, itrnt at H*>iiii*rH.'i K'OIIHO ant! 
wiirdn at- (..*wylyr .IlouHt : % 
On I April 1H4H, l tiring tlw ( 
r!ot# IIO'WIM* oilj^Iitlly di*}Hil0d to 
to hiiM.ifjttarU^H tho *' |>wm?dwg8 of ' tho 
agi.t4it-orft on Kt^utingUm C.iommon* Etnuh 
hour lit* rt'cmival miHHtiigcm to wJn ht do*. 
hoHtiiy writttm rtt|'iortM CalM 
tin* . bur at Litiooin** Inn on 30 Jan. 
IMS .bommu* iii OuUilwr 1B71 ittM|moU>r 
of AuditK, and on 15 01, 187*1 tMnmtiint 
tieowtary to ilj<'* local ^ovtmmi'i)i board, 
From I7B uiiti! hi rntir*?nunt inlHB2 



'Fry"mfttii> Horn**- ri'inilation an uuthur 
. legal ' hantltuiukK* ' An t*arly iwi JB40 
ha' produood ' * IxHuti 'Itat^ oftlw Unitwj'l 
Kingdom* {pub)itthH} oflflciaUy), . His 
* Unim AAnewmont Cbtumiitoo Aot 1 (1802; 
Sib edit. 1897) s hta '* Lunwsy Aois * (1804 s 
3rd edit. 18C))s 'Tho Law Kohittag to 
Vaiooinatlon* (1809; 7th edit, lB90)/and 
he Valuation [Meiropolii] Aot* (I860; 
odit 1872) -became 'niandaxd works- 
hrough hli -father, whote -olrple- ol 



* 



acquaintances included Ix>rd Brougham, 
Ivoigh Hunt, and otlierB interested in 
social and political reforms, Fry was 
friendly from an early a,go with Charles 
Knight and with Bit Rowland Hill's 
family. Economic and philanthropic prob- 
lems occupied, much of his attention, but 
his leistirtvwafl do-voted to philology, and 
he became an expert student of both old 
English and old French. He helped his 
father in compiling in MS. an English 
dictionary with the words arranged accord- 
ing to roots. Ho was an original member 
of tho Philological Society, fouwbd in 1842, 
and its taawiror for many years, jxnd wan 
a contributor of \vx41-mforim.!<d papers on 
linguistic stibjetsts to its * TraiiHtictionB.* 
lit* wan t>o of t-Vu> original ooinmittro of the 
Kaiiy Knglish Toxt Hoeiaty, founded by 
Dr. 'Furnivull fq. v. 8uppt. II] in 1804. 
Be wan joint author wil-Ii Benjamin DawBon 
of a wrnall book * On tho Gendorn of 
French HubHtiwitivoR ' (1870). His phib- 
logiiial 8tudi(;H wt?ro putKuod till hw aoath. 
Ho diwi mmiurriwd, on 10 F<^h. 19(KJ at 
hi house, 160 HavcrHtook Hill, and woa 
buriod at Highgatc aometery* 

kriowWp.] H. -B. W-Y. 



FULLER* SIB THOMAS KKINS . (1.8IM- 

ag^iit-g^nt^ral for Capo Colony, 
horn at Wwt !>rayf(Hi on 24 Aug. 1831, 
wan BOH of Atiilt*nv (lunton .Fullwr, baptinl 
miai8t4-r who wan a pojmlar 
and an amattmr artint of HOUHS 



Andfinv Futtorfcj-vVj* th.o baptint thoologian, 
\m hift griiiwlfathof . HIM mother waH 
KHtli^r HobHon, Mr. Knburt Fuller, author 
of * Houth Africa at Homo," in IHH brother. 
'Kduofttod at a private Hohool, and 
tlusn at the BrtHloI Baptist (]olltsga f 
Fullor btxsamo .baptist minlkr at Melks* 
and afterwards orved baptist 
at' LBWCSB atut Luton. Mo ubB- 
liimwl hln att.ntU.m to literature 
and otmtrihuiM fri.Hly to. tho prow, In 
1BII4 ho wntt to Hcnith 'Afriua fe booomo 
4,H.Utor of thti * Cajjo Argun. 1 Ho rapidly 
t)c^atn<^ a- toiler in tbo nocial and political 
Hltt In (*ajKi < tolony, Ho woti diMtinotiua for 
brilliant artiokm on Hocial and educational 
work in the* * Argus,* and mm mm of the 
proiiiott^H of th Oajx> 'University. While 
< : *ditor of tho 4 Oapo Argun * Fuller ardently 
advocated rept>nmblo govomment for the 
(.Japo t)oltmy, whioh wiw granted by . the 
imfwHal govemmant in 1872. He wai on 
oC thoBo chiafiy iimtrumontal in educating 
colonial opinion- on' the subject. I&.187S 
Fuller .woa appointed amlgratiion agent to 
the Cap Colony in London, but in 1876 



Ful ley love 



'ul lev love 



c*ii|w Town tit ink* 1 } ' iUy-m:'** * 
f grown) manner thtw **l Mw ; *iit.n' wiv 
Union fttciftmHimi tS.ii|wny. Mrs brM Un* ; HhwUm twi 
fur fwrttt-thfiV'mr*. i*r!*, H*< il 

n aMi**, for 



*wn, w wen 

*v> * rlrrK 
, A IMT*| fwn *< 



Town in 
r*'f*in<'*i thr 



"mw n 
till li 



iminKlirnt m 



H*.rr 



n 



Ihul It* 1 



TnUit up 



In 



n 



nnd ri 



, In |H!lH |P w 



t* 



tt 



f1i**|innun*'nf 
"*i i 

**l 



** t 



rnry, rlmirmun r*f t1* luirUmr 

it It^MliujJ Mirii $s$ th' 



nt lirni n 



in Mr 



l* <1inrrl* 



till tftcff, In 



III in 

Mary rlitynt*, iUtihit*r M( I*IMUI Hitler 
of 



4 i*AmMu 



iUught4*ri r/I In 



Kltolwlli 
Maim ii 



In 



* 



n 



r, 



Fiitler* oonuntiiuitHi thn Kimi S/itittfiu 
dwriftn Uu* Mtifr war uf I Htm 

win* n m mt af li^h intJlwUi**t 
wid a profuitmi tutt0nt nf uhUu* 

hi* lite 



fHitl* Allrw 



ionr, i**1iit*H*<i nt Ibn 
_ *** jtftlWy in tit* fiSI*ming *|rin||* 
tht Iiiftlu^t |v<*l *f 



*i RdftUon to 
nlo Bmit4^n * 
pablii^tfam 



lit Oil, mrf 



In th*i mimmor *i 



j 



of his Mad. 

Who't Wbo, t90 i 



inii 



t 



Art Ractoty 1 * ClAttury in IHIW, Tlwy 



b 



Furnivall 



6r 



Furnivall 



Holy Land, but Palestine did not inspire 
him* so happily as Greece, In 1904 many 
excellent pencil sketches were exhibited 
at the Qoupil Gallery in London, and at 
Edinburgh a aeriea of local views, which 
like moat of hw latest work, such as the 
drawings of WosfcminBtor Abbey, the 
Tower o! London, and some Middlesex 
subjects (iWt)> wore executed for repro- 
duction in colour m illustrations to books* 
Some of hm Oxford oil sketphes and of his 
drawings of Greece and Paloatine were 
reproduced in Hitnilar form* Ho himself 
preferred tho black-and-white reproductions 
of hiH earlier (1888) Oxford sketches by 
lithography, and of tho Greek drawings in 
photogravure. 

Hm health faikd suddenly, and hw Ami 
at I'CampHtwui ou 22 May 1008, Ho wan 
buriod in Highgato oomotoy. Fulby loves 
marrmtl* in 187H, Eimaboth Sara, daughter 
of Samuel Elgood of LeiceHtur ; she with 
onti mm and two daughters mirvivod him. 

Fulloylovci wan mi admirable arahitoe* 
turn! dmtightmimiu Hie early training. 
had giwm him a thorough comprehension 
of construction and detail. His .water* 
oolour . was always laid over a solid and 
oarufuUy completed pencil nketoh. In 
colour ills oarliur works' arts iivary somo* 
timt'H a littlii wmtk, but always harmonious* 
Greater breadth of twin and fYmso of colour 
nr& notifiable* in tho VowuiluM dmwiugn 
of .1893 and In tlu* Gmk noruiM* which 
arti not only \m bmi produotkmn but 
iuma of th most brilliant and aooom.* 
pliiihod waUr"tio2our work of lii goneration* 
A law of hin dmwirtgH an* in the Victoria and 
Albort MAumum* fttwi ha in wdl 
In the Municipai (Jtillory at Loiouator 

Dititfoimry of Artlnta 

of tho Kxhibitiotu* f the'ICaya! 
of i^Aiutoni in Water Calaum and of 
Art* Ht'xiioty j jirivatu ittforniiition 



FUKNIVALL, FEEDEIitOK JAMKH 
825* 1 010), Htihoiar aiui txiitoiv lK*ru at 
_. hium Bumiy, on 4 Fab. 1825, wan i&oond 
oJilld and ukic^t HtJt.t,-in a family uf livo mm 
four 'daugliU^rM, of (Itsorgo . Frtxloriok 
by hi* wife Hopttia BarwH. 
fathor* n mcHlictal praatitlotKifi who had 
ated- at 8t. 'Bartholomew** Ho 
wiui'iii 1805 iMMfmtant turgaon of 
the .14th; -foot, maintained a proeporoua 
pfMtio at Eghotn, atid.alno kept a privafco 
lunatic.'- wyltim at Mnlumm> Great Fontorn, 
out. of whfoh he mucia a 'fortune of 200,0001* 
Ha attended SheiloyY wife, Mary f in her 



oenoes of Sholloy and his household. He 
died on 7 Juno 1865, 

After attending private schools at Engle- 
field Green, Turnham (Iretvn, and Hamvell, 
Furnivall in 1841 entered University College, 
London, and in July 1842 passed tho 
London Univerwty matriculation in the 
first division, On 9 Got* he matriculated 
from Trinity Hall, Cambridge* As a boy 
ho hunted at JBgham, and before enter- 
ing the university ho was a skilled oars- 
man* Ho quickly won a place in the 
college eight. During tho long vacation of 
1845 ho built, with tho aid of John Beesloy, 
a Thames waterman, two sculling boats on 
a now plan. By narrowing tho beam and 
extending tho outriggers lio gave an un- 
procMHksitted leverage* to tho oar, A wager 
boat on FumivalFH linm WMH HOOU built for 
the champion Hcullor, Nowoll, who init gave 
HtHiry Cliittpor, on tho TytH% onoof his "rare 
dofoata (IB Jan, 1840). *To sculling Fumi- 
vall romaiuucl faithful till d<uitli, and he 
alwayn ardently advocated its H'up(irk>rity 
k^ rowing* PtsHpito Im lifelong devotion 
to the water lie never learnt to swim. AH 
an undergraduate he ihowad a oiiarao- 
.teriatio impatienoe of oonvoution andean 
undiscipiinod moral eamoitmmti, Ho 4 bo* 
oamc a vegetarian, and remained one lor 
a quarter of a eotitury. To tobuco and 
alcjuhol ho wan a Htiungur through life, He 
rtnwi mathe-mafcicH^ and wan admitted 
acsholar of Trinity Hall on 1 Juno 1843* 
H gituittatod BA, in 1S47 taking a. low 
|)laoo among tho junior optimcsi in 1S46 
H praaoadod M.A. in 1850. . 

On leaving Cambridge, JPurnivall entered 
m a Mtutiont at Linooln v s Inn (26 Jan* 1846). 
He read in the ehambora-of Oharlos Henry 
'Beilcmden Kor f(|, v.] f a friend 'of his father, 
it, man of wide and enlightened interests 
Ho was called to the bar at (toy's- Inn 
(30 J&n* lB4f*)-ttiul wot up m. u (sonveyanoer 
at H Huw Bquaa*. lie run tod various. ota 
of roomn in Lineoh^u Inn. till 1873, but 
tho law hud mniUl attratstiou for him, and 
Im attention ww noon- diverted from 
it- Through Buliomlon K^r ho. came to 
know mmy man and wowwi who chain*. 
pionod wmtA roform and damooratio prin- 
oiplon* Of thoso John Malcolm Ludlow 
[<|, v, BuppL II], cai'tod a predominant.. 
mi!.umio0 on- him* Through LudJow he was' 
drawti into the Christian Boo Wist mova. 
mentt and ooooptod at'llrgt all its tendta. 
Ho hoard Maurioe proaoh at Llnoolu'fi Inn, 
and attondod hin BiUo readings* Tha.doo--. 
trine of industrial oo*opr&ton appealed 
to-.him and ha joined tae oaiitral oo*op- 
amtlre . ooxomi.tteo* Ha supported tmden 



1 1 !*f*l tUfl 1 I 

lit i i i V &! 1 1 



{I 
* 1 1 t* 11 1 1 * "! I 
II 1 111 \ tit 



ti.nion.iim &nd identifies.! hititftdf with j anil Iwiumi on K*.itfit*h jmiry 

labour agitation* wHin# hm f.wik U giw I c*hiun<r to Trnny*n. II 

1001* to thtj wwwiwtttfT** who tMigiit^Hf j t*.* twidi rtriUMnjt t..*t ihr 

In a Htriktf in 1851* Mtuinwhil^ h wrot^ ] }'irrfitnliln n^H, lin! ii 

for tho * ChriHtiiwi SisrirtliMt/ iinrl |iuhiwhw..l t *li*Vf*lnnm*.'!ii *J fh-< *M-ri*il i*Jr i|y 

in 1850 Iiia first HUT^ry work A pmnphH j wntkru Imn.Irwi.. lit? w^^tnimnml 

ctntitlrtl * AwtK!ititii*n ft Nre 



in tip? 



-i *'3isrii.fH-*w, 



lit 



l n 



LituI wng. Th* cnitfut Ii 

ho ohk'liy ^imirtti w*w ttw* <nrJy frnrk j f*.r 

of Huwkiiti with whin** oMiIu*k -*n lif** h f j u- 
tin rii^r wyin|:'Hith. In IH-MI ^ f.n 
with. Mr** 

mi 



r^ MM *)S*'|!., AH| Mjt 
in X'*n*iiulv M)J 
i* lit* rii^^i'l h*|>i 



1 



whiolt wnu fr many 

ife.* Of 



joy 



rr 



it Of I'g: 

i$'ikJ j^'tij'^t *li^f^i'ti 

I.IIH lwti wrlM 



, in 



n 



with 



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a 



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through |%irniyal i 
Iw! litiht tn 

tu 

t?* virwn, 
m for 



i in 



llm twn; i.*ti 
'Kttntivnil, 
wilier Umn ih> 



*iihittity, 

Mx<4| fur 



** ir r*Ht 



III 

1141 at tho 



ii, IIt!, 



iin 



la 



*f 



-o 



now mim 
i BXufJ 



, With .Luil 
iiariy w 
Imm at 



uw iuid uUui i patetoti ui 



ti 



and faoidifig olmiemi at A faoiteo Tn 
Strait 8at, oft OxfoidBtmt. Theeo 
'developed teto the (oatidatlon' .011 
1854 of tto Working 
U&Q Sauani, with Haurioe w 
fumlvsll vigoioudly bel{Kxl 
tion of the new cottage. ^ 
ttighU- a 'week, and 'aotiveiy liiwitlJied 
elf with I!M mm&li nthtotia, tun* '' 
Funtivali taught Kugii 



tiw i with ililliiniliy 11 
v i tiflim^ Althfitt|(if i|. rntttir 

.... ( , Mauri 

lor I mil kml nil H|IMW M| wir4i.lH| 
iind I dtttintti Maittiim . unij llit* MU^-0(i 
bit nut' wily tindttty tMmw?rvaUv i 
'fnligiii'Ujft vlbww tint iiiifiw;fii*j.r^tiii in 
woming mw* mlmlMtm 
Furtiivatrn ttti-Uvity i i 
oottegfi MSI| Mniy* wJUi I 

tit 




Furnivall 



Furnivall 



pursuit tho principles of association and 
co-operation which ho advocated in other 
relations of life. Of the Philological 
Society ho became ono of two honorary 
secretaries in 1S5&, and was solo secretary 
from 1802 till his death. Ho supper toci 
with enthuwttBin tho society's proposals for 
wpelljng reform, which Alexander John 
KiiiB [<|. v. HuppL 1] davised^and always 
took an active part in promoting such- 
reform adopting in his own writings a 
modified phonetic iwhenm In another 
direction hm <-*n?rgi?tic participation in 
tho Philological 8uciHy*H work boro more 
valuable fruit. At the <>w1 of 1858 the 
ttoemty* at Archbishop T*vueh' Huggeation, 
mtoivod to uruk'rtitko a mippUmumt to 
Johntion'H and Riclu'wdfcion'H DictiotiarittH* 
But Furwvtttt urgni a wholly now diction- 
ary* and hit* prtipoMsd was adopted* On 
the death in 1801 of the imi editor of the 
wuggi'Httui dietiiwry Herbert Coleridge 
[%* v*j, FurniviUi took bin pkuits, and ho 
worktxl at tho ftchmue inU'rmittwitly for 
many yearn. At the name timo Itis pliunuMl j 
a * coiicim* * dictionary wlikh uhoiiki be an s 
aiwtr&ci of this larger undertaking* . Al- 
though he odcumulattid much materbl for 
tho double gchcmo h made little liendway 
owing to lib viiri*?d tinga^omentH. la 1876 
Oxford Uiiivflrnity i*ro8H tx..k over tho 
jrpriHu, apiKuuiiug I>i\ (afUtrwanlii Sir) | 
m A* II, Murray (niitur* f l f li4* * Ntw i 



ay 
Diotiunary " wan th 









o 

work Furiuvall coiitiiutcd to 
t> th MIM! of hin lif*** 

Furnivall won ounouwtmting 
hli attotitiou oarly arid ntiddk Kitglittb 

it a | : )atri.utio duty 

roprhit from inauiiMo.ri|it work** wliiali 
were ' milwf timpriuUHi or im|R?rfi>atiy 
prititei llo valued old litciraturtt both for t 
ittt own Miko arid for this light it Mhod on j 

iuttiury. Hi* library 
first otmtmi hi thw 

romance, mid \w 

bii oditoriai la'lM>un with tut edition, of 

tmio *Bt?ynt 
jm'tpartxt for thu 
Roxbuhtho Club (ISCIi* i vol ; 
the Early KuglUh 

nt bihlimihilt) 

.tt Chil>. ilaiiry Huth [%. v 
BuppL IIJ and .Mi'iiry Mwoku Uibb% altor* 

[q. v. HuppL Hj 
In ISH2 '.for the 
olub he undertf>ok one of hia 
most va!ubla pieeei of ioxtuai 
th * Kandlyttfi Synne * of Robert of 
to which he added tho-* 'Manuel den 
of William of Wftddiiigton* uniiappBy lEruta 



a M8. of inferior textual value. In 1862 
he also printed a collection of early English 
poems from M88. for the Philological 
Society, and in 1865 ho published with 
Maonullau the more attractive 'Morte 
d 1 Arthur,' from an Harlcian MS. 

In 1864, with a view to more effectual 
pursuit of Ms literary aims, Furnivall 
founded the Early English Text Society, 
It began with 75 subscribers, Buskin and 
Tennyson amongst them. Its first publica- 
tion was FurnivaJPs edition of a short 
metrical ' Life of King Arthur,' The society 
nourished under Fumivall's energetic guid- 
ance, and he worked hard for it both as 
director and editor for more than forty yearn* 
Ho enlintod tho co-operation of scholars all 
over the world, who edited toxts for the 
society* At first tho society's sole aim 
WUH to print medieval MSB, But in 1B67 
a 8ecotul or oxtra sen" eg wan instituted 
include rtrprititB of the work of the 
English printtn-H, At Itis death the 
hml iH8U<d 1.40 volumtJH in the 
original mrim and 107 in the extra series. 
Tho yoatnw of tho luatorial with which 
Furnivall stjught to deal led him to found 
other flooiotiaa. on similar linos for separate 
tnsatmont of voluminou medieval writers. 
(Jhaucer* Wiolif^ and Lydgato caoh in his 
vitjw lUHxlotl a socbty cxciumvely dovoted 
U> hi intenwtH. It wan ehiofly at tho sug- 
gestion of M<.mry 4 Brtt*lHhaw [<i v. BuppL I] 
that Furnivall started in 181)8 tlio Chaucer 
Society* llm hope* wan to form an accurate 
tuxt of tho IKWUIH by oollation of all known 
miittucriptH and to oHccrtaiu from both 
mtonml iwid oxtornal cvidouco tho date at 
which ouch of Chaucer'** known works wa 
oom|)Ottoxl* Hm t labour 'began in 1868 with 
thw iMHUt* of hk Hix"toxt edition., of tho 

* Canterbury Talog, 1 which provider tho bost 
poMhibte matorittl for textual tudy. Tharo 
iollowod pamllal ttmt oditiona of Chaucor* 

* Minor roomu* (1871-U), and of hia 

* Tmilm ^ and Qrimvydo ' (I8Bl-"2), Al 
tliijygh ho had collrtboratoru, tho moat 
important of tho Chaucer Bouiisty'i publioa* 

aro tho fruit of Fumivalfi own in- 
110 ili'UH H^t Chaucerian itudy on a 
mid uro footing. Another -(mterprifiQ 
diverted Funiivali'H ' ttttentiou to 2nglfoh 
lito'mturu of a laUr |x>riwl. In l^SB^iie 
and i*it*, J W. Iialo0 edited md printed' 
liy ^u'bHcHptiou in throo volume* the folio 
MS. of tho * i^rcy Ballad* s [ee FiQEOiir, 
With a view to contiattiug 
in raicmtag old balliwis 
froiiToblivioi^ Fumivall thereupon .founded 
tho Ballad. Boqiety ? which, wm dmgmd to 

tore of ballad 



I **n rtn i v?*t 1 1 

I ili 111 Veil I 



n 



'Now 



w'hb.h wiw tifit 
modern r|>riiit. Tin? itfv&!ntrgi.w uti 

Pt>IIiKJikiiw .{ bullftttM in itw* Ifnfbh , Al 

" i 

sum were jiabpliftl (IHi 

wr \vith ilij*trtiv^ 
in* af tJ'ir HixtiTitiii 
, f 'i^untivrtli 1 '^ rt'?**'trt'lirH h'1 , It* 
fh* Hixti'i'Htlt rrnlJiry [ [iftn^^.'rhHJ j ' *f 
to apply t*. Nhftk^i.H'Jttv'H wotli ih*^ itti't hr.it in i J * 
wlii?h iiitfi alrrfwly nrrvwl ilip HtUfiy i : *f j * '* 
Chaoi!r in l7a UP (tmnrjwl tin? 'Now ; M| 

Si.Mjivtv.* with ti.wi nbjrpt t 

* * i " .' i i ' * 

lUiti f iiittMtmttnu Ni wnrk nut I 



I1M77 H) 



t "t 

M! K 



i 



AM 



to 



ill. 



With ft 



uluoi*d U 



v, 



nil 



4n IU 

t*"tHr-l fniir 



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if** *lli**r0 jit* ittiti n 



tut 



|H 



, |*ttiH?c' 



HI* 



with 



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t* 



in tt i 



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'in Tim Bxuminttt* in Ajifil lili 
iteq'U^ntly Hwlnlnittif* ttt'mmntwii 
Atitt lib fni^ndn 



* in tut 
tit 



W 

and 13 J&jit, 187), Whim 

t, * H, a * * * 

i Mt 

ion of iiig *^ 

brought 

wtil i. Bwiithiintti within lite 
attack. . In. * 
of the quarto nf Hamlet, 

' "880), 
^ M 



t** 



Wi r 



if li 



nn j^r^a 
** //' Mr 

> I 

fely 



oomi 




V. In Jan. lit! HaUlmil 



Itn 



ipondenoe,-. Vuinfvali zitoittd to tt 

'tua********* *a*j { '^'ftn^fc **'/"'L*l* ^J ' f'l .^lL m . ..,_.-,!.,. 



y bc 

l iti 



II 

work until 180Q. 'Maay of 
wart unef ui, xioUbly iti editi 



im 
f. Bui Kt 



u* 
MM 
Uvw * 



in 




fur An 



*n 
im 




c* 



fi ' (3** A|id$ mttl a 



litt), "Tin* Uk*t in 



till iiitt 




,** r* 



u. 



Furnivall 



Furnivall 



, the fioefoty gavo a private perform- 
ance of the * Cerici * at the Grand Theatre, 
Islington, on 7 May 1886. 

THirnivall*R work for hw Hooiotiofl was tin- 
paid and though he found timo for somo 
oxtomal labour, including an edition of 
Robert de Bnmno'a * Ohrontalo of England ' 
for tho Rolls .Scries In 1887, his literary 
aoti vity v?m never really remunerative Hifl 
pcwmniary resources were, during the last 
half of MB life, very BrnalL On hie fathor'fl 
tloath on 7 'Trine I8(V> he received a Bub- 
Htantial flharo of hm largo- ostato, but lie 
invented all IUH fortune in Overend and 
Htirnov'w Bank, which stopped payment 
in 1B07. Furnivall, left wlUnih"ponml<*8H, 
wan fnrdwl to dinpcwo of his pornonal 
nwporty, but this hirt rich frlemK Henry 
Httckw Qibbft (nlterwardH Lord Aldenhatn) 
and Henry Huth, ptirahaned and "roHtororl 
to him. In 1878 he wan an urmuwMmful 
candidate for the post of necretary to tho 
Royal Anademy. Among ofchnrn who 
twtifiwl to hin fltiWHH were Twinvaon* 
William Morris Chariot Kittjrloy T. R. 
8i^lt\y f M, Tftiws and Dolhm Thenceforth 
he livod on hm oacawortal and umall literary 
earninp and on an annual payment m 
trtmtw of a rolative'H pmporty until 1BB4 
wlien he wa trratitr*.d It twirl ition a civil lint 
pennton of 150, 

In 1HHI Furnivall, whonri reputation m a 
d hi^h in <-5<rmanVi r<K!eiv< k d 
honorary. *rtfgr<.w of Pl\,l), from lierliti 
' !ij*im>l/m honour of HIM 
75tn birthday* a volume eni itled * An 
English Miollanv*' U* wldeh Htsluilarn of 
all oonntri(M mmtrilmted, wii printed at the 
ndon PrenH- At tiici namo time the 
of 45f>|. wan fmwnfwl i/o tho Barly 
Toxt 8oRi*f,y, and an <itfhtHOulHnfic 
t waH i^lven tr* Fiirntynll HJ portrait 
wa painttsl for Trinity Hall, of whiah hn 
wan mrule an hon, follow on 21 April 1002* 
Ho nx>tnvfwl UKI hon, T>,I41 4 of Oxford 
tJntvflrwf.y in WH, and ho w?in hoon an 
original follow of tlm Brliih Aoatlmy next 



Till hw tloaih IM^ iulvoatcxl with char- 
itot<sritio warmth thn valno of wsnHinpj 
a popular rrwmthn, Tn ISO! hes 
' attactel th Amaiimr Bowing 
for oxolmilnfg wrkinp; mm fr<>m 
the ela of amatatim, By way of retalia- 
tion -ho founds! on IB Bo.pt, IB'Ol thc^ 
National Amateur Bowing .ABWatlon on 
thoroughly domooratio linw. Tn 1905 ha 
became.* pmdmt In Buoce^Son t<> thft duke 
of FiK tho first prwuclant In 1SWJ ha 
formed, in iwwordanoe with his It Wong 
prinoiplon, tho Hammersmith Soulllng Olufe 

VOL* LXVUf*- HU'l>* II. 



for girlR and men, which was rc-namod the 
Furnivall Club in 1900, Until the year of 
his death ho sculled each Sunday with 
j mcmbors of tho club from HammorRmith 
to Richmond and back, and took a foremost 
part in tho social activities of the club, 

Ftmuvall diocl at hi London residence 
of cancer of tho intestines on 2 July 1910, 
and his remains wore cremated at Golder's 
Green. Until MB fatal illness prostrated 
him, he carried on WH varied work with 
little diminution of energy. 

Furnivall* s disinterested devotion to many 
good oauHOH cmtitleB him to honourable 
nmumibraneo. Th^ enthnmam with which 
lie organised Hoeietien for tho purpone of 
priTiting inedited MBS. and of elucidating; 
English lit^raturts of truiny periods Htimu- 
latod tho dovolopmont of' Bn#Kh literary 
Htudy at home and abroad/ Kin tamte JIB 
a flritic was, Itko hiH stylo, of ton cmdo and 
faulty. But he waa indefatigable in ro 
Hoaroh, and npanntl no pains in hm efForts 
after eompletanoBS and *wionrao,y* Tn hin 
literary labour h<r wa tnoved by a sincere 
patriotism* But there wan no inBularity 
about hi HympathieH, Powerful domo- 
oratio sontimmitB and broad views domi- 
nated nis life- Ho boliovod in t^ie virttie 
of athltioB no IOHH than of learning and he 
Bought to givn all nlaRW*B of both 
opportunities of becomiriic .moholars 
well tw athl<yt^w, 

ifl of 1 tact or dmorction f in almoat 
relation of lifr^* lio ohfuriHlusd through- 
out hiK (iircM)r a boyish frankru^ of Ftpoooh 
whbh oflewbd many and led him into 
t modifying oontrovori.. Tto cannot bo 
abftrjlvod of a Und.onoy tx> mako minohicsf 
and Rtlr tip strife*. HIB doolaratjonfl of 
hoHtUJty to religion and to ote dmfcinotionH 
were <ran ncaonabte, and gwa pain. 
But hli tletotB of tftrnp^r and mannor worn 
mibfltantially atonwl for not mnrftly^ by bin 
Hrslf-danyihg orviow to noholarwhipl but 
by hit* 'p^wtloal sympathy with poverty 
and Buffering, and by bin w^adinosH to 
noourARO wound youthful endeavour in 
every aphow of work; 

Tn 1B62 FarnivaH. tnarriHl at tho rogm- 
trar' offlw, iratnpHtoafl, Eleanor Niakal, 
dahtr of Qnorgo Alexander Dal^iaL 
Sfiparation followed in 1SS& Of two 
of tho mawm$c\ a daftghtar*. Una, 
dim! in infancy in 1866. Tho mn f Pwoy, 
m a woll-known Hurgoon. 

Of portmitH of Furnivall ona by Mr, 
William Rothonatefn f at Trinity Hall, 
Oambridga; another by A* A. Wolmark 
ww ptwwnted to the Working Men* Oollago 
in 1908 j a life-ike head* -drawn- in crayons 



Furse 



ursv 



by . 11. tfimnmm it* 1000, WHH <tfftw 
r hi tiriilh to tlw NrttiMWil fort wit 



OiiHrry ; a fourth portritit., by Miw* A, ; wii* 
I), 8fuvdt\y in hi tlu Kn^M* l.*ihmrv ; frit'iit 
iii tfnivi'i'Hitv C.Jn!b*m<. In 1^1*1 i* Mimit) Sir I 



lit M. 



H 



* 



at tfrnvfTHity CJnlb'gp.. in 1^1 *i ui. 
Jrtniitmai fun*l WUH Hpptii.^1 to tlw 

of tbu Working Mrn'M C'oll*:%*^, 

j FriH'ii'i'ii'k *I?inw. ( i KiU'i'iivsili ; ti v 
|ifHoit^i fiH'uriin w-illt ft i'MM^riijiiiy iiv J*4'*u : f** 
Mtiiinn Oxfnnl r-iiivn-miy l'r*v^, J1'H ; Tim * n 
Working M^U'M <'nllw IKM--JWU, 



wb*. 



or 



!*'*r ^n 



,. 



v\ *lu 
for *. 

by l*mf, \V* !', K>), ; |*n*f.) F* |tr.wn l 
?'* H; An KiU*U MwnlUny, , .Srjifwjj M| Art; Iml A!, ili^ 

IftOl, bibtkifjtfii|)by to *tnti*, !*y Ili'siuy Lili!*^ / |. |(l , w ,j y^ | Mr j 

H, If, : ' t.i, 



l*rj 



; j*rmi*i 



ft'J iitni*l 



1*1 |.b>* 



tTKHK, 



of 



^i ; * !"'nin * ; but 

*l " II {WUffJMf o! f'.'flni*m 
A*"M " 

bii 



rt rut tt i*i*it'if^ri' in 



from 



in IIH'HI 



nil* I 



lH;",l fit lain 



IM 



of (* 



Wilttum 



Km*. 



of 



m ttt 

[if. v* Hit|*pL I] 
^ only totillwr* 1*hf 



* I with 

! i*ii 14* i>* 

1 1 -i * < 



f 



H* li Monjtt^il, vtt'iir f K^lmut i&nti 

of Th*msitN ll^wl^y 

'rr, W 



-'y t|. v, Hvtj|-<I. I! 
rub Miw ' 

.* tit b 



>! i ** t 

bk 



win* 



!, t)f 
.H*.*r 



,lkIt<i F 



Ari 



iirH-n 



14. 



At 'art >arly 
tor towing, 

duiiihiiiitt lit* nml Buctt' 
dntw ilitiftlnoiMM of Um 

him. I^ur, 

toy bury, whort !M* rcmjAitind till h 
i). In tita ortiinarv woric of 
tlut ttohoal bit tlliptayi^l 110 tmafol oapdlty , 
hut <xntinmxi to d.mw (dtttunw iff Kanting 
for . hiw fuuuiMinian On 



r 



b 






**il b Mr,. 



to joirmi tiu Hiiub notiooL tfiw 



uitctor AlpIioiiM) Ltyrtw |.,-v. Huppl, 

miaily tmtdti hi mrk. Mt> won ttm 
iwholftnihip witliin a yuw of ant-mra*, 
bckoanktt a favourite popU of bin 
Unfurtuimtttiy, at tliiii mrJy 

yaiptom of <j(iiimptian which 



wtw imt 

Itmt 



*m 

n 



MWU, 
ivi*ry 



It in truti tlmi !*r :mtoi$iiii.l^tl 

W^Jlil^J littler Nt.yli.ip ; Jjyif, ||, 



variety til 



it 



Purse 



Furse 



\vr(j his special study ; and in Im 
eqtioatrian portraits the animal IB, from 
tho artistic point of view, m important as 
the num. A whole group of portraits* of 
masters of jioundu attest** I.UH peculiar Hkill 
hi thin direction. Hin excellence m a 
portrait- painter naturally led to his talent 
being employed chiefly in this line ; but in 
tho treatment of Im Bubjeot he wan alwayn 
anxiouH to place it among mutable sur- 
rounding**. In Much pietureH m tho large 
portrait of Lord Roberts, that t> *Kir 
CJharloH Naiwi*,' and the ' Return from the 
Hide,' the accwHwioH, Htndied with groat 
cans form an eHwntml part of tho work. 
In 1HJH: hi* became encaged to Eleanor, 

* " F ,' 

nmter of Samuel Henry 'JBuUjhttr [q, v. 
SuppU H)# and ht*r midden death Bhortly 
aftwwardw WJIB a blow from which it 
necd<Hl all. IHH 4*lwlk'lty k> recover* In 
the following year ho" wan m'iviMOti to 
winter m Houth Africa, and arrived at 
Hburg^ nhorlly after the JamoBon 
Hu |)ainted a picture of * Poornkop,* 
the moment ^ when the Britiah 
ran ap(rou)hing the 'Bwm in 
atnbtwh* Thin pioturo was whown by tho 
artmt to Proidortt Krapr f but has* since 

lit* }MU] om thoughts of 
for tho MataVolo wan but 
gavo up tho idea, imd rotunuxl to England 
Two years later ho iu!e<*pt<ttl a 
obtaijHHl for him by hw 
Frof f<\ M. Simjwoxt, to oxtcut< 
deciorativo jnuntingHto fill four m 
undeir th rlofiii* over the tttairisiuw iu 
UverptK)! Town IliUL Tlio renitirK^ation 
\vm imwli'tjtiat^, but Furno undertook 
the towk for tlto nako of the* opportunity 
which it UTiH t <'t<*d of work on a grand miale 
and of a kind diifercvnt from anything ho 
litul hithorf'O dona In making hin dt^igim 
ho deliberately -lulot)^! the mantior of 
TiniofotU), iwul, wliilis <H<ihowiittg tho wal- 
riiprodtiatitm of nwxiorti industrial and 
ttontlitbtm, ruiapU*d thotn t<i 
a txtnitiuuitt lit ouu* poutio ami vigoraim, 
Thtyw* jniititingH, wlutth were Inn 
pation for nearly throe yoarH are 
tho mawt notabio* thtnigh not tlw mont 
popular* of all hin wurkH. 

Meanwhile tho Ht ate of hi health had 
oompolbd-him t<i jnuws a winter at Davon, 
re (in .Fob, HUM)) b bt>onnic$ m%n%w\ 
Katharine, tlie youngont dtMtghUfr of 
John Addington Bymondn, Ho married in 
Ootobor of 'tho name year, and. with hi 
wife puM*d the following winter ulwo at 
, In 1901 thev rt^movod tt> a now 
which lie had had built for htm on 
the high ground noar Caaabertoy. Hure he 



took tho greatest intercut in laying out 
a small plot of land in formal oightoonth- 
contury fashion, and fiipoodily turned a 
Handy wate into a boautiful garden, 
InttinBol^y happy in his marriage and a 
Hottlod lifo in congenial surroundings, ho 
worked harder than over, and in those last 
throe yaartt produced some? of hie most 
Huccosttful picturea tho * Return from tho 
Hides,' *IxM Charles BeroBfprd/ * Diana 
of tho Upland^/ * Cubbing with tho York 
and Ainftty.' Those works showed that 
ho had at lougth found himsolf. But 
all tho timo the diHtniHts from which ho 
u iTcrud 4 ulx^rc ulowiH - -wan male ing pro - 
groMH, Ho paHHtd tho winter o 11)02-3 
at DavoH, Hf^ut tho Mpriug of IDOJi in 
northern Italy and 8pam and took a 
Hturfio, Cor the nako of IUK jK>rtrait> painting, 
iti l^ondon. In tlio mime year h wan 
(ilectcjd an tiwHOoiat*** of tho Royal Academy. 
Never Hparing Untmlf, and wtill full of 
liojw and twthuwaHW.* ho gratlually grew 
wak<^r, and <!ied on 10 pot. 1904 He 
wan buriml in Frimley churchyard. He 
left two sons, loiter arid I*atd, tho Mooond 
of whom WIIM bom three days buforo liis 
doath* In person Furno mm tall and some- 
what stout in later lifo, but muscular 
and vigorous. His features were rounded, 
the fiujo oval, the eyes small but very keen, 
the complexion pale* He wan a keen 
sportsman* a good shot and whip, and 
' played imwt games well. His movements 
wens quick, and he painted rapidly, with 
a llerae ooneontratioa, wver hesitating to 
rub out his work over and over again 
if it did not satisfy him. Hin untiring 
energy* width of kttorest, and itiix-*Jlotual 
vitality shewed themselves in his oon- 
vomatltjn, Ho liked nothing better than 
a good ar$uimwti but could listen as 
well m talk ; and hin criticism, though 
k<H* wtw utiptly f> from joalouwy and 



Many of IUH most notable picturus were 
nxhibitod itt tho gallery of th New English 
Art Club, of which he wis an ftM ive member 
front IMl t*> his death, lie joined in the 
fountJation of the International Sooiotyj 
antl wm a tm.jul>er of ita oounoil He 
oxhibitttd also at thn Portrait Painters 
and the New ("Salkjry. A coHootion of his 
works, 03 in number, wan shown at the 
'Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1908. The 
* Hoturn from tho liide * was bought after 
hia death under the Chantey Bequest 5 
'Diana of the Uplands* waa puronawd 
by the iruitat^ of the National Gallery. 
Both thego pioturea aw now at tbefTate 
Qaltary. ^ho larger 'Lord Roberts' 



Gudsby ' Uiinlne 



..,,, - 




Hi- 



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y 

baud Kwoml time. An mniMt miwtoUn, rt*fete iun.e 

In Itfw wtm to Uwl> cittern to Alrftwi W*twr ,,, 
" f , l dud on 1 1 Nw. W07 In t1 ww* your, JB. 



Gairdncr 



r> 9 



Gale 



Univorsity of Glasgow. From 1863 to 
1872 bo was also medical officer of health 
to tho city, and during that period ho 
remodelled the sanitary' arrangements (of. 
Public HtttUh Administration in Glasgow, 
a memorial volume? of the writingn of Dr. 
J. B. RuwHcil, GiaHgow> 1005, with a preface 
by Gairdner; chaps, i, and ii, detail Gaird- 
nor's labours). 

Gairdner was an exceptionally attractive 
lecturer, teaching tho diagnosis of disease 
with singular thorotighncHa, and illumina- 
ting tho subject in hand by moans of a wide 
literary culture. .Despite his activity as 
both teacher and consultant, he con- 
tnuiod throughout his career his contribu- 
tions to professional literature* In aoareoly 
any department in medicine did h fail 
t*o* add something new, in regard either 
to pathological changes or ta clinical ap- 
jxmnmwH. Asoritwoi early papers, * CVmtri* 
butkrtiH to tho Pathology of tho Kidney' 
(Edinburgh, 184B), supplied tin early <io 
Hcription "of waxy discawo, and there was 
originality of viow in * Tho Pathological 
Anatomy of Bronchitis and the Dmrnsm 
of tho Lung connootod with Bronchial 
Obstruction * (Edinburgh, 1S50), Late 
ho produced 'insanity': "Modern Views as 
to its Nature and Treatment* (Glasgow, 
18B5), and kjcturoB upon * TaboB Meaontonea* 
(Uliwtfow, 1HH8), 

Among tho mat lorn on which ho throw 
original 'light o gwat vuluo wen? tho 
inlimato *.mncetion botwow arterial nupply 
and inyoau'dial cliangnH ; the rooiprooal 
inihumeo of tho heart" and lungn ; hyper- 
trophy ami dilatation ? tho Hyntciin of 
jwpnjHontmg tho HotmdH ami murmuro of 
th heart by JiwariB of diagrams ; the 
recognition * of iriuunpid obntructjon, 
, and angina pootonn j and with 
H, Balfour and Pagge ho hel|XJd to 
certain tlw tliagnoniH of mitral 
obntruetion* 1U lat <.>3rttnbution to pir* 
culatory dineaHU wiw tho artiole on anuumiu 
in CliiTord Allbutt'H * HyU*m ot Medioino * 
(vol. vi, 18BO). 

Oainlner gavo many publio acWreHH(B on 
general twjwon- Thti cliieC of theww wore 
ouIleftUKl under tho titloH of * 'i'ho Physioian 
m Naturalist * (Ulawgow, 1HSU), md * Tho 
Thrw Thing* that Abiclts J (im). 

Gairdner rotirud from the ohair of 
modioine in Glangow in 1BDO, when ho 
returned to hb native city* Many di 
tinotionn were granted Mm. Ho WIIH nuidc 
hon. LU1X of Edinburgh in IBBI^ and lmn 
M.1X of Dublin in I8B7 ; waa F.B.H. in 
1S92? hon. F,R.O,P. Ireland in 1887; 
phyBioianin*ordiuary to-Qneen Victoria in 



1881 ; honorary physician to King Edward 
VII in 1901 ; member of the general council 
of medical education and registration, as 
representative of tlus University of Glasgow, 
1894; president of tho Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh in 1893-4 ; and 
president of the Britinh Medical Association 
whan it mot in Glasgow in 1888. He wan 
created KC,B, in 1B98. 

During the last seven years of his life, 
while hie intellectual interests and energies 
were unimpaired, Gairdner suffered from 
an obscure alFeotion of the heart, tho 
Hyinptoms of which lie carefully recorded. 
He died suddenly at Edinburgh on 28 .Juno 
1907* In accordance with hia wish, a 
complete account of the clinical and patho- 
logical conditions of IUB difloaa was pub- 
Imbed by tho prowcnt writer, in association 
with Dr. W. 1\ Eitohio. Hin portrait, 
painted by Bir Georgo Reid, in iu i,\w 
tJnivcrHity of (Glasgow, 

iJtairdncr married, in 1870^ Helen Bridget, 
daughter of Mr, Wriglit of Norwich; ho 
survived him with four sons and three 
daughters. 

[Froc. Boy* Soo, SO B, 1908 ; Life, by a A* 
Clibaon, in preparation; Lancet and Brit. 
Mod. Journal, July 1007 ; Edinburgh Hod. 
Journal, Hoottiflh Mod. and Burg. Journal, an<l 
Mod. .Tourmfcl, Aug. 1007.] G.A.Q. 



GALE, ^RWDEHICK (182IM904), 
cricketer ami writer on cricket umlor tho 
pHtuidonym of ; Thu Old Butt'or, 5 horn at 
Woodfoorough* l*t>W8c>y vak* n<jar D&viw, on 
10 July 1H2IJ, wan gem of Thomiw* Hinxman 
Uak% rootorof Woodboroygluuul afterward** 
vicar of Uodmoroham, noar Canterbury, 
by IUB wife Elliiab(th, daughter of l)r 
Pooro of Andovor. Afttr attending Dr. 
Buokland's preparatory school at Laltihaiw, 
Galo w*wfr<>m 1830 fco JIB41 atWmok^te 
: G(>ltogo ? of which a groat-unolo, Dr. W fcj. 
Godoard ^q* v,]> wnw a formiu 1 tieadmaKte. 
Whilw at mncliotor ha playod iu tho oriokot 
olovA^i -agaiimt Eton at.ul Harrow in. 1841, 
and in 1845 ho playtsd onw both for Kmi 
and for tho GntrUimti of Kout against tlu> 
Uttntli-iui of Euglftnd. H was a hard 
hitter and a good ikldnmim, but after 
leaving Winaiumter gavo littlo timu to tho 
praotico of tho gamti 

Artit*kd to a mombor of tho London 
iirm of Mwm Bkham & Co*, lolioito. 
Gab long worked with thorn w parlia- 
inontary dork, ami afterwards as- parlia- 
mentary agont on his own account. But, 
doopiy mtoroaied m criokot and other gamen, 

devoted much time to writing about thorn, 

abandoned %&1 business 



^* * 4 

tniUwey 

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if I 



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(SaurUirbottM) uii '14 April 

hit* wite ni MiUitmm. CUlw . ^41*10 m 



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il |irtniahar liiwt writer v tmrtum 1*1 NMV 

, win* win of IM 
to the Karl wi Kwimuuv. Ai th 

tit wiliiH.il in 



t'li.l MM H 



in 



ing; o0m|>!tml hi* uteiits in liU>ri*ltm* 

in IH1U 



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ho roturawd to S 

the M 



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ntuilieii nt Ht, ltouno*M 



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Mi. 

oi*daind priest to 1802* By IB55 hi* 

o! trtJiiiiiig WOM t^miietody mi in 

ho wan 

Sto&yhunit.' Ho WM & oxodbat tohoal il ALTON 



Kk0uh, h lVf* 



1*. 



S ...... 



itmong hk pupilu, but 



Gal ton 



Galton 



of a family of four datightors and three 
fltmH born to Samuel Tertius Gal ton (1783- 
1844), banker, and his wife Francos Anne 
Yioletta (178IW874), daughter by a second 
marriage* of Dr. Kranmurt Darwin (1731- 
1802) [q. v/|, the philosophical poet and 
man of Beience, The Gallons were members 
of the Society of FrioiuK and many of 
thorn woro men of ability, amassing 
ttonmderablo fortunes OH gunnmithH and 
Through hirt mothor he wan 
related to men and women of mark. 
After edtuuttkm at Keveral nmall nchoolH 
ho mu4 went for two yearn (1830 8) to 
King Kdward'n School at Birmingham, 
but did not profit much from the domical 
curriculum in \im there. Being intended 
for the* medkal profeHmon, after preliminary 
apprentieenhipB to medical man at Birming- 
ham, he Btwlied for a year (1B31MO) at 
the medical Kchool of King'n C'oil(%g*?, 
l^mdon* In 1840 he made a rapid tour 'to 
Vienna, C'kmHt-antinoplo* and Hmyrna { and 
at Michm4maH 1840 tmt<.nl at Trinity 
(t>lli^t% (Cambridge* H there nuuli^ friomf 
HhipM with many notablo mon and read 
mathcmaticH uncfcr William Hopkin {171)3- 
1866) | (| v. j, but illnoBw pnivtintotl him from 
{mwuing bin courao, and he took a *-poU* 
dflgftx* in 1844. 

In 1844 bin fiitlii?r dimi, and ha found 
himself with mcaiiM Huiriciont.ly amplo to 
allow him to abandon th<* propoHtnl medical 

Hdv<*nt4m.>UH jonu\y up tlic Nile t-o Khartum 
and aftcrwanlH in Hyria, On HIK rHurn ho 
devoted himMoH from 1845 to 181*0 tti^port, 
but an thin did not naiiKfy bin ambition he 
dct^mnn**d to mak^ a voyago of oxpiora- 
tion at IUH own (^xj.wuwtt. 'Datnaraland 
in BtnithwcHt *vt|uatorial Africa (now 
Ocrmai* Umi>ry) then ^uiU^ unknr*wn to 
tlui tnviliHtHl. world, wan fixiHi on OH the 
^ctinc of bin exploration. Landing at 
Wallkh Bay, ht pcnt^trat^l far in^> the 
interior amid initny dangcm and ImnlwhipH* 
and on hw irtum >io puWirfiwi an intoriwting 
!UH journey ontWtd * Tropicrd 



journey inmli* him well known a an 

r f and" from thin time be playwl an 

important part i:*n the mnmml 0f thw 'Koyal 
Oa<^raphkal Buoiei^ only retiring whon 

doUboratlonn. In ISM ho WOH 
F.E.B.I and frequently orv*Hl on 
council of tha Eoyal BooiMy. 

A ft remilt of hi Amonn . journey h 
wrote a twoful }>ook*Tha Art of Travel* 
(1855; Ifttmt odit, 1872* nd latent wqprint 
lon *'*\<locribing artlfloei of wisto ttwrf- 



a valuable wdo-mficum for explorers. 
After hia return from Africa, although he 
travelled extensively in Europe and be- 
came a member of the Alpine Club, ho 
undertook no further exploration, because 
hk health had Buffered much from the 
hardships ho had endured* 

Galton took an active part in the ad- 
minifltration of Boieneo. From 1863 to 
1807 he was general secretary of the British 
Annotation ; ho was four tiinen a motional 
president, and twice declined the presidency. 
In 1H6S ho publinlusd * Motoorographica, 
or Mot/hodw of Mapping the Weather-* In 
thin work he pointed out the importance 
of. * antioyolonoB ' (a word introduced by 
him), in which tlm air (siroulatoH clockwise 
(in the northern hmubphore) round a centre 
of high barometrb proHur(% Thift oom- 
picstod the bawiH of the HyHtom of weather 
f<-rooaftting now in operation throughout 
tho oiviliHCid world. Ho alno made other 
i wmHtdorable contriljutioim to meteorology. 
I Thin work led to IUH inomlwrNhip from 
l.S<SB to 1900 of th nM^Hirological coin,- 
1 xnittoo and of the ttubmsqtKmti counoil, 
j the govorning body of tli* Motoorological 
! Offloo, Ho had alo proviouwly boon 
connootod with Kew ObHorvatory* an 
inHtitution initiated by Oonoral Hit Edward 
Sabino (17HH4HHSJ) |<j. v.] for magnetic 
and motcwrologfoal obnorvationH, II wa 
a iiunbr of th<* K<nv committx: of th(i 
Royal Hocioty front HOOM aftor itn founda- 
tion, and waw chainuan from IBHO to 1.901. 
MtsfiH)rology did not nearly Huilkjo to 
otttwpy Oalt!)n f K aotivtt tnind j alrtituly 
in Iil5 h< wan oamipmd with thone ro- 
H^arcliOH into the lawn of horwlity with 
whicth bin nam will always b awMpcsiakHl 
In the eoumi <f th invcwtigationH bo 
wan M tc> porcnivo tho ddbwmsy of 
tabulatod data an to human attributo, 
lie th<srof<tro initiated an anthnipomotrio 
laboratory In oonmwrtlon with th< Intor- 
national Health '.Exhibition of l8H45 t 
for tho fmrjKwu of eollt5ting HtfttiHticw an to 
Urn aoiiteHH of tlm mmm, tlw atongth, 
hcnght, and dimflnHioiw of Iarg numbow 
of people. ll dtwiH^l tho apiutrattiH and 
organinwi tho laboratory hnwuslf. Wlton 
t)m inhibition waw tsIowHl tho laboratory 
wan movwl eluowhwo, and it wa the fore- 
runnw of the biomotrio laboratory at 
Univomity Cotlcgo, London, 

Among tho data oollootod in thifl way 
ware impr(aftion of Angara* and Galton 
thought tnoy might !m twcd for idantif ioatioru 
Sir William Honwhtsl had previously wished 
to Una the method in India, and Dr. Fanlda 
had msda a aimUar miggestion in England. 



lton 



Gali 



Gallon than eantintitNi mrlm 



* 



nrr ' {|KW*J .; 



to **M ttgo, wul tUmmi A Sw* 

ol tmiit* vlwriiv *iit imhvuiuiii | bun 

w j ' 1 K '* 

ii mark my ftuwiy IH.I uii'fiiiijtfL : *h*iiM.w* HIM! ami* nigh )*? iMif 

'fliei 2*u*lhot it* ituu in UM ill ttw qrnttumt ^Jjmjwwiit *uw *iwf.lri|w*f^ hi* f 

tfcjiaftimwta of firry ttiviitiwil rwtmii'j, : rri.tmik*tijiy *'Jrr iu<*i#jif tut** Hu 

An ummt.it *1 Ui*It*n'n w*.rk * rifiUmu^t . li* 
in hm * l^ng^r i*i"ir*M ' ilMfU); " j.Uu 

grf i' 



I 



it* 



n 



1'i 1H tjlM* tl* iiJi)t*'.f*Il 

I iuil IIIH 



*i. nuitM^'i.r.^t 



% Jilt 



'l t1t.u).nif*\;t *f 

n^v 1^ Uiwii."< 
rijt'^l Mr* 1 fin-r-iiifinN, 

4ir^'*i f^i,i,u**!^ .,j iiu* 

li f*. i-.-*M 1 l4 Ili*iivijiii4*i 



it 



tu 



lilt 



tlw; 



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in 
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but mtt 



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lltt fttnit 
tin ihti 



Ho 



if* tlit* 



on 

tks w 



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Jit* 



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tit 
h 

M Illllt 



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it* JiH 



ill 



mty i;4l^n A t|iitini> 



*** 



ol hi 

On the ptiblitiftUon in 

iif tipeokNi ' by hk eou*in Clwrtai iitiliort 
'in (JtiCKMtfttg) In, v.j, UiUiott nt mm 
mo ^ wtnvftri to Urn vtow* ikmrt* mt*ta4 irum ti K 

nWn^tog on iltu 

an tfa) liumnn r^j*j, 

( tinprmfKi by bk own obnor- i^y minUI *if ibo ^...^...^..^^ ,, 
won with -tb tot tiukt dkUiwUon of m itKii ; iJumit mm!** m Uw it*n*4 ,s*oily 
K told w apt to nm in jjaitiilioN. iio m inw^i DiMrnin.niaiiMHi mmil uf 
ttturufom iiiiuk -n. niti of tAtkUiiiU i4nttitn htwtoty m IIMiH; miU w i>4 
mquirm whereby. he pravnd tbo IturtUtoUty miiOaltif tho Ikiy^ Nuctuty nt MO, 
oi gemu of all ki&cii, Th^ inviwUMi^ , ittado Uilolur u iltMirtiifUMit i^uiiltiiua 
tionii exumdod over forty ymr f amt Uie ynuMNnntttUi!buit,li,(:.J '' 
multe are vet forth in bk wttftes 'awe. ; bon.DJte, Uafubrwl^ m iHW; iiutt, i 
UeniUM {l^H)j 'Jbiiigtkh Men of ; of Trinity tJullujftf, Umalmagu, in 

lUk . ... i...:....- ..* |^ ^ Ujjli y|| ^ j u||0 



? 'liiutiaA J 



Galvin 



73 



Gamgee 



Gallon lived chiefly in London, and for 
the latter part of his life at .Rutland Gate, 
going much into woeioty, principally in 
literary and scientific circloH. lie was 
imiveimlly popular and an excellent 
conversationalist, with a very keen Henee 
of humour, During the lawt four or 
live yearn of lil life ho became very infirm 
in body, although MB intellect remained 



clear aa ever, lie died on 17 Jan. 1911 of 
acute bronchitis at Grayahott HOUHO, 
Musiomero, a IIOUMO he had taken for the 
winter months. Ho was buried in the 
family vault ut (/laverdwn nuar Warwick. 

On 1 Aug, 1,8*53 Gal tori married JLouLsa 
Juno, daughter of Uoorgo Butler (1774 
1853) [q, v,J dean of Peterborough and 
proviouHly hemluiUHkur of Harrow School, 
IVlrn, Galton died on 13 Aug. 1807 at Itoyat 
after a long period of ill health ; she liml 
no children. 

II o loft by will h'w m*i<lual 



amounting to about 45OUO/ lor tho 
foundation of! a chair of ougonioB in tho 
Umvornity of London, and he wishod Karl 
'J*tsarHn to bo tho iirnt proftwMor. The 
capital wan to rtmuun an Jar an possibly 
untouched, and a laboratory was to be 
built from, ot.hor Houracw. jj'or tho latter 
*v mibacription han totnm BturUtti 

dtutth, 

Portraits oi' Ualton by (>, Ouklcy (wfat, 
S22 wator-twhmr) and by UharhiH Welling- 
ton Furno in nilw (1U03) an* in 1-ho poHKOHnion 
of hiH n<jhinv% I'klward (Jaitt>n Wlwbr* at 
Ciavortion l^iyn, Warwick, anil a w>j>y uf 
tin* later by .KraticiM William <,laru?r haitgn 
tl' hall at Trimty C> 1 t>ihsg<j 
in a 



an amtiHtng work 
my Lil'a* iit*>rii4Ui-ut'ig a 



bunt of <laIU>n by Sir 
at UnwTwty (^ulli<gi% 
t, l^oruion. in iUOH ho wrotu 



oC 
lint of hiw 



inforiimtitm. A Lili of 
by l*roftHHtjr Karl 

' . a. ix 

QA L V IN, UKUKUM. [Sw* Ljo, DAW, 



Gamgeo spent his early boyhood in 
Florence, and there imbibed a lifelong love 
of art and literature. When he was 
fourteen his family returned to England 
and ho entered University College school, 
London. Afterwards he proceeded to the 
University of Edinburgh, where ho studied 
physics under Peter (Juthrio Tait [q. v. 
8uppL II], On taking his medical degree 
there he was appointed house-physician to 
tho Eoyol Infirmary. Physiology, especially 
on its chemical aide, early interested him ; 
inaugural thesis for tho degree of M.D, 
on tho * Contributions to tho Oherti- 



OAMOKK, AHTHUU 

bom lit Flt>xtiwc on 1U Owt, 
wan -youugiitft of tlw night csbildrtm 

a0'ig*Mi (lHi)I.-iHti4) tuui Mary 
Ha father wi;u* ii vijiturinary **ur- 
mid p^ihologwt wiiowo rimHirtslii^, 
partioubrly on ,ridprpMt, broiigiit him 
both in thin <n>uiry and 
Jottph iniiJ|moii (atag0o 
v;J wiw an klw brotitor* 



istry and Physiology of Jtatal Nutrition*; 
it oiitainod tlio gold tnwial in J8()2 

From 1803 to iHUl) (inmgee was assistant 
tt> J)i% .DougliiB Miujlttgan, professor of 
l jiD'isprudonoo at Edinburgh) and 
at thu sumo timo lecturer on physiology 
at tins Koytti Colioge of Burgeons and 
physician to tho Edinburgh hospital for 
ohihhvn. But his intcrosts woro controd 
in research, and thtni and later ho publishtsd 
variovia papum (duddating problems of 
phyniological ohonustry and of tho pharma- 
cological action of chemical bullion, Th 
most mteroBting of thoso were on *Tho 
Action of tho Nitrito on Blood ' in 1808> 
and on *Th Constitution and Relations 



of OyHtiiuv' iHHutsd jointly with Proitoor 
JtuniiH Dovviir in 187L 

in I|f71 (xjitiigee workfd with Kulme at 
ilt^d^lfxirg ami withLudwigat ]jtsip/,i.g, and 
in t-h<'* Mamo yt*ar ho \vm ndmitted M.JLi,0*l\ 
Kdinburghi lmuimn% F.H.U.F* iu 1872. In 
tho iafcUft* ywar ho wan itlo olootod F.lt*^. at 
thu <*nrly age of thirty- In 1873 ho 
af}|>oinU'(i tho tiret Bra okun bury prof 
ot |jhyniology in th OWOIIH College, Mim 
uhtwtor, now tho Victoria LImvcsrMlty. ,H 
HUod thin 'pont for twolvoyoarn, Imving Henry 



! MalliHir $ to wart [4. v.J, and 
Jvo*wt*j. v*J ftiixong hiH colltwguoB, and he 
took JUM part with 'thcuo ttiou hi making 

Hmtmtific sohooiH in tho ouutry. Ho worked 
with tirtikwn onthu.HiaKm an doau of tlio 
ii'todioal Hchoot* and Mougitt with SUCOOBB to 
tsntiiiiUsh a worldng iirratkgouMAnt botwoon tho 
pt'*iy Hoitmtiiiti and tho ttj>pliwi anpoote of 
uuxlicitus A brilliant teacuur, ho loft^his 
it.ji|irtM on tnatiy mtm who _ Iwivo daoo 
diHtingutHliod thomsoivos, In 18B^ ho .was 
prttimiimt o! tho biological motion of the 
British AHHOttiation whioh met at Bouthamp- 
ton, utui li'otti 1SB*J to 1SSI5 ho was .FuH^rlan 
l*rof<^or of phywology at tho Boyal In- 
DtttuUoriy Irui<>n. Wiiik in Londojot h<$ waa 
adttutuxl ALH.O.F. to 
m 




74 



ftmiignmi [tin rhair in Mutmhtwtar fMit*> 
n 18B8 V tint! |triw*liH*l f*r it tiwi* iw n rw< aft 

milting jiii h v#irifitt nl i s t, J**ww.r*1n, I!*-- 

\virn fifj|'K'4iU,*d fi#4i'4ti*nf fifiptf'bfi to *Sl, .. tw 
CkHjr^i'n ffwfiiUil., Lnmitm, m ISH7, wlt.<rr 
ho win iitw* iwjhW'r **n |i!iiriiiiir*"l*.ii;v ' l 
Afiti fti&icrm rnmliwi tit Urn ifi^lintl mrhwL tmrf 
On nmfenlng thw* npi*.rin\*nwtf<* m 1HM1* 
hi* ri^itint'-rt IIJH Hci 

urul 



tra 



M** *'w * 



fur tuwnv 

njmfi flip' 
r.f 



un 



n 



*>n iw n* 



init^l wini^ }w 
-r Tail, 



n 



tit 



n 



n 



in vii.nl itvn I** i*w*r 



in 



iii** lit 



, In 
i';*rHiiftti 



In 



fm 



o 
M I'wrw 



n 



L'i* 



r 



lifc, Mii tfiUtititti 



him, 
mam 



. 

Mm ; nf tti|(inK 






HI Xfr4 in .:if.iiNiU**ti 

,4 



f 



U*r*U f 177.V 







b 



... ^ : t*Mj-*<**miiy in nm iiiijorAft*.., . 

of life fiWtmjf fr'i*i, W, KtUtiw, tim im*- j &Untiti] . % ^ 

fwfwr M! {ihynitilt4j;.v itt I.filo 



W HI* tMMH)4l}| 

If m nnJv .*n, lUiiji liin nUt.^nii 



, 

f l I r , 

from tiw UfUi Crman wlimm, TliU lmk 



2J 






ll 



|B 



Vnrk 



ft(llittr 



a * * 



In 



, 
I'm 



, 



In 



041, Wlltift* 




1 <**r, but youiitf Muniwi 



. , - - ----- . 

: of hftmogfobin in lately duo 



ho 



inti*ni4|ilml. hii 

* t ***mxarawi Ml t|l|MjJlitll$f!|li 

of iho Fnmoli army nl 

ftp 



Garcia 



and on hm return fltuduxl medicine in the 
military howpitalH of Paris (art. in Musical 
Times, April IflOfl), In 1840 ho presented 
to tho French Inwtitut hm ' M^moiro *wr la 
voix huraaimV which WRB accepted &B 
the Imnt authority on the Hubjcot. Ap- 
pointed to a pro'fiSHHorKhip at tho Parin 
, ho attracted many din- 
ito, including Jenny Lind, 



75 Gardiner 

by John 8. Sargent, R.A., was presented 

j 1 * 



whom ho xmtructi'd in Farm from 26 Aug. 
1841 U> July IH42 (of. HOLLAND and 
S /*!..// Mnd (Mdrnkmid^ 1891, 



i. 109 H<?, )* In 1H-17 ho puhlinhwi IUB world- 
fawuniH Traits tumtpiot' do i*art du chant,' 
of which a Himpltii<H.i'abHtrat appeared aw 
'Htntrt on Hinging 1 in 1894. In both the 
literary and arfciHtio Hooioty of Parto Garcia 



to him. 



For inoro than hall a ', century Garcia 
hold, by general conwont, tho position of 
promiftr ringing-teacher in tho world. In 
pornoa ho waw, from youth to old ago, 
oxtromoly handHomo, with all hi father* H 
fiery ami iitt|>otwoufl disposition. Ilin chiof 
rooroation was chewH. Mr. C* E* Hall6 owns 
a nkotoh by Eichard Doylo of Garcia and 
IIIH fricmcC Sir C/harlos tlallt), at a game, 



which in roprodtuiod in MacKinlay'B *Lifo, 7 
p. 222. Thero i also a crayon wkotoh of 
(Garcia, in ado by h'm Hiwtor Paulino Boon 
afUtt* the invention of tho laryngoscope. A 
portrait by Rudolf Lnhmann was ox- 
fubittMl at tho Royal Acadoiuy in IH(J9. 
Sargont'n portrait Garcia loft to tho Laryngo 
iogioal 8otjif*ty 
(3aroia marrknl at Pat-in on 2 NOT, 1832 

,.,,...... ,, O&ttlo Kugonio Mayor (6. 8 April IBM; 

at tho iloyfti Amwlmay of MUHIO. "His rf, is Aug, 1 880), by whom hi* had two 
had long !o8iy ntwdbd* tfw phywology of mmn Maiwwl (IHiMW&BS) and <3utar, a 
tho voice, itnd*in 1B54, for th "purporio of j w<U-known Hinging __ Umohw (6, 

* * . . ^ * . . . . ,,_ . 1 . , jj.,La- Oj it .^ >., A* .'&.J. J..1 dl. LlAj J<4 Jt>- **, .11* -., - 1 J- a. nk . 'A .- 1 i ,v ,'C * jU J 1 fc it i i.^tf* fV ft t tl ** 1 * k f I W .-'1 * f 



illbd a promimm 



Early in 1B4S ha 



,, ri ,... hiH powtion at tho (Jonnorvatoiro, 

and <uwn to Undon in *!w. On 10 Mov. 
apjx*inUi a profcmnor of Hinging 



V IT f*,,^ T r *" : ' fllfl t 1 ''^ fl-'W* H.H-.Wt ^m n'."-T.T ,W |i '* N - 1 " f*' - " -' jf T "'-" r " J- " "" 

examining hii* own larynx; and that of 
Homo of h'w pupiK ho ivontod tho instru- 
ment Hiuoo known m tho 



On 24 Hay I$f*$ ho <K)mnmnioaboa to tho 



and two dttughtem- -Maria { 18-12-1 867) 



[M, itorlirig MaoKinlay, Oaroia th Con 



Koyal fctoototy, tlmmgh Dr, William Bharpoy 
r q. v'|, a papor aH<sd * Otorvatioim <m tho 
Vokw,* Thoro h oxplaintxl 



tonri&n and ni timcw, 1008 ; A. 



Qftrotaj stx Snfluonoia on la larlngologi a 
en 1 arUj dI canto, Madrid, 11)05 ; Orovts'H 

liUHHMt > ^-fiv'.' .''< ,* .. it\.it.*'? **^' '' '> i* **f.t*i .'w* p.im.i. | /jCv* 01 JiVl !IHJv o JVH1H I ITilf Hj /YjHH *j?\/*> ^vvii'ij 

invention, whirh prnvod of (rtiortnonn valtio j r^prothjtia of Harg^nt^H porl-rait) ; j)nrw*mal 
in tho dmgnoHiH nf diM(*aH and in Htirgory j knowledge ; private hifonnation*] F. C. 






h 



HAM U KL HAWaON 

>orn at 
an Airt^rom, m iinfiMiro, in 4 Mn 

*!t* : \t*nu i^iii<**tfi Mt ill 

a mimiu imu Hurnitmi npimivnni). vim-oiii ; J UVM( .""^'""" . ,t,,,,,,t,f,.,. ,,f w;iii,.,i 
h, 1 MI.wjrof..,rHl t i 1 Mtl.th)R 1 .yal Aoadinny j by his wifo Mwwvwt, <liK ^ '<> W 
f MitHk f.r r.,rtv-w vwi yniiw, only roUriK I Iterinjj Uoiild. HIH gm.tdfat.hw, Sniu ol 
I,; KmiT 1HB, at fim ago ul ninrty; I GxUn f G..mi . {-xg, Whjolmwh , 
' ' Uly a,t w*tol .Uvity ! | J M.^"1^AW ' I,, 1?!' 



Hut hin bodily 
thou 



,, and lit* oo 

privately and to ttiitmiftin an inU*nHt 
in mnmcHl iimurn until hin d<atli at Mon 



AUri 



at 



on 



artd ftiur 



montiw. Hw wiw tmmd In tho 



of 



life pfttRrnal grandmother, Mary Boddfitn 
was doKcandml f roni ilridgot, oldont dttughto 
of tho PrtooU>r OromwolU by h(^r marriage 
with Henry Inston. Thw pdigr<, wJMoh 
han not W<^H ijubltHtwidj wiw 
worked out by (jolonr^l J .M 

: wan Miaaat<Hl at WinchoHter 



Hutton 

On 17 Maruh lOOfi, hw hundnxlth birth- 
day, ho wan niivHi at Jtukin>;haiH 

Kdward VU. who mudo 
the Ctomtan Kmpowr 



him a 



William il oonforrml on him the gold i'iu:*dal 
iorielenoos tho King of Hpain lultnitUxi 
him to tho onior of ' Al|Ac*w> XII; tho 
King of Swodtin oreaU^I Wm chevalier do 
1'onlro do m6rite ; banquet which 
attendixl by man dktmumhttd iem>iiD 



held in hm honour ; and hii portrait, painted 



Coltogw* wliiish h( untnml aiwmt MiohaolinaB 
1841 ; 'and niatri<sulattid at ChriHt Ohiirdi, 
Oxford, in Owtaiwr 1847 (J. B. 



(Jolkg^ 1830-1 900 j 
, Alumni OxtmUntos)* In I860 he' 
WM glvon ft Btudnthip and m 1851 ho 
n tot a!am4 in tho Bohool of Btern 



humanior. Ho graduated BA, in 1B51, 
but did not 'proceed M.A, till 1884, and 
was for theobgioftl rowiona unable to retain 

were Imnff- 



itoi; he mawtod in ' 1866 fflie youngewt 



Gardiner 

. iUw of Edward Irving, nwtt \vw* ir*m | m^.li*lint! <MI! -U^nii<u> mda^ 
185V to 1BIMI a tli-'iww in flu* irvingi*^ ! i:**Kinii*'tl jy^;.w*fi^Hv- rvrry *< 
t'hurtsh* !:.fi runMVrt*< r^rnrrvnl fnnn ihi:- ; mfonnnlirtji, M* jiMifiimi in ihr 
tihurch f^iMli'r J<fmv ih72* ' rf t|iH ; rr'ni 



doa, nnd whilv iniiintaitiittg 
Hi* W*IH iMiiiiit:l*H"! to rfwl in 

M.UtU'Ullt on 8 XMV, iHvi**, iinfl IH 

^1* (Hi I 



. 
ly I Stnurf j**-nl, iui h*' ptT.i*i'N*>i| tn 



.l.irr.*nl .. |.ir<>ui*v> 



r-.i 



b 



l*l it ii*' 
tin* rrin *'4 



' it W 

* thui it vviw this dul of i* 



I. 



iuuir^r 



*'tmf **}"* 



P^- .in 
(ul S^ 

nra.rlv f- 



li tin 

thn grnii ^v 



Tim Ur^t 



in 
j whirl* 



hn 



* 



t,V.nnwr 



ibrtnv fii 



in- 



fit* 



iti 



IJl 



,, V. 



Hit*.*,' In 



in 



in 



in 



i* 



, hut 



* nn1 w-t-n 



Of 



hmi ii 
did not bring thw 



itm 



t.4 iitMut filM), hut uUt.t$> 

it*n itt 



Mr* Ju!l Hw. 
h*# lir*^d?l* ! \-n- 



In Ii75| * A ilinttiry t4 .Kn),(}ii!.td unti^r . . nf |*riiM4j*l^ i*i|irA*iv^ wt -?H rn f*n- 
the JUuke >f BtieWiigimm iyI IJiftrl*^ ), vim'itw* 11$r* nt* Iw^inrrwi mt v l'r**wtiH'n 



fourth 



. 



ovirti' , 

I* (2votni 1H7?)* mitl tliti i 

I, * 



ii 

Hit* liMl 



Mi 

t 

*y 



iii hiUry 



till 



t* 



1640 * (10 vobt, 

of hln hi 



in 
undwr tho UUo of 'Th* Clranfc Civil War,' 

d fiimily liy thrw othor voiiuta, 
* of tho Com man wmi tit 



Ui 

i writ* ^ mimiwr nf |$i^i*iri^l Ui%|..l*i'nki 

! y n 



n 



r 
wiw m 



by Ourdtmr'* 

IP 



' 



o mi 



' Wtsr/ n:s 
I*- 

;l 

:,ll r , 
| fetid 'lf 



Gardiner 77 Gardiner 



M in Mrhooln (!J voln, IHCMi), : M any lioiwnry di.Htinrf.ionrt wrt? 

l.t*<l and rdi !*.*! for use* in ihu : fVrtr*! nj'.*on him at hoin*uu! ahrond. T 

Modem Hittiory Hrhno! uf Oxford, a ; awid*'if*i*** r hwtonrai Howfirn of 

volutno of * CVnHti.lutir..maI. l>owim*<nf* *f , fotvign wmnfrk ( rUwlwl him -a 

Puritan Hfvolution ' (IHHlh 3rd tidit. . : . IM* s,i tvrngnitttm of Ow lijrfit hw rmarh'H 

Tlmw and othi.'r rwlK'ttt tint:- ' had thrown upon partu 4 if th.'ir national 

rnjoyid a tt'idn pmndat'km. * Tfw \ hif.>ry visa, $$*.>ht<mia (fH70t), 

* wan froni4iffwi into - wtta (IH74), (.'tojn whiten {IH1 

Uii*<ifinftml por1iw* nC th *OlHni.' wm tlMW), nwl tHtwhMiW**)* In '188? 

iM:liU^l^ar^adin^ho*->kfnrC1**riiHini.?hoiilH, ; tlniwrmfy of CJottinjyEt'n gavo him 

In Hpito of ti't*- <7latnm of hin hintory ; di^m* of donix.r t*f phitoNophy j I'klinl 

imd on i^hicational work* C|anlint'fflon ' that of 14'*.1X in l.HHI, Oxford that of 

frivi*d |o tako a iiMMling |*nrt in all **nt4.*r- . 1*/J1^ in lW*r, and f*ambridg* thui of 

l>riH*H for th* pmmotion of ltann'nuf, l.*ron ' iili*VK in IH'Hl, 

!H7ft to 1H7H h*.M.HliU*d tin* hiHtoriml dt?parf> ' In l.SiM, m* llu? dvalh of Froudf.s !<ord 
jiinnt of i\w * At^til^niv. 1 'I**i tim * li*?V"ti^ fluHi'i'H-ty olf*j'*'d C'*jtrdi.n**r th** i"**'{ijyH |>rt>- 

i* * i.'H.-tf'W^i^t I.H7^ IIIH! 1HB1 h^ ; f*'!iHMfftliiri of jn*>tl' it n ; i liinstory. Hi 1 r^fuwH'I 

a MrrirH of * in$il**liti^ * tin thu ' it* }.*van** ITM winhni Uj ri">tt'rv* h!n tint** 

^ratim 1 " in Kn^iatul. ; and Htwigih f*r thu *Mipl*tio ol IIIH 

; ' in IHHH It** wiw *>nti of whwh wiw* tii* nirwf, iHtnvt'in^nt plim* for 
rontrthnf^rM, and from I Hill fi* : IIIM work, l!*t t*oitHittf^d hMW+vr* <^ fill 
*ditor. II ti wiiit dir*>t4>r nf thn . in 1BIM1 ffw n*'.w!y fr**atf<l. JK'H|^ of f^virtl 
StKTi**ty fr*nn IHUit tti 1H1>7 tHiiting '' l^Uir*r at OxConli and dolivi^ i d (In* HI 
for it no f*HV< i r than tw.4v* vtihitium ii*idtn : tfnufMi* t.*f l*Htwr*.' whinh wiw* nn 

'* ' '' ' ' ''''.. '' * ' ' * '* ' ' *f 

*<l two viihinuttof-doQuintfntn-for tw IHI.I7). During llw lat^r ytntn* nf hiu 

Navy lii'^rinli Hoctwty utid ona for the ' life h. publinhirHl only two work* of if*i* 
Hi?oltih HiMtory %cjit*iy, and ww a tnwm^r ; fioftiinQ^ apart from ilw iHintinnittion 
of thn ooundi of tnwh of tlww* b : iclt<^* *J*t* ; of hin Iikt4>ry it monograph tin f'rom- 
thin iOiijtionury !m cont.nhnf^I lu-i^itymin^ : . vv**l! for f.*mtpit'H mnm of illnn 

*^ * ^ j* -A* *j 4 'A * * ( 

thit ninth H.li<iun 4*f tlu* * Km\yHopw.'dia : in 11HKJ,, with a pr'faw i*j 

!, .Xor \vw4 it only hy hin : AlfrM Sf4*rn of Kuri^lt) att<i 

ininld alwayn Imd t.im* to h*Jp olltrr ' |,.*wii ; r plot (IKW) in ani*\v**r t<i Fiitli^r 

on*,* win* ntofit i{vti**k t*> {.SoraF*:!*!* nd<.*av*;tiir t*,i pfitvr* thiit* th<* 
of a t:M*^inijf*rorwi r*iw!y plot wm* <.|,viw.*d by th*> #ovi*rnfnont for 

win*, lit i*piu* of hi* inuiniin^ fiw an historian, ; beginning to fail. H< Itiul int4>ndf<d tti tiarry 
ittatntainw! himwiH nttiiniy ly t*.*iu?h .: hin !ii4-**ry clown tti tfm niHUirtttion of 
tind Iit4^rar,v work, nt*ith**r noluing any i C'ltufl^ If, 'but h^ finally rwofvwl to ond it 
worf-hy of hi )H>wirH r .n^iving j with Ihw tl*ftt! f (toomwlh ^ Th third 
any nid fn.n tho ^liiijwnifntu (loHlgiuxI U> ' volwino of HIM * CJomwonwwilth and l*n> 

In IH7H I.4ir*I Aaion j t^tarRUs 1 whwh browght thh ntory down 
Kir Clw*rg0 *lii^K ) tt> tints ttiuumor <;*f Iii&15 w*w jitiblilit*d in 
in ap|>oint iiard{*u*r ! Jiuntary IIWI (nw tnitt. 4 v.*l. 
deputy k^i*jM.*r in HiniKM^iHioh' to 8ir T. 1). ] In Mart?h iJattlincr win* Mtrtek< 
Haiviy* In tHH2 at A^Um'M inHtiaation* i iiartiiil paralyniH,, and tlunigli; . hi* 

ml njKifi C ; wiin^r a | tor n timo wiu* mw<*r Wo tw work 

r . o| Iftlii, a ywir (!*AII** | A JmpU.r of thi,v !ibUiry t whie.. .... _ - ... 

o/ l^wl yi^>n ttt Jtitwif ($ktoiifom# t : In nmtUiHori.pt, mm \mmMml In 1908 
jfj, 120, 140). In 1HH4- All Houbt ; iintl in nt^iinlaiK^ with Iitu doIw th* 
;a Oxfortl, lHsU?tl IJartlln^r to a I book w : iw (n>mnkiUd by ilia -pment write 
-ih fellowMhip of -thrt vuliic* of 2ti(tf. j in bin VLiwt Vuvni " J *' k ** ^**^*^^*^ f 
In. ardor to Iwip liitn to mnimuv (2 vota, **"**" 



ardor to lw.% liitn to mnUnuti (2 vow, IIMlil], 

aatiumi. In ; 1W2 9 wlw*n hta ' Oarfinar diI at Sevenodui.on 88 BWb. 

tlmt foilowifthip ondod, lit* wwi 1002, a'fowdayn bofora the wnoMbft of 



of 
by Mwtots Cdllt^* U n 



on, wljluh i atitnf*l tit! bin cteath* 



hi iievtenty-thiid yaw* Bo myriad (I) 



sit 



htm niul 

*.f 751, in 



IWH, I fn Hi fti* 



*-. 



n 



f 



, ni.nl 



!** 



t* 



of thn 



In 



** 



tm>k forty 



Mmt 



r'n 



it 



, 



ami Iwrt . **''?- 






l,f 



hfitf, Uv**. UK) 






;, F 



Jim 



|it 



l*** il *'- fl *' I|P ***** *** lw * *< i **' rl vii^ 

I***** 1 
n> r^vrnu t 
it^' f tmtttrl, U 



ift rtuw M 



n 



in 
V 



. i it)t *V ^* 

it^ i# ntt^dntril ; ; 1*i'***^ti n rim it 4 unit? rt nt 



*r 



# 



, it 



in 



n. tnfw nrtificini. nfrar$i|*fiwii wotiW luivt* ! Ml 



. ft AMI* I JTO i lit** 



ly hin ItiDit! <i(fitiiiiUtin *if 
juiiiion <if ttiii itifltUMMi mUior llw* 
giving hintury Uu> cflmmtii nf tloUmt, 
mmUtntwiih Ut< tlUUticrUutt f 

nf nii^ 



>i 



, 



wi^t, nrm 



w 



!i II M AH 
Yh<tntiflui 



b bi 



n 



IJ 



iurnrtt 



a 



ri \ of horH<mai.iHhi|* which J.M-< t 

w through Hfi. At th<* ago of nrv<n> ! 

tent (1856) h<..r.<nt4*m.l tu* a pupil lh<* offiwn ; 
of (Kir) fJrorgo UiJlwrt iScsofl, jif, v v |, wht*r ; 
lie ww a fallow Htud<ttt< with Mr, Thtmifv* : 
Graham ifoekitmt* H.A, Mr, SWUJWM C.,*liirk*% ; 
ami John Thomm* Miikh*tbwftitc {q* v* ( ! 
. 1 1']. li* hnd nlri'JMly mm.In thr { I 
of C.lrnrgo Frttb^nwk Bodlwy* 1 1 
EA. fq* v, Hupp!* 1I] who hiul mrvwl ' 
articles iin tho *am ofHw. Aft^r 
{>I0iinn of hi* fmpilagtt C"Jarn*.^r 
to WarwittkKbiins and tb*ri.j b^n 
turiU pmcHiKs partly on hi* own 
partly iw an iwuMWiittii to 8^. 

* ^L *' ,* t ., *A 4..J :*. jL fc 4 4 11 # ^ 



trr at 

mroimfion of t'itiwn-rtl VI J, In hi* 

fh* f.'htm;h ff 



hti \v 



. 

riory* Balh, wiirm J 
t.Hi tint rlioir tm whirl* iw owit ml*'r 

wn to tako tlitw^, Ii k wiit! 



* 



and in 
any liigtt! d*Hl of 
bi*aniiful workw in 
and coiigiais 
rf thin 



|*arf n 



A 



whim . 



of 



, v 



ho 



f**r 



wa** 
for 



n 



of 

UH| on lift April H#*Ki at Kri 
,*.* marri**rl in 

ICi*v* J, X, SmitH 



i!iil,4% itniUn} iintlKiniltip* Durfn^ 

ip it wan th prwiw cif tint two in 



tho tmiltlinp whwh umter thi 
Ml mdnly if not i*ntirr*lv to 
ihti (5hS**f w^rti HI, 8witnttn* 

at M!idalf*n C 

SJJ 



n 



f 'Turn* 



wiw f*.r fim** iU- JiO f' 
s mt* iini hi.?* willf.n* wnn in 
Inn. !tit art c 



during tliii Tudtir i"***rlmj/ n joint work 

Ittmt^r mwl Mr, A. $ 

!ind ia 
unt.i.*r V 



Town; 
Win<.imr ; 



houm* 



from Mm, Uttrufir nnd from Mr, K4wai 

ii \v 

,* i i* i 



n 
of 



of Ely, L 



* w! that of 



in Hi, 



in 



* i J. i i 

ii app^arn tbut 

oitbor m>l or jmMloininAiti wi^ro. 

at )|CH! worthy I* 1 

to Ikmwarth Hiill n IIOWMI nt 

tn, Ktiit i th 
of th eha|H*l at St^ Cnthttrin*ii tk 

Marlltorbugb Colh'^ ; tiw< aitmr of 



j and ihw rtmtt^mf ion ** 



AUN ffffT, 
Mi of intti^rw and 
itt thn BHtmii Mtmntiti, liom in 



8trwl WttliJIi'Id, on 27 i^b. 183fl, wiw* 



fltir mm 
wtfti Kaytiti, 
" 






. v.J I* 
of John Wrtak of 
*I^rtntt lah ( Jariw^tt and 
an*, like bin 



afttsr hin birth hii fatJwr n*movi with HIM 
family i> Ijt*nilott on l*Hiymiug fuwintitnt 
of trwt**d tmukn at thw Britinh 
Hioharti WIKH 



Manor Houins Oxfordtwlvim, Aftr 

porfoctlv frit^udly diiMolutlon of |mrtiit* 
m ISlif Oarrior darriisd out ft liin owi* 



at hoiiu's but In? H|.M*t Mt'm*j tiinw at 



_ 
work 0xoluiuv0!y Yaniton Manor, Oxford 



_ 

dula ; Mbmton iounn, 

Empire Hotel* Buxtom 



; and ilia 



j . T - ' ' "' ' n " 

With hli partner Bcxifoy, Oarnir wrw 

^ i f i 

rckgardtxl for many yoMi an an autbo* 
ritativc oocbHiaaUoat artlnt. Togotiiar thoy 
"" not oidy for mw*y new 

Wr . W 



v 0. M, MimwH*** 
in <*anitinM Stn^t, l,lt*!f*jr(! 

aoinpaiuoitM inoludiMl Hir John. 
* Hupj)t, I], l&lwar 
, v r ] v " and "Willtant 
* II 



for a trm at tbo and. of 



tiorml intollaotual preooolty * a boy* 



acquiring 



*i . faooity for 

.bfor 
for hii own 



Gannett 

thfl whoto of this :| !V*tw 



i 

' f.bn Jihritrv uwHr hi** ri.t|*\ 



of Hninnto, Ant^ 



Urn 

bin 
but 



.nr 
AH 



no*. 



n 



am! Squill* Hw inf^rr^f tit 



iti outh, ftttrl 



"* ' in 

;:i,f ' bin 



l.*tb 



o 



hi 



libnir ih**n f ^ Wilb lit*- 



n 



i but 1m 



t* 



iiit, untl rHtru'it*-J him tvtlb HIM .luty 



HUM * 



itjirr n tin* 

t'hn 



*lnv*f.inji 



In i* ilt i* !' hi* *h 



b 



i* 



^ t^:rt*H'itti r*? 
****l bin mt 
nl |1$** t|}.H}K>fifU *f 
twtfittft.fi MU n bAvy f*i*w 
vimlty !** 
t* 



fit 



of book* whtab 



m1 lf 



of list if'iiirprli Ml tti f Jttnwfcti Wti \ 
imm^nm* imorsty 

Jit '*rt!^r t:i 
it t hw in liM r 
to rwiiiig''n : M>m*m'id WHM main 
in aclitlng" tlta cutt&loguo until lrtt*0, -.In 


, iirtil.ihtt a-nf^Utiguu WUN 
by oth^r h&mfn. 
In "ISSi C 

ft.*r tbi libmri.muibii of 
ibrftpy, Oxfctit). but hk 
tiw btiuiHhi|t trf hi** domrtnt^nt nt t 



Britirtt. MtMtuin fully MatixfUsI bi itttibitioviti, 
Many imtxirtttiit udtUii<mH wvrw .iin^hj t* 

W 1fr 



?J * |t.ii*!B*-'isf, 



*-r 



rtsi 



1?inhup < 'm 

1i)itit'!iiin '-< 



t *ti 






H<if.!>iH1 ii)ni.r (* 



ft r,H' 



f a 



l* 



* 



f I 



tint) 



a |*inm*ff 

hi* 



. 
r, \V, if. 



in 



llit* 



it* 



if* 



hi* 



** 



ii in blank 



Garnett 



8 1 



Garnett 



* William Shakespeare, Pedagogue and 
Poacher' (1904); and finally *De flagdlo 
myrloo ' (1005 ; new edit. 100<5} f a collec- 
tion (in proao fonn but of poetic temper) 
of three hundred and sixty 'rather subtle 
' thoughts and fancies on love,' Garnett's 
vorae display** a cultimxl, even fastidious, 
taste and much metrical facility, but much 
of it is a graceful arid melodious echo 
of wide reading rather than original im- 
aginative effort. Tho thought at times 
strikes a cynical notes. Probably his most 
valuable poetic work was done in translation, 
In prose Garnett's labours were exten- 
sive and unusually versatile*. Ho wan from 
early manhood a voluminous contributor 
to |Krk[dicalH. At the outset he wrote for 
tho * Library Garotte' whmi owned by 
Lovell Rt*AV4% mid for the 'Examiner,' 
Subsequently ho regularly wrote on Ger- 
man literature for the * Saturday Ruvfow,' 
ArticfaH from his pen appeared from timo to 
time in VMatwiillanVMagaaimV in ' Ttsmplo 
Bar/ and * Jfr*ier 1 H MagaKino*' At a later 
period ho wrote critical introduction* to 
irmunujrablt* popular reprints of standard 
books* and ho diversified literary critietoxna 
with many excursions into biography* In 
tho *Great Writers* aeries h published 
monograph** on * Milton 1 (1887), cm * Oar- 
lylo,' which wan drastically reduced before 
publication (1887), and on * Emerson ' 
(188&)> To thw Dictionary arid to the 
* Encyclopedia Britanniea * ho supplied 
very many memoirs. Ho hod no groat 
powers of WHtsaroh and \vm prone to 
rely for Im {u#tg on hw 'rotontivo 
memory, but hits biographical work was 
invariably that of a tasteful, dborimina* 
ting, ami woil-inforxatid <umpilor, Hii 
ratigo of biographiottl intorewt oxtondod far 
beyond mm of lotteru, md h'm biogrnphbi 
inoludo those of Edward Gibbon" Wako- 
field, the oolomal pioneer (1808), and of 
William Johnuon Fox, the noolal roformor 
(publuthod jKwithumounly and completed 
by Clarnott*a mm IMward in 1910). 

Qanctt*s nuwt Important imbtioationv 
worn tho votomw bntitlwi '*IWIioa of 
Shelley * (1802) and 'Tho Twilight of tho 
Gods r (1903). The formw waa a mmll ool- 
leotion of unpublished vowo by tho poet, 
which Qaraett dioovcrod among tho poet's 
MBS* and. notebook^ which had bdbngod to 
Bholley'a wMow t and passed on hw death 
in 1851 to Un son, Bir Peroy Shelby. 
With Bhellay he Iwd many afBniti8. Hii 
good fortune in disoowring tho poot'& 
unknown work gav great satisfaction to 
Hit Farcy and to his wife, Lady StoUey. 
Garnett became their .Intimate friend, and 



. i^xviw* 



ii. 



fchoy attested thoir regard for him by pre- 
senting him with Bholley's notebooks. 
IhcHO fotohod 3000^, at the sale of Gamett's 
library after hia doath. Lady SheUoy 
pressed on Gaructt tho task of preparing 
tho full life of her father-in-law, but other 
engagements compelled him to yield tho 
labour to Prof, Edward iDowden. Garnett'e 
The Twilight of tho Gods' is a series of semi- 
Qlwical or oriental apologues of pleasantly 
gynioal flavour in the yeia 6! Lucian. 
Tho book came out in 1888, and attracted 
no attention, though tho earl of Lytton, 
then English ambafcwador at Paris, promptly 
recognined in a long letter to the author the 
fasomation of ita imaginative power and dry 
humour, A reprint in 1,903 waw welcomed by 
a largo audioiico and owtabliBhcd Garnott' 
reputation CVB a rosourcof ul worker hi fiction 
and a ahrowd observer of human nature. 

Among Garnott'tt ktor work** woro a 
uaoful *Hiatorjr of Italian Literature' 
(1807), and ho joined Mr. Edmund GOBMB 
in compiling m 'Illustrated Eooord of 
^ngliih Literature 11 (in 4 vok)j vok, L 
and li. were from Qaniett's pen (190&). 

Qarnett ohtrishod a genuine and some- 
what mystical sense of religion which com- 
bined hostility to priestoratt and dogma 
with a modified belief in astrology. Ho 
oxduinod hi position in an article' in tho 
'University Magassino' (1880), published 
under tins pseudonym of A* GL Trent, which 
TO* ro*iasucd indo^ndently in 1B03 m 
' Tho Soul and tho &tara ' j it was tranaiated 
into German in 1804 CJamott maintained 
that astrology wa * a phyeioal soietico just 
m much *a geology/ but he gave no orodit 

its alleged potency m a iortune-tclliwg 



In 1883 tibp Univerrity of Edinburgh 
conferred on Garnett tho honorary degree 
of LLDy and ho waa inado' 0,B. in 1B9S, 
He died at hm liouae, 27 'JPanssa Head, 
Hampsfojad, on 13 April 1906, and was 
buried in Highgato ceiuotory. Tho chief 
part of hia library was Hold at fctotheby's 
on 6 Boo, 1900. 

Qornctt innwied in 1803 Olivia Namoy 
(d 10<)3), daughter of Edward Singleton, 
c^* ClarCy and hud IHSUO three sony arxd 
three dau^htera. Uiu aooond son, Edward 
(6. 1S6S), IB well known m an author and 



On Ms retiring from tho museum in 1899 
Garnett's friends presented Mm with Im 
portrait by the Hon. John Oollier. Tho 
portrait belongs to Ghurnett's eldest son, 
Kobert. A pbotogravuxe of it Is prefixed 
to. 4 Three Hundred Notable Books *{1809), 
A better pakting by Miss B. M* Heath is 

. . . a 



Garran 



(.larran 



K;^lrt^H*fr*m^MMil&#lfr' J -fllt">*l>#.-<. 



in the fXMaeftaion of GumoU'** w.w Edward. 
A bttBt by (Sir) Ciiwrgo FmmpUm, RA, 



was oxhilntwl at tin? Royal 

in ISflO. A wwriwium by *>Spy * aj}Mwml 

in * Vaiiity "Fair 1 in JWn 

BcftifW the work** wutmtfraUHi, OarwHt 
wwi author of * ShdJt'y and Lord. Bt'iimnH" 
fidd* (privately pnnfwj, 1HH7); *Th.' Aw* 
of Tlryihtft, 1 a lif.erary fmiullxtok (IBM); 
'William fflnk<% Paint** umi Port ' (* I'urt- 
folio * nuwograph, 1805) j * KMHuyH in 
LibrariatiMhip and Bibliography' (IHtW); 
1 Enmtyrt of ait ex-Librarian ** (.1001). II" 
alno laboriousl donintmi frwn t\w votn* 



John 



of Hi** ' 



Ht<raltV and hi* 



u ills th/t 



nrning 



wftrly thirty year*, (In 



awl 
wluw 



II**'* j-f*J fill flu* t.i*i of 
'lJHl him i* 



In 



iif X*'tv Sititb \V'*iJ>- h Nir 
rk^H, un! in thai rft 



lit 



of. n rovU i-MmfifiM* m 

^h lm 



with Hhmfjnhtn*, of John Wwl Wiirlvr 
{q, v.J *An Old StinipHhm* Uuk ' (vok hui*l Mn* r'|*rl w- 
IV ami' ii, 1 880$ voi. iii, and tv. IHt*l), j rmilt-wi m fhr |iii 
ho tot hw name nlitor tr *Th*! HiH|t<.^ .'J*w:'ilifii-ti 

ai LiLimry nf Farnotm i.*il^m- \ Ai4 in 
u 



.Arhitrrtj*. 



n n^ui n 

kindlv Hin.Iwii h 
Mr, W. ,t. t'ittnii'H,"; If, C^i 

H;f, 1IKHI; 1'lw 



w 



t|trl.rir 
14 



in h 



lifiy \riiw f 
Iltnir 



iS. I,, 



iut 



n 



OAHIiAN 



ii!|inry 



Hi 



London. <m III Nwv, 



n 



nnd 



o jdtinni Uy hi* wife* Mnr 
of fl<*nry l!jiti 
* honn* 



vt" 



i* 



r in 



l^ttidon* nnd 



**( 
tin 



* 1 w : firkn. 



in 



in I84K* On 

utty 



nnd on tfw i*m groumi iUudiy 



*A< In lK4.rMM.id M.A. 

i** iimvcr< ! uf iho 
im for hw h**ttHh, . 



On 

1151 tlici 0t*titmviw r@ix)atitt|| 
ion w lit Ito hftiht mic o 



in 



itid to 



4/liimiii timk 



n em 



in 



tl*** d*^m< ! 1*1,, II, in iH?M, 



1HHIJ 



iwii |iridtnit of 
whbl* ww Amwiitiion, Mr* 
to 0pm*s tho grant of wuu* id ! iMrip*i Atliw uf 
wtel. OM txiitor for two ytmm. Th Uwiitjin^iinit^ t 
diaoovary of gold in tetariii* howovnr, i irniU Wilit*fl** |iul 
nfHiriy aepopuJaUxl Adoiaido for th tliw, 1 lit? *I*i un Juim Ittw! at Jib 
and brought the iww of ti m nftuorUiiirti Kli 

, * * , ':. 



%vnr i*i 



on 



4 ...,# ; tn 

in ton taajjx of Mr, (X E, | Adtdttitio in 

John 



ho roturnod to Adolftldo, ftnd in 
Dditod tho 'South AuHtnUian 

In 1850 ha heo&mi* 



r 



f 
'oritWIy of Bury 

Milt* 



Garrett 



Garrett 



5 



made a reputation in the commonwealth 
as a constitutional lawyer. 

A full-length panel "portrait in oils, by 
Tom RobertH, an Australian artist, is in 
the posHCSHitm of hie widow, 

[Tho Times, Melbourne Argua, and Sydney 
Morning Herald, 7 Juno 19<)1 ; Sydney Mai 
15 June 1001 ; Who's Who, 1001 ; University 
of London (ikiioml Kogfofcor, 1001 ; Johna'a 
Notable AuHtraliariH, 1908; Year Book of 
Auatralia, 180^1002 ; Colonial Office Kocords.] 

(URRETT, FYDELL BDMUNl>(i& 
1007), publicist, born on 20 July 1805, 
fourth BOH of John Finhor Garrett, re, 
of Elton, ltarbyghi.ro, by hiw wifo, Mary, 
daughter of Cbdfray Gray, Ho wan edu- 
cated at EoHnall nohoo'I and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, whore ho graduated B.A, in tho 
Hummer twin of imi with a third class in 
danaie^ At tho muvornity ho wan mom 
diBtinguiBhod at tin? Union Debating 
Hootety, of whbh ho wan proHitlont in 1887, 
than in the gchook But though not taking 
a high deigroo, ho gave in other ways early 
evidimctt of exceptional literary ability* 
Bomo of Im tnmdatioiis from the clwioal 
poet*, tw wdl m hm original piooe0 r con- 
tained in a ftmoU volume of undorgraduato 
vcwe, * RhymcB and Rendering^ 1 published 
at Cambridge in 1887, arc romarfcablo not 
only for thoir gnwie and oaHO of oxproHBion 
but for a real jKKitio fooling. On leaving 
the univornity Oarrott joined tho Htaf! of 
the * Wl Mall Uuaietto, 1 and rapidly made 
hiii mark m a journalist by tho foroo of Im 
oonviotionH--ho ww at thfe time a very 
ardent nuiieiti tlio fr<iMhntJH of hi** ntylo, 
and a happy gift of humour. But ho had 
always boon delioato, and after two yearn 
of work in London hm hoalth broke down, 
The tat Bymptonw of tho dfcoafio to wlxioh 
he ultituatuly ueoumbod, phthiBiH, booamo 
apparent, and lie wan rant for cure to South 
Africa Tho remedy wm for the moment 
apparently HuwMmf ul, and in any ease thw 
viM.it to Houth Afotea in tho ' winter of 
IB8&-90 led to other oonuoquonooB moat 
important to hin career. South Africa waw 
at that time entering tho oritioal period of 
her hiitory which terminated m tho war 
of i89&-19()2, Oarrott, an ardont young 
man of exooptionoily keen iiitelligenca, 
not looking in audacity, and of moat 
winning mannem mid appearance, wa# 
t quiofc to mm the valient' points in an 
mtemttag situation and to make the 
Acquaintance of the leading aotorj in tho 
deftma. He won the oo&fidence of Sir 
BirouloA Kobinnon [q. v. Suppl. I], then 
high oommittiionor for South Afrioa, and 



ma^le groat friends with Cecil Rhodes 
W- v, buppl^ II], besides establishing 
morp or less intimate relations with tho 
leading Dutch politicians, including Jan 
Kofmeyr q, r. SuppL II] and President 
Kruger. f ho result was a series of articles 
m the Pall Mall Gazette/ subsequently 
pubhshDd as a book, < In M rikanderland 
and tho^ Land of Ophir* (1891, 2 edits.), 

tf ?[ X *?* - 8tm - tl)0 bost description of 
bouth Africa m that momentous phase 
of its development. The next four 
years wore again devoted, aa far as re- 
current attacks of ill-health permitted to 

lD r n a M Ht !? )T rk in kondon, first for the 
Pall Mall aazetto/ then, from 1893, for 
the.- WeBtnmiMter Gassotto/ in the openinc 
years of it career, in either ease under 
tho oditptHhip of Garrott'B friend, (Sir) B. T. 
Oook, In 1894 ho U!BO produced a transla- 
tion of Ibsen's * Brand ' into English verso 
m the ormnal metroH, which, if not perfect 
&H a translation, for Garrott was not a irreat 
Norwegian selmlar, is singularly Buooeaflful 
m t reproducing tho spirit and poetry of the 



In April 1895 Garrett returned to 
f uth fnoa to booome editor of the 
Cape TimcB,' the leading English news- 
paper ^m tho sub-continent, and far the 
most important work of Garrett's life waB 
done (hiring IUH four and a half yoara* active 
temuro of that oifioo (April 1805-AugU8t 
IbUO). Mo WIMU not only editor of "the 
papr but tho principal writer in it, and 
btnng a man of ntrong character and con- 
vwtions, gifted moroovor with extra- 
ordinary quickness of political insight, ho 
on more* than ono occasion exorcised by lug 
trenchant pon a daoiaive influence on the 
oouwo of affaira. In tho rapid aeries of 
Htimng ovonte of these four yoara, tho 
raid, tho abortive robollion in Johaanos- 
burg, tho struggle between Rhodes and the 
Bond at tho Oape, and between Krugar 
and the Uitlandew in this TnwiBvaal, the 
Uloomfontein oonferonoo, and tho growing 
tpiwion between Groat Britain and tho 
bouth African republic, Garrett played a 
loading part, His portion in Soutt African 
poUUo boeamo ono of uoh importaneo that 
ho was pmotioally compelled to add to hi 
arduous duties* m editor of the * Cape Times T 
thoo of a member of parliament. Returned 
at tho Cape general election of 1898 as 
member for Victoria East, ho immediately 
took a foremost place in the house of 
asaombly, and in tho two heated sessions 
preceding tho war he wa$ perhaps the most 
eloquent, and -he wit oe*taialy the most 
perguaftire, speaker on the * progressive ' 

' ' 



Garrett 



GuiTfH 



brillmtic 



(1B07). 



in \vril ii'i^ if wiw* 
ihi* wnrkrt jHitii:*niM| 
* Tin* Story C 



n 



, \\*tu* 



A 



wtl .i lite 
My tlill, 
by Sir I".!*) \vurt] l.-*oynf*r in 



(LeJBritmh) side, for, while warmly wupport* 

ing^Rhodes and tho policy of Lord (then 

Sir Alfred) Milnor, ho showed gj*tat tiwjfc 

in dealing with tho miwcoptibilithw of hw 

Dutch opponents. Indeed tho policy which 

he always advocated, that of a United j 

South Africa, absolutely antonomcwrt in * KhwlcH uml 

its own affairs, but rouiaift ing part of tho j t}w('N.*tury ' ( 1 1H ') 'JVl'SrtwuYv, 

British empires, !H now nu cHtabliwhrnl fad-* j Library, whit'h tviw fmmtM! % 

readily accepted by men of all partiim* 

Garrett's important* contribution to that 

result eonatittttfls IHM chiof tUIo to rwm*m* 

branco. But th enormwiH nliynkui Bfmin 

was too much for his frail constitution, 

In the summer o 1811$ IUB tu.nUth liroko 

down permanently* Obligml to Uiavo Brnitlt 

Africa, in an advanced ntag^ of mmKUin{i- 

tion, juRt bcforo the outbreak of tli war, i m 

ho spent the nxt two or thmj yoarn in 

Hanatoria, firwt on tho Uonfmmif* and !hin 

in England, utill hoping agait ht>|H> that' 

ho might bo ablu U return t<: an a<itiv<* 

polHioal oaror* IlVi had ulniiuly in *lntiutbry 

1DOO rosigntjd th (Hlitomhii) w this *CajKi 

Timos,* and in 1002 Iu alo guv up !UH Ht*al- 

in tho houHO of aHHOiuI.*ly, .lln ntill from 



limit 



.N lrr** 



n 



timo to tiino, wlitt 



|iunniff<*(l 



13 My 
HOII cif 
of thiii 



tho oxortion, wroto wlturf* artidiw and 
pooma of ox<ioptioi'U iiit*rit, whitili fj,ri of 
permanent valuo, notably lm Imlliimi 
Character Bkotoh* of <^if Ehmliw, 
published directly after Khtxlcm'ft dcath i 
the c Contemporary Eoviow * of lun0 HHI2, 
which is by for the nuwt iifoltko and b^t 
balanced jioture of that groat |xnftt>Yta)ity, 
Of muoh mtoront likowtMO aro mwm of hin 
memorial vem)H ; * Tho .Ltut Trok* 
on the oooaion of Pnmidont Krgr' 
prbgresu from Capo Town to 1 
{^ectotor, 10 Doc* ' 1804), * In Mi*mrmi 
F* W* B* ' (If rank HhodtM), ( 
0a^d^ 27 Oot, 1905), and * A 

Bpitaph ' [AKrod Boit f "(j. v, HuppK 1 1 ], , 

20 July 1900), In Marali IlKKKJarwit, t\mi 
a hopeless iaviJid,. wan mam<*i to Mm 
Elbn 'UarriflAe. whoip aoi|uairtiiiioci ho htu! 
made, as a fellow patient* at tho mtnatorium 
at Wiston, in Ernie. Miw Mitriago had boon 
completely restored .to health, and it 



doubtless due to her oare and devotion that 
GairrettV.Iife was prolonged for another 
four yar"~ye of great iupplm*!, dt* 
spite his complete ph wioal pvcwtcation. In 



.June 1904 Mr* and fcs, 
cottage, 



r . Hympton, 

Devonshire, Ganett died ther on 10 May 

1 /\/VHf Tf 'If' * t ^t s * MUM* *^ ' 



1007, and was bwied at Bxixtoni 
shire. To the last h oooaslonaJly wrote, 
chiefly on South Aftio*. Within a month of 
his death h contnbutod to the * Standard ' 
*(12 April) an article on * The Boar in tho 



to Mr, C?i tariff 



Hin 

yit.i 

, wiw 
o rliihl 

, l*y Itiw wif* 
iw i'*t.l'Hl4*i. ut 

, ntitl nfirr l.**?ittw 



of 



!.*. 



ui 



hi i 



.. 
M.li in 1H4JI. nrul M,1) 



nl* 



wf 



in 



In UH* Iiill^r 



In* 



nml it 



to 



hi* 



in !H57 in**! 
in 



ii 

'nf 
lt*yi*.I 

l 
on 



and 



h 



o 



lit 
ing [liyniuift!i. At tlio 



n 



im w 
! tlu* . flwt 



medal in 1BB1 



itt 1HHH* 



ttinlt>i 

ibnt of Urn 
{IHT4-4 IHH7) f ami 



he In 18DC) 

to -Qneen Vioturlai' ami WNN an 

member of -the Verein fttr ittn^ro 



f a fdUlower *;f !*rowl and 
JOIUMI, devotixi hlauwlf la ahemteai 
ratigati-on of the pmbtema of dln 
Ufa muiia will alwap to known in win* 



Garth 



Garth 



nee turn with tho discovery that in gout 
the blood contains an increased quantity 
of uric acid, and recent work haa tended, 
in tho main* to confirm MB viow. Ho 
announced HUH dinoovery in 1.848 to tho 
Eoyal Medical and Chirurgioal Bocioty (of 
which ho ww vico-preHitiont in I88CK1). 
Ho alno BcparaU'd rheumatoid arthritis from 
gout, with which it. had pravlounly boon 



At tho Mt'dtral 8wji(ty of London, 
of whidh \w wan orator in 1808 and fm.wi- 
dtmt in 1.800. Uurrod ,vo m 1857 tho 
Lottttoiiiian !i.H$ttm<M * On tho Pathology 
and Tnmtiiumt of Gout. 1 Ht* long enjoyed 
an axkm.Hlvt* practices, but when old ago 
(iiminmhwl hw work m n etmHultant ho 
tvturaod with ardour to his durmicml in- 



died in London on M Doc. HH)7, 
and WUB Jmritd in tho Groat Northern 



lit? niarrii*d m 1840 ElkaJwth Ann 
* 1801) daughter of Hwiry Colchoator 
and Klistabttth 'Bjwnw, of tho Ancient or 
Hparrow HfM8t in Ijp&wiuh, CharltM* Koono 
of 4 Jhmah * Oj*v,] and M'erodith Townend 
Iq, v. *SuppL !'l] of tho *Sj>eotator* wa.ro 
Lady Oaxrocl'ii flmfc coufiinti* Ho had lm\m 
four 8or> awl two dau^litorH. Tho ldcwt 
Alfrod Honry [q v.], and tho fourth 
Archibald I'Jciward, woro, UUo lluur 
n' Mlontcui ft'llowH of UM? Boyal Society, 
third HOI*, lli'-rJ-mrt Baring, wm g<viu*ral 
H.iM'y of this Tootih<jrK* Chiild of Oroat 
llritaiii at'i In*lan<l ( J 8Kfr-.HX)0), 

Xlarrod w*w* author of : I* * f r.!atiH on ! 
(.-knit and Khuumatio Oout* JH59; *lrd 
adit, 1S7II* trtwwlttUiti into Fronoh and 

ami ThwaiwmUtk* JH5fl ; litth odli, ' 1890, 
odttod by .Nwt<*r Tirard, MJ'X He alo 
oontributtKl arttttion on gout and 
tinm to Eiyno!dH*H * Syutom of 



Brit* Mi<d, Joum^ ItK)H, i, HH f Infornmtton 
from hii ion, A 1* Utwml, M,l>. FEJ/1 

H. IX E, 

aABTH,.Sm HM1AHU (1 820 -1003) f 
chief juittatt of. Bongal, born at Monlon* 
Sorray, on 1 1 Maroh I.B20 WUH aitltmt son of 
the 0lx ohildnm of Eiohiirtl Luwndm (after- 
wards Oartii) # HXJtor of Faniham, Hurray, 
by his wife' Bfary t daughter <>. Robert 



His father wa th ooond son of William 
Lowndosof BaJdwin Brightwoll, OxfordMhiro* 
by his wifa Eliasaboth, daughter and hoiroaa 
of Eichard Oarth of Mordon and atmumed 
the name and arms of Oarth on aucoeeding 
to his mother's property in ISS7* In 



courno Richard became lord of tho manor of 
Mordori, 

Ho was educated at Eton, whore ho played 
in the cricket elevens of 1837-8, and at ChriHt 
Church, Oxford, whore ho gradtiatod B.A. in 
1B42 and M.A. in 1845. He was a member 
of tho university cricket cloven from 183!) 
to 1842, and ita captain m 1 840 and 1841. 
Admitted a etudoat of Lincoln'^ Inn on 
1) July 1842, ho was called to tho bar thoro 
on 19 Nov. 1847, Joining tho homo circuit, 
ho gained groat popularity in tho profession, 
and OHpodal roputo in oommoroial oaaon 
hoard at tho ( hiiidhalL For many yoarw 'he 
was counnol U> tho Incorporattnl Law Socioty. 
Ho took i Ik on 24 July 1800, and was two 
di^yn lator tiloottMl a bonchor of bin inn. In 
tho 1HOO-8 patiiamont ho roprcwontotl Guild- 
forti in the oonBervativo ititoront, but wan 
defraud at tho next gononil ohjotion. 

In 1875 ho waH appointod chitsf juHtioo of 
Bungal atid was knigiitod ( 13 May). A bluff, 
gorual, frosh-oomploxionod man, ho lookod 
nioro like a country quiro or a naval pfficw 
than a judge*. Popular with all claHHon of 
aooioty in Uttloutta, ho did much to bring 
tho European and Indian communities into 
closer gooial touch* His judicial decisions 
were markml by learning, patience, and 
practical good stmso, and woro rarely roveraod 
by tho juditnal committ/oo of tho privy 
council. 

Garth aamo into frorjuont conflict with 
tlio Bengal govormnont, TIw* views of the 
high court woro thon flyHtcmatioaHy sought 
on 'Icgmlativo proposals* and Garth framod 
confidential inumtoB, But' at the amo ttmo 
ho often gavo submitiiuont public utterance 
to pronounced apiniorm about tho prupowKl 
logmltttion. The most notable example of 
twoh praotic mm his vigorous propaganda 
agaiiwt tho Bengal tenancy bill, designed 
to give the cultivators in the permanently 
nettled aroai clearly defined and trans- 
ferable occupancy rightB, and passed into 
law after muoh eontn>v<rHy in 1885, In 
apublmhod * Minute' (Calcutta, 1882, IB pp, 
folio) he declared the meaBuro to be 
ruinous far the mmindars and to embody a 
policy of oonlifloation. His sincerity was un- 
questioned, but it was improper for the chief 
justioo to engage in. partisan oontroverBy 
over logilatlon 'which 'he would probably 
have to interpret judicially* He showed 
sympathy with Indian aspirations. Ho 
promoted the Legal Practitioners Act of 
1879, and he inai^M that one of the three 
additional judges appointed to the Bengal 
high court in 1885 aicndd.be an Indian* -1 

Ill-health led to his retirement ixt Maroh 
1886, shortly before h had qualified for 



Gatacre 



Gntacrt! 



1H70, unit 



In 



and niter 



ho 



18HO, af(rr it ,y 



full pension. Ho wa named of tho privy 
council in February 1888, but was not ap- 
pointed to"| tho judicial commitoa A 
strong supporter of tho Indian National 
Congress, ho wrote * A Fw Plain Tnitlm 
about 1 India ' (1888), largely in ad- 
vocacy of its views. Mm vigoroun reply 
(1805) to some oriticiHtuN of tlw movement 
by General Kir (ioorgo 1\ OlwHiwy fq, v, 
Suppl. I] haH boon oauHtitiitly quotm by tin* 
congreHB authoritit'B (HWH IntL Ntit, (kwgrt^* 
Madras, 1900, pt ii* p. 24). Garth promoted 
in July I BOO a memorial to tho India oflit*o 
from retired high court judgrn for tlw 
separation of executive twid judkual 'fum? 
tipnfi in tho adminiBtrativo orgatiiMAtion, of 
diatricts. 

Ho dioc! at his hotMi in ti^niHU>n (tardt*n ; ,.,.,,..,,. ,.,- ,., r ,,. ; , Tf ,,, 
London, on 23 Mareh lfH)3, ami \vtw fmriiHJ j <f ihi* .H*<n#nJ nrniy, 'In 

n.f, Mnfflnkin,. Tl wm.rfi/l /vn *>.7 .ftttifii !k>17 rljti*.*i *if IMttW I,,, ,*.- 



troirif>f*'*l 



!AV 



f* 



\vif| 



n.t 



htti 



April INK1L Ilr- 
f Sir Hurr l 



at 



n 



ut, 



m 



17 



at Mordon, He marritnl on 27 *Tu IH47 i dififn *if 1HKM 
Clara (^, 15 Jan, 1003), fkK?orui datighUrr of i of liln m^ivif y 
William Loftwa Lownd(% Q,Cl f by whoin h^ j in*'nliiHi in Jit 
had six BOHS and thrto datighior, A |>r- j I IS 
trait of Oarth by tho Hon. John CMlkr JH in ; Aft* 
tho Calcutta liigh court. flt<* 

'* M<* al th< :Bar t !HHI> ; India L*\< I ntwl 



u 



n 



Munih 1H8IS; Frw-nil of Ijjtliii niiti Hfitf* ^ 
man Wwkly, 2tt Murt-h 1W.KI t ln<iin, 27 Miuvh 
and 3 April ITO,- WiHritn' C'rk'k^^n^ 
Almanack for !IK)4> Ixxx :$ infcrnmtlw kltwlly 
wippliwl by Lt.-col Efehnni Qrth. tlw ltrwi 
non s pcsmonal knowledge, 1 ' ' :R II II, 

GATAOE1, SIB W1LUAM FOEIIRH 
(1843-1 008), major-gonoral. !>rn nenr 
Stirling on 3 I)co. I8'43, wnn third nan of 
Edward LloydCMaoH*(l$WMU) ty l*tvif* 
Ji0, Hoconcl daughter of WillWn l^riwm 
o Callenckr HOB^ Mkirk* Mtirlln^hiro, 
The second won in Major-^nrml 8ir"il>ji 



ifcritiv, with fb* 



n 
fmm daminr 



ataere, K.O.IJ. Tho fatliw wiui nquim 
wataoro in iho pirih of (Jlttv^rlny, SIm.m- 
shire, a manor held by IUK iitute^iora fnun 
the. time -o! Henry II or <mrlk*r t und wwi 
high sheriff o! JBlmiphiro in 18/jflj. |t 
taught hli sora to bo 'good lioiwmtm, and 
jt -wa to home .life artel purontagoi thiii 
Gataore owed what was moat oha 
of him awtad and body whkh , 
in exorcise and seamed topaWa of 

Educated at- HopkfcV* 'tohool,- II 



, 
and at BaAdhutBt t flataora WM oommb 

6 on 8 Febi 1862 ' 



77th foot, then stationed to Bengal Hawaii 
proraofcd lieutenant on 23 Dae. 1864, Hi 
went to Peshawar with the regiment in 
November I860, and in 1807 he apent 
' 



months' leave alone in the upper vailay 
of the Indus, shooting and explorimr. 
Ho was invalided homo Boon afterwawS. 
The 77th returned to England in Maroh 



HUI.I 



t July tMUT/lntt fr*m 
.^r t*f IMtir* }.i 
in tlw (Wtntl r|NHltt.iMjit. II 
itfn<li **f i 
.U.w |i|, v, 
hi* I'-rm^i^ ** 

tlilrJ 



m . i 
w?n* in 



U 



**f tji*! f/nvim 

nlrritdy 

torou 



t.!uii'mi*i 







n 



or 



n 



a! 189B.Q, llfifitjjg the* MiititiiM'f *4 ISM 
in <4mt*oritry f<mttniii 
tht* flMt htilf f JHtl? 



In Januar (mm thin 



oiwe 



J-*H* in 



obalrmAn of A'ociinmltttMi u bmi with Uti* 
problem unnenkliv. 'nt^nifu */ tu *** 



oontrti! b July 



M to 

ho Wt 



u 



teetimoniabi ex mm* 



..,. ,,.._ ^ rm , T .., 5*W -' ^ n ft^'iW'Tr" T"^* ^'ff? 

Jtemwfcy-^ajitatlwi, Muwulmin 



Gatacre 

and Hindu fur what ho had clone. In 
1900 tho gold medal of tho Kaiaor-i-Hind 
order wa awarded him on this account* 

In January 1HD8 ho went to Egypt, with 
tho local rank o major-general, to command 
tho British brigade* in the advanco up the 
Nile for tho recovery of Khartoum, Ho 
brought it into MUh "condition that it was 
able to march MO miles in a week* On 
H April tho Anglo-Egyptian army under Kir 
Herbert Kitohtwr 'attackcjd tho Mahdint 
iforwH tMtttar Muhmoud in their intrenched 
camp on thfl Athara. Tho BritiHh brigado 
was on tho l<;f t. ( Jaiium* was one of the 'iitHt 
men to rw?h tho zariba, and. would have 
boon Hjwawl if lu orderly hod not 
bayoneted his ttwHmhwt. Kithimor'B dt i H- 
patch npolw of hi untiring enprgy and 
devotion to duty, hi gallant "leading of hin 
men* and his hearty c^)operation through- 
out \famd, f7t. 24*M'ay 1898). Homo Haid 
that h drove hk wHiftern am! men too hard, 
but he wttH unsparing of hlitiHelf, * In tho 
rankfl thoy all him ** <jintoral Baokaohor '* 
and lovuliwi ' (BTKJSVE^H* |i, 61), Hi* was 
pn>mot< k (l majorgwit*ral <.n 25 iluno. 
In this furtlior oj^sratlons, which andod 
with tli captures of Omdurman (2 Sopt.) f 
ho <jmmanml a diviwon of two Bntish 
lie wan again mentioned m 
iM'fH'iviHl tlie thankn of parlia- 
wiw MMulo K.ii'B. (15 Nov.). 
Ho nKHiy*td th* : s .British mid Egyptian 
miniate with two danpH and this Mttjidi< 
{2ntl <?hw*8). On 15 f^^'" hw \vtvH uuulo a 
frtHmau of Shr<*wHbury, and in V 
1809 lus n.Hs**iv4?d a reward for '"""- 



Gatacre 



On 8 "Dins. I HOB h took ov<*r oomrmand 

c.if tli.o i^iwt^rn ftiHtriot. On 21 Dot* 1899 
he ombftrkwl f*.r South Afria, to oommaml 
thu third divinion e*f th army oorjm m*nt oat 
under 8ir HiHlvoru JJulter fq. v. Suppl II ]. 
With ono ox<;i^tim all ttw* Imttahoni of 
hi divwion wcnt.kj Natal to Havo^Litdy- 
Hinith, whihj Uata<m IiiniMflf r<*iua!nod in 
Capo Colony, charged witli tlio d<tfonoo of 
th railway* froni Kiwt Ixmdon to Bothnlio 
and tho country on otush nido of it On 
2 J)eo* ,Bi4il?r ttHkinl Orttaows if l.u> could not 
cloao with tlio <jn<?my or otherwwe hindor 
their advancttt wmthward* On tho night of 
9 Boo, Oataons niadt* an attempt to Hoii th 
railway junction at Stonntmrg* Ho had by 
this time three battaliorw (Northumbprlarid 
fftilier, royal Iriuh rii!e and royal Soot)* 
Ronie mounted infantry, and two battericw 
of fluid arUUery Without good maps and 
M astray by the guidw, his force, uwtoad 
of Burprising the enemy, was itseH surprised 
<m the inarbh A oonfiwdi fight followed. 



in which Homo mischances occurred, and 
retreat became necessary. Many men 
wore loft behind, worn out with 'fatigue, 
and out of a total of 3035 there was a loss 
of 696. ' I think you were quite right 
to try thft night attack, and hope better 
luck next time,* was Bullet's reply to 
Gatacr&'g report of MB failure. Lord 
Roberts on Ms arrival investigated the 
facto, and camo to the conclusion that 
Gatacrft had shown want of judgment and 
of ordinary precaution (Lond, Qctz* 16 March 
10DO). 

By his ortlors CJatacro acted on tho 
defensive for tho next thrt^e months, 
barring n.^jonnatMHancc^ on 2JJ Fob. and 
5 March ItKK). On 15 Marcli ho croHsed tho 
Orange river at 1^'i.hulie with hin division, 
now "num boring HOCK) men, and civrao in, 
touch with tho main army, whieh waB at 
Bloom font<?in. Ho wan placed in chargts 
of tho lintw of communication. On tlte 
lith he was told 'it m very deirablo 
BritiHh troojm nhould bo soen all over tho 
country/ and was anktul if ho could scmcl a 
force to SniithMcl, which h<s did, On tho 
28th Lord EoborU* tolographod, 'If you 
have enough troop at your disposal, I 
ahotild like' you to occupy Bewotsdorn, 11 
and ho wont thara throe companies of the 
Imh riflH and two of mounted infantry, 
On tho Mnt, in cjons(K|Ucncooi; Do Wot* HUC- 
coHHfui Hti'okcj at Hannah'.s PoHt thero came 
ordorH to draw in outlying parties oHpooially 
tho .Dtnv*rtH(lorp dotachrnent. ThPtHO worts 
I.IOHH<-I on without delay, and tho dotaoh- 
mont r<jaclu.d KodderHburg on JJ April. 
'L 1 hor it wan Hiirrouncltd, and aurroudorod 
after twenty-four hours' fighting, when 
G&taeta with a small relieving force was 
within a fow mile of it. It is not easy to 
oe where ho was in fault ; but he was held 
responsible fur' what had occurred, was 
reluMHl of his command on 10 April, and 
roturnad to England (MAtiEtdm, ii 300-11 
and 614)* Ho'wiiw iufonntscl tlmt th.ero 
won no Blur upon, IUH honour, Im personal 
courage, his energy and wnl, * which arc be- 
yond all quoHtion? Ho roe<aved the Queen's 
inedol for South Africa witli two etops. 

IIo rtsmuned command of tho oantorn 
diBtriot at (JalchcHter, and remained there 
till S Dae- 1003. lie \vm plaood on the retired 
Ii8t on 10 March 1004, but was employed 
for some months in connection with ro- 
mountB and tho registration of horses, 
Having joined tho board of the Kordofan 
trading company, he went out to explore 
rubber forcwto in Abyssinia towards the end 
of 1905, Ha caught fever from camping 
in swamp, died at Iddeni on 18 Jan, 1006, 

^ 



Gathorne-Hardy s Gathorne-Harrly 



and was buried at Oamboia. A tablet was 
put up to his memory in Olavc.rfey church, 
Shropshire, 

Gataoro married (1) in 1870 A Hoc 8usan 
Louisa, third (laughter of Antfuwy I*a 
Touohe Korwcn, D.D., clean of Limerkk* 
by whom ho had threes mm, and whom ho 
divorced In 1892; (2) on 10 Nov. 1805; 
Beatrix, daughter of Mom.et\ Lord I)av\y | 
[<{, v, SuppI, Iljf who mirvivcd. him without 



homo department m 25 lA4n lnr*H, in 
t>0rl>*H HIHWW.I iviinintfiimtiftit. iJk* 



by 



of t'ho t^ry party, firmly 



*.t.htr 



tho 1 

and utiMiifn 
tho d 



Wh**n a 

whi, Kir William 



Hii.ri 



smio, 

| An 
HMO ; Tho Timwc, March UKMJ ; Clattwiin O, ,1, 



lifti of him. by r*wiy (t 



and 



of (Ihitml, 



18915; 0. W. Stoovww, With Kitahmwr to 



!riuli*riH.I hw 



\Vai j;.tl* lit* 



in *iflir! fill 



of fli** Herh ininwtr *** !! ..tun* 



Khartum, 1808s BY F, Manriw, Ofti^ial Hitory ( t)r 
<if the War in Hmtth Afritm; H..A-, Wai 1 
ComtniflBion^ Kvidono ii. 27i! H, | K, M* L, 

OATHORNE.HARDY, (JATHORNK, 

first EAKL off (JitANttnaoE 



In tip[KHjiiMn 
initiative ati*i i 



in* 4'** 



iv.f<ri hill 



statesman, horn on I Oct. 1814 at thw Manor 
i, Bradford, WM thirtj mm of *f*4m 

' 



of 



nn) 



Hardy (iL 1865), of 
hiro tho chid proprietor of low M*.:*r 
ironworks, jwl#fl of tho du?hy of Li 
court at Pontofiwjt and iuomb(?r of 
inant for BnwJfonl, by hi \vtf<* I'Mu 
intent dttuglii*ir of .Kit'hnrd C*iUhoitii of 
Kirkby 1^-mHiIa!**, WoHimorrJaiwl. Afl^r 
fttU^naing m'oparrt^irv Hohm>iH at .lUriumUm 
near Bttidky, al HammomRtUh* uim At 
Hadewood mar Birnnin(rhamOathQrno wi 
admitted in 1827 to Shrwwubuiy inkwl 
end IE January iBSS' ho. eriUtfcxi Orfrf 
Collage, Oxford* Ha grwluftted B.A, lit 
1836 with a mond lm In daHHioN, mul 
proceeded M*A. In 186! in <>Itr to vain 
against Oladfttono, On 2 May 18*10 
Hardy WM called to tho bar nt tiho Inmr 
Temple, and joined tho northwn 
bhrowd btwine atialitioH ot 
family Sntomt and YorkHhlro 
soon attraoti:sd olfonta. H m 
prominettAd In bin profcuwian, nd by 
be had acquired a oompbto !f fc ! on mm* 



thn 



flu* 



wliip, 



o 



* 



flits 



ill 



t 



llunly 
)iti 
f* a 



On tlit* 



2 

and mm 



til liin j*irty* 

*f Umi Ji^rliy*i* 
Itoly wnn **|*j*M|fftl 
if tin* j*-*r law 
' 



it* 



law ampminttml lilli m W 
and mrri^l It Um:itigh itll 



with ! jy MuiJMtanUtU uliw&UMit, 

ii mtrti|mliUn aiiyitim fcir itiuk mtii 



tv 



sion$ and at -the padiamentaiy bar* In tho 
&amo year he appilad for iiuc, but to 



W . t*p A ^ ^ WTT1JB'| iwr *B W Vt^ * #IH 

appoinimnt promotion ww refined him* 
His father's- death, howwer, to 1W5 left 
mm ample means, and -allowed him to 



or favor anti tnnatt{4x 



himself to -politloi. 
Henceforth political ittteregte bwmii all- 
absorbing. In 1847 Hardy had untuooeaa-- 
fully contested Bradford in the oomeimttva 
mtereat, and in 18156 he'enterad the 'Howe 
of Commons as oonaevratlve member lor 
Leominatar, whioh he oonUnued to 
sent till 1805, Ho raidl won 



esteem and oonfldenoe'of gpenoer Walpole 
v.], and on his teoommendation ha 
appointed under*seoxetaKy for tho 



jpulitan 



oommun Iun4 



mta mid by t>mrKim 

ujjm" 



Hardy remainiKl in 

tb 



fc ~ fl 

him 



aaliinrt wid tlta 
bill of Ii$7, 
to avt a full 

ta ^ - m 



ho iwd- beeoiito mi rtjtlmwiwtkf 



_ , on te miamttim wf 

Walpole > "altar tha Hydo Park rlotn, Hwdy 
Moaptad the dlflieult poat of .home mweury, 
The liberal oppoaitiori oompetiml Mm to 

withdraw a bffl deolaiiag It to to illegal 



( xathorne-Hardy 



kith onie- 1 lardy 



tho park for tho pyrpcmw of , 
diHcussion, But ho fiuttxi the Fenian 
conspiracy with ow*rag. li Nsfjiwl + to 
commute tho capita! iwmiUMttt 
Fonian mimk*rer at " "" 



w for ihi* dpspatwh of an 
oxjxxlitionary forc to tho M^iiM^rmtwaii 
in tho ovc3nt of war. In tho dobato on 



tho i 4 Fob- 1&78, wh<m GIadHtoi.m uml 

i T r i 

ia Hnum> of Omimow to nviwjt tho vote of 



and warningH whioh Iw mjdvisrl 
him to imprint* HjwciiU nmtri<itionn on 
Victoria's nrnvwuflntu* Tito intitrmtn rela- 
tioH whih IH* rMtttbtirfu*! with Qtimi 
Victoria |q. v. SwppL I) at thm oritiwil 
period w<*r*j nuuntuintHi throit^hotit hur 
itngn. 

Afk*r tho nwignatittt *.*f th i'.)iHriw?li 
miniHtry in IBtttOlaniy n.miic*ml ^fllti 
wsrvico t MM party * dohttUi, 
iii cionilkt with CtiuiHtrino. llwli 



of 



whih 



,,......., tf mob foiled it way inU> tho hanui . 

office. KM life wiw rf^|HmiIIy thn?ntonr>d. liy Iho ... 

" donounood UiiuiHUmo'H u;tivo agitaitun in 
the ommtry^ {iftidf. p. JI85). 

Whoa l)inra:*ii ' wtm forfimi by iUhoa!tit 
to Iavo tho lio'ttKO of OtmntonH in August 
IS7S Hardy oxpcHitod to fill f.ho placo of 
r and* ho wan tHHttppnintod by tho 
ion (*f Sir Stalloni Nortbooto |!|, v*], 
but hi Htrrtng iiiHtiitot t party l*.>^ 
him quickly t^ nmiga iutuHrli' t< 

on* 

In tho rt'.arningtnnt.'nt of tho 

monrni K|K!<H?h on tho Hrnwrnti mtuiin^ ol i whiah frtllowtnl tJio roHtjpatttm of th* 1 
the Imh i?tui.roh tlint^tiililwhinont bill on 1 loroign iinniHU*r ? Kciwaitl ftonry Stanley, 
25 March IHfHI primal a furtnitiahhs If j fiftw^U-h oarl t*C Derby 1>|. v.J, in Murob 
'an uncompr0mi*mK, dofimco of iaw^ and J 1B7H, Harcty t*anio mwrotary fur hulia hi 

j. . * A 1 1 j. i i l....i,-i ,k. it.iii .1 **.i '' /" lt;^f * * * *** jr * j* j.* ) fctt'%#'*#*&ay**'iii i i- : s 1 jrUi"*? ?***l IUJI ttli*tf H-'rlfi H.'<'*'f4t, 1'ti 

, nt/H'v* jMolUI* |4'i jrfUIv* ivJll.'.t.*niy.t V \>4l'^ M'.illw *' 

f ' r . " ' , * h 

mm}HitlUtm with Hir Stafford NorthooUs 



ho l<it fw 



pro 



'- .-,..., , , ,. j. ^ 

yoking cmUiftbn with tno primo mininter* 

'I^l.i^ j.' u.-.,i L i*i twht jMKVt 4 *-t O IJ'jili*t*i t *>illii*ip 



he ttpj:>intmont of Sir Robert Oolliar 



,._. ._ Ix>rd Monkftwdi) {q T.] to 

thti judicial oommittm) of Iho privy council 

,n i , u >c i* i ii.fr * 



th 



f t 



of 



. 
mainly -aooountcd for Hardy'n 



to the .Houno of 



on li May lS7H f 



wn raited to tho 
VJiwoHnt Qriirnfmn'fk of Hornntotl 



V* 'J 1 j . 1 *^.'* s*w* iwa '^ff T,T *n w w B w^fTi ** " "" n. * ; n^-r J" " iW F ^J ^^ 7 ^""'*^- > T.-W.-,^ * ^1. . , , -, .-^ T^. ^.. *,-,.. .. m r, , , ,. , ^ -.,.,. ,.-,,. ^ ^ . ,. ,. ... , 

ami' th<* Kw^lmr* ri^tory imputation in j t4mk WH titl from hin country m*at in Kmt, 

1B72 proinptt-kl him ti> Hathing critidHw, j anti At tjtt. d^Mim f hin faintly his aHHwrnt*! 

\V|i!ft}t ^" **'"'****"* *lt** **^i**wti*+i*i*l fill* *l/l#}lf.1/tt1**t til.H^I'ttrttlf)! I 1 if fhl f It/ tttll 



On th fortnation of 
adminlHtratiou litiwly wiw ii 

tary of tatcs for war wti 21 
Haon aftcsr mwuming oflkia ho htui a 
with IUM chitf art ahurah 



a tliii tMldittoiwl Huriuwno tf 
HtHHind 1 Jx>rti Oraubraok'H lirnt i!iiiU duty at th< 
Itulla otlSfit* wan to wtrititu ^ Ht ^ - 

giivarninaiit i mltmot) Indian 



A mwfomta although Hin<^rw aimrahtimn* 
jjo o|>]H)MiHl on i) *lwiy 1H74 the pubiia 
worship rt^gulatbn bit!'d(?piu>.tho protoa* 
'Uon given it by Dimwlf, nntl Im nupporttxi 
ObdiiUmo in a Kpttttah whioh wnn liMt 
to with mmm <linapprov,l by hfai own 
{Luair, fttarfi #f 'th* tttmmi P&rlia 

* ^1, Haitly romaind at tto 



war 



that nruinatixi clinftflfootion, but Iw wtruok 
out tmi olautm oxmnptinp; from tho 



mom than four 



Tha 



who nubmittcKi thwir articles 
oniM>r. Ho 0xpmno(] doubt of tho 
gonoral prinoiplo of tho aofc, doolaring that 
tho vonraoular p*H ww a valtmblo and ono 

of the few a&tfablo mmm of anm 

ptsoplo 1 * Butnal 
m?ntimnt FAUi^ Hintwy 



army, reform** whioh Vfaoount Ctolweti 
Iq v*] had inugu.rivttHi worn utiJi inoom- 
pfcto, 'and it foil to hii nuoooiwor to upplo 
raent and oa.rry on hm work* llin 
mental exohangOA bill, which wm 



JS75* logaiised tho paytnont of inonoy 
By officers "to ihono.doniroun of oxohnnging 
rogimentB with them* and wm donoutiood 
by the opposition m ratoring tho purahdim 
syitem under- wither name. In tho do* 
bates on tho Bittern qtuMtion (1876-8) 
Hardy took a prominent part* oorc^ally 

' 



supporting Dteraeii'i pWlo-Twrkiih 

am, buaijy oooupying Mmielf dtMag 1878 in 



of Mwlm Mngtmul* IttOft, iv 7S), Hid 



with tho viooroy, Ixml :Lytton 
invariably csordiai. Whon Lytton 
iHtxl hw imwigativo of ovorraling 
\m ootinoil on ' tlw 'question of reducing 
the cotton dution CJranbrook in the oonn- 
ci! at homo oonfinnoci Lyttoa' 
by hl waiting vote (Kmt India 
IhtMea* Whit* Paper, 1 871))* Lord Orwibrook 
fully Bltarod tho viperoy's apprehenaioiw 
of Euaftian eicpamion . In central Aaia, 
and Mupportcxl ZMton'f' forward polioy.on 
ill north -wait frostier, .whioh ataaa .t 



British telmenoa fa&^ Afghanistan. 

toreo@iro tho 



Gat home- Hardy 



Gatlu>rne~H,mly 

/ 

txmi {'nwbri-wtk 

sjimwlty 
OK?-! rif i 

\viih 



hi 



ffrr 



Britbh envoy, ho WOH ut <>w> with Bwm,,,,,- 

field in wgAsding war an iiwvitabli*. In a 

powerful dcHjmtch dftknl 18 Nov. IK78 \\ 

he jwatlflod the corn-bin of tho A infer, AIM-* * 

aligning the rcHjponHibiiity for Short* Ali'n . hrw*k < 

estrangement to tho action of (*tiuit,Wiu*w flwon^y 

govfirnm^nt in 1H73 (H* B. KANHA, 77/r ,. in tho t 

Second Afghan War, IK1H> ii. !&">), On of l^tnli rti 7 

5 Dec* 187H he Haf1irm<*l thin <nmvii*lion in nioni wsw lit^rvilv 

tho HoiiHOof 1^trflH t dow|ito tho /tftaokn of '. uiul aj/nin in |Hl*rt'ji 

Lord .Ncjrilibn^k jij. v, 8up{)l. 1!) and <tthor iho 

JiberalH (Jtttmmnl, *l 8. rextiit. 4(>} Aftor in IT 

tht* tioiuilumr.m of tho. pt'iM^o, of On.iKlfiii.tHk of .! 

on 20 May 1871) Im Qranfonwk onihu 

HiaAtionliy HUp{x.irU?il tho tippointtuoni i.f a : l-f.o < 

British rc^idtmt to C'ahii!* But ilm itttmlor 

of the rtmitmtt Hir txmiM C'-uvugrtari f*j, v| 

on JJ 8t*pt. 1.8711 m$K'!to<t tho war, AH 

oon 4t i^oixi Iiol.K.?rt^* virtorit'H hmJ 

moro n'Ht<mHi AgIn-l.miiHit Hiiprr^ 

ho ftpprovtHl of LvUon'H wchomo' fur 

fl|)ftration of KatiatUtur from Kabul iw f 

infhionce* But tlwi jirncttoi.., .....,,, .., 

lartition proved nfrongw than ho r'ui; 

for Alxiurnihiituti, tho now * ' 

this wholw territory of 1 

Th wtttiitlon \viw htiJJ j 

tho i!ijniHt<rH ro^igni.HJ on 22 A|ril IHHO, 

AfU*r tho fail f UH* ."Uww '" ' ' 
mc^iifi ,1. >(}irti t 'I'jLi it >i'ot )li tf'i 

in opputiition k* ooottiiitmat ^Htitiinm of 
govornment lift tlm E^um of Lunfa, 

reform 



with l./.mi 



in 



n 

, IH1KJ, wlmn 



llo* 



n 



t*, 



itf, tJi-MiHit^l JVifk 14* 
w-nn hurm! i Hriirmi 
+Mki, vvh.i IVJI.H ^itrf 
in tHWf, wiw f.ht* 
In !H#K* 

J*.*f^t<i< t.f 



in 
lliflsii, *flirt% 



o Iwniiin* 

r h-*, *l 

mi* I in 







ait i 



from 1.H7U 



I** 
il 

. in 



. 

l:VrtrH. * 
* Vtuiity F 

tVIW it- 



miwiten cm cathfxlrai it 

plaoo unboundid (KMfktomm in IUH L^ w *^v * 
and shrewd judgmttut., but ho playwl k ) 
Ic5w nFomimmt part injmUfa nlMm * With j 
I/Jm Sulittbury fjo wiw* in coiuttiiitt* HVitaiaf h v hitf 1 

tt j " J, ' T '' ~ i'r ~ * ** * ^'" ifklf JF * * fftt, <t 

mm <m wmm of cslomi fritrnflHliip. For 'y*tt! 
Handobh Chunshili Ji|. v, Sum*!, I J ami iho 
forward wing of the ooiwcrvfitivo'imrty ' 
had-imaUroffftrd. OnSH* 1 "**" 1 " 1 "* 1 '" *-^- 



it,. 



I ho 



T ^ " jp^ m " r r ^'* s * W'jf'f mv ' jr vf wr^ 1% 

lord prwiclont of tho wuudl, a-'mmt whldi 
ho aaftltt held in Lord 8lfaibary f i 

tt jl^k MM J?ut -* 4*^ iL 'f ^t'l e( t /* .J 41 *i* #-4Vl, 



to hk Inabiiity to spak fowign 
ho doolmcid tto fmbn.- ftitaryEb in 
1880, and hkpwue IM thi mlm& of thn 
Imh TOwpyd^ As loid p!ctofc of tho 
oounoii CSpoabrook WM mainly aonwmM 
with education. His ohtuwhrnaiuihlp'taitidft 
Mm anxious to protect th voluntary whoob. 
He ohmnhed , doubt* of tb prudence of the 
education bill of 1891, which ortaUUied fne 
education m dementary achoob, but aa ' 
gpwnment measure ha felt bound to 
It official support, 



by 



Jovr*J 

, ho f***ro lit 
n htul 



it **i fist* mtt tif }nuiy "wul 
Ho w 



in 
ftttompt ci 



nf Fmli?r(k 'I 



ntul 



u* utmt 



At Oxford' in 'W72. Mo ... , ., 

Gkmlmmmld$* m 

t .Ud dL*.UUk.*.'b) *. -j, 4 1 ..... 



gowan fttMl 

0:* I^IWII,. 8 



1411 



Mf 



J 
* 



auuiM on 20 IJawh ilii Jmu. 



of lioliy womi H 
wtui madti * Li4y of 




I 



rial nrdrr nf (hr thrown of lurlia iJt 1878, 
limi dii*l >n Kf X:*v, 1H07. 'By hrr hn hml 
* ff mr nrntH ttwl fiv' ttAughU'fH* *,*{ whnitt 
Hon rtijil two dmiBhU'rH 

' ' ' ' * " 4 K K *' 

him, HiH I'M****!- wiu Jnim Slim- 
curl (^ 18;), <li'.i m in ,rly HVli. and 
wiw mic $ c'i*i**1itl in tin* tifl** t,v hw d1f 
Hon (lAthorm.% third * s itt1 f C-nwilirwik, 
llio third m, Alfnsrl .Kmkint* (^ IH15), 
M.i* ff*r t'imlorlirtry front IB7H f JHWI 
finti fiif KjiM' C*t"ifVH|f*{i*I fl"*'**ii JHHIi lo 

1** \ H, * ' * * * .H" * ' r ' ' ~ ^ ^ T B ' ' ' ' ^ 

and put.4iHhtti u- tn**in* : >ir nf hiw fuihrr In 
V' j'A* K Itjfcf h.*,f li^ iffir*ly t*j*ili".ru*' r 
Iwi Knr! **f CfrtuhrMnK, A H.irm.nf, 11*10 ; *J'hn 



*24 Mftwh HUO; 
I) Aj.ril 1010; 



HMvi%v I'll Mnrt' 



. 



; Sir l<* 



i f!mti(. Muff. 



OATTY, ALKHKl* 



of f5 

on IB April IHhl, wm 

of ' 



n. I>iry..l 
., H, \V. 

), vivar 
in ' 
ng 



.Mary, 



of i'k 



*if ArrH!*1, 



Nuitinjy(hfunNhins Tliw fn'tiiil 



it 



thw ttftwmth w*nir. 



wiw 



for 

^B April IHIil h iiittiriwliilMl fr.*m 'K 
(lolli^r, Oxforti* ii j(nuit-i'4t ilA, J 
im'prwtwtliiK M,A. in 1HU awl !U>. 
in IHIIO, (lafiv wiw nrdttinwl dwiwon in 
1 837 ami priwi In this f!Iowing yoar , Fnmi 
18! U 1880. Iiw wiw^urittft f lMI*rby 
Yorkriiiw, In Ut lititur yjjar tm inarri<ttt. 
and wwi ih^'itnijwn Mwurmtwl l*y hin 
wif** }naii*r rml grandfaihr f Thoina liydt+r 
of lltmduxi, Mkidtomx, U* ih viiinrMtt 
of J^od^ll01i t ncmr Hht'ilidd, whioh lw 
Iwld for ftixty-ftwr yittw. Undw hi* 
ih ohuroh wan aawptoU'ly rontoml in 
In to namii ymr Jw w*w appointed rural 
dmti. Hit Moaamtt Htibnlt^n of York 
miniiior in 1868, and Sa the oouwe of hi 



to Mnry li**lvn, flan^hiitr rf Erhvard Now- 
intiii .f .Hrtnwh\v, VrkHl.urp wluj 8\Jtyivil. 
him \vifhtwt IHMI.\ 1*lie tliird win of tlui 
firwt marrtHKi's 8ir Alfrifl Scott-Oittty, lus^ 



York, He died at EeotaHfield on 20 Jan, 
1903, IQatty wat twice marriods (1) on 
S July 1839 to Hargaiot (180&-I873) [q, v.] f 

" a. w **tlV r it A 5k 4t 'If' 1l 



Soott "fq* v,] by whom ha hwl l* uon-and 
four daughter!*; and -(2) on I Oct.' 18B4 



tin* Min"*iid dauglit^r, Mr*** Juliana Horatin 
Kwing Iff, v] # iniwlo ii r*jn* tuition m a 
wriN.T fur t..hu yottng, A portrait of Oatty 
by Mw. 8, K, Waf.Ur, whitih ww pn^ntod 
in him l.jy IIIH parmh.i.t.mt*rH n tho fiftieth 
anniv*rHry of IUH inavnuh^noy Ucilongis to 
nti won, .Reginald Oatty, rwotor of 
.Hl.^rtH, Yorkrthi.ro. 
y' lit^-rary labowrn w<^r<* prolongwi 
riotm4 WSiil^Hlill an iul* 
ho pbli8h*.il a nlight volume t.if vi 
Fniitrii^ of a !ihym?r* (1833). Latitr 

' 



in * Ui*m>i!.tHitionH of Ihn l^ifo of tho 
A, T. Hiioli* IM>, lxrd Nt.JHon'K chaplain * 
(!.H s l2), in an edition of thn * Autobiogiraphy 
of Iow*ph Wo!!!' (1H60), iii a d<'Hcri{*tivo 
rnmmtni f a Utiir in Irolatut* i?tititl<*d Tho 
old F(!kM from Hww* (1861), undin 
4tom}n!atitn of * A Hwok of Swndiitl 
4th wiit. ItKKi). (Jtttly w^aUstlly lootuml 
!..wforit this Hhoffiotc! 'fjtorary and Plult> 
HiKsioty, and publiimcxl a oful 
^nnyiion^ *' InMomoriani'" * (188lj 
it, IHtk), But h! waino WHB tent 
n ju4 u writer ou local topography awd 
itrhH.logy. In 1817 apjwririxl hin loanu^I 
t8Mftyim k 'Tho Ml ; itH Origin, IliKto'ry, and 
llwm ' (2mi 4<Iit, IB1H), Thin mm follimwl 
In 1HBII by an <?uhirgwl folio edition of 
JoNtifih HuiiU-r'n * HatiamHhiro * and in 1S7S 
by a' popular hlHtwy of * Bliaffkkl, Pwit and 
l^ntitnt.* Bftwuen I Mil and 1358 Gatty 
aim* I*u*tt*nl ftrnr vulumos of ormoni/ 

ITItti Tiriw^, 21 .Inn, 1003 ; A, Ofttty, A 
ni 'Oiw Living, 1884s M<m of thp TJm, 
priv>i infortimtion fr>m Hir Alfred 



,,m HAMUJBL .TON EH (183WU), 
: )hyioiati, mm of William Oiw by bin wild 
"rfytlia HutUm, wan bam in London on. 
$ Stipt, 1830. ' Mi** father had a pomtion ol 
iruwtin a IniHiiuwH houmi twuJ hwmothorwa 
a jKjmoii of mnarkabh* ability. In 1847 
!ia wan iont fc a privato ohool at Knfluld 
and tbn tt> UnivorHity Gollogo whool in 
London fmin 1852 till 1854* Ha matriau-. 
latad at tho Univflwity of ..London in May. 
1807, studied niedioine "at University 
CuUogo, gnwluaied M*B. in 1861 and M.D* 
in 1H&5* ' Ho wm elooted a fellow of the 
Royal College of PbyiWaa* in 1870, He 
wai appointed -resident houuw aumeon 
.at the Hospital for Siefc OWldrett to Great 
Ormond Street* London, in 1865, ma there 






ee 



fq.v. 



wi 22 



io wn to (Sir) Thoman 8ini 
II], ihf'Hurgf*.mf thrmtgh wlu:mn ! 
witrt dknriwJ AKttiNtani nltymtriiin j 

1808," "On 21 Oct, 1H7H" Iu* W(v 

, UKM rn 

f ill 1 tlrjith* In 
the Htihrml of 8f. BfiHlmlmiimv^ hi* \\ 

*f inndmi 
nn jiJiflu'lf*Ktrui 

awl Iwturrr *nt niHiirinr* ( JM7H- iKI). Iff ww* 
tifiy^itniui HHit nhvNirtHtt f ri 

J i. ' . J ,. Lj * 1 4 

iiiirl !)ft*iun<t 

of tin? tfltirf an.Utfiniit*)t l Im tinio n 
tlimmmm of tthikirrn* .At tl.u* it^yul C^ 

ItHjturl'ii * On th^h^ut of ill** iimly ' in 



. v 



, Ij, 
tury 
Uifh in i*jw^kkinu:a!ir| writing 



of 



ntr fho 



Ji 



JtutrftttJ, !!Mi:.I| uti*i 

r*f AinJn^w :M.*.rvr 
11474), 

ariiifi *f ih^ UMV^I! 

rH-ir-fy ir.*i 1HH 



li, 



m * ("In ih** iiuw.* 

forinn of hftmt'inliM i'uu.1 tin* inittih?- of 
inrmary i.nt.phym:'(nii ntitl iwllitna * in 
Jiti wmut (UMiHi.rin tim t!ti1k%i* in IH1I|--| jy$t| ' : not} 

})riM?litm nut.! tt'iw i'inwiiltw! in nil tirnn^tH^ .' in 
of itu^ikntM*! 'Ifr wfw* 
ki C^'*orfif* i 



, 
Mm t**".ri*! *i| 



at 



m?rvi^l tliM n^itttntifin wlii^h lit* attnintHi 
toing <inc of th flmt pltywciiuw tif lj tintf 
He wrote mwiy miMini on ttitHiioftt tiW*ot*, 1 Ilw JH7& 

U 4 '4 JUi ft f**i ff ff ^ T r .y | 

it*. Jp.'4^4 uiul . ,uita I T _u,,^ JE -..,, I, ,!,.,. I . ! . ^ . 



J. 



in. 



anil 

*y*fi 
I. Jo 



The enrUoit wnm 

and iulmrcuiaf matiin#iti* unit 

in 

vok L 
othow amK*ant n 

lit! :iitb!mh^l n 
and . 

witli othor MotlnnlH f 
tionof UmCht f (5th wlit, HHJti), which 
fttonoo this moNt exnot ftmi thi> tnotil. Utr*riiry 
aoount-of iU awbjwt in KnifltNh. ftl*rt 
Brfdwi to lili * Carman fil^inomn * o 
IB77 tms dmoribod Chio'i pmiuiuuto 

fe* 1 '* .* K 'fc* .11. .>*] tav ^^ fi ' JS k-.. H. ....... i . M. f . ^ . 



tin 



ittiui. H'III 



uv, 



l*v .\Mrntitft 



Mi work upon t&ii ixwk 




ot 



nitll ttt 



, ttuwwttout, 



morbi 

only ' otliar book WM * 



fourteen leeturei gf ,, 
27^ aphodumi oolleotod by Dr. T, J 
once bia house phyiibiKi, The a 

"" very wall the fern 



dugmatlo- 

ka ha4 kamod torn Sir WlUitm 



burgh, wit! iMterwiiiti* uttitlifitl diviitit y fitr 

ffjyi * ""'" " *'" "" "* 



'i 

ill C 



mm JHIil 
r nt t 



BHUln 



n 



till IW7, 

fmm. 1867 to 1B70. In IM7! to w 
dn,ioon in ihn Chuitih **f : E 



kll 



Gdl 



Church. Nmnlly. Pri* UH7i : Hl) v vicar 



to 



dork of 



Si. Mury'w, 






ft 

vicar of SU Martin- at- i*aliM3fy 
(1885--W), In IH71 Im^wui tit win km*: 

iwd'in JHtU lion, IJ*1>. f &lini.wrh Urn- ; 

varsity* l.n I.HW h wtlml* owing to ill- . 
health, to Ifcwnwimmith, wh*<r** IIP diwl tn 
I April iutHi He ww* toiriwl fit "" " / 
Ilw had hwti ttwiwUnl n invil lint ff*<tw* 
of (301. n 1H08, H mamtnl itt 
Mamaitit* dfitjglilur of linvirl Tuylor of , 
DuVmn. Ww mjrviv*^l him with two 



in 



i*iwi 



t*n 



l*k *m MMiwtl nil*! rt 



olid of ilttt 1-mnl 



iihitif 



urn! 



*-irl,h*wlt.*ie 
ritlhwr 



w 



t4> tiio Manx, bar 
Ho onJMyml a largo 
i.* ami inscttmo known 
thti ol.if iwjtbority on Munx Jaw MIC! 

In IHM h win* a|)|R*tiiU*ti high 
of CiMiUoUJwn, and in May lilMI* 
of the M.iy;*i libn Ao-t boomo 
Dfuirttl. Tlmt oflioo A ;ho iiliod 
with ditttiotton for ovor tbirty-iwo ywrg* 
|| dr^ftnd with tiiwob wkiil i*ly all the 
Aat^ whbit QAIUM iisUi ot>orttlbn during 
th |rt<Ki Fwm 1HUH tt I1K)0 ho w*^ 
firwt 'dmanHtwr ( ami frtm IW) till dotith 
of th roll*. 

II u?i|Hrririiy tUlwl tho |Kmt of ddtputy 
in IW* *u^i.M M^vt-ritiir in July 
di|wty $m<vmv In Noywnbr 
llo wm moiuimp of th<* ltJgblativ 
tlw TynwttUl court foif thirty- 



work wn* s lltiuw will* thti 11114*1, r 
IScrifiinrcK in Urn Ught .f Mmtorti 
oovarymitl Kiir*wl.l^* (Mi vnl, 
now <jrlit. bt'grly rn*writMiH* 12 v**li. 
HiH ' Ufe mid WnrtlM f C'brint " 
1B77; IM^V wlit, I vol. .$I rwaliml n, 
*if nmiriy 

n 



rank;* 






In 



ic a 



of CJliiiiilw ii^gtii*^ Otiwlur |>j. 'V* iSitpp!. I !..') j 
anil ?vt<rftl viniUi l4 the tJOttf'ttfy 
Jinn with tiraiiirtiil for * *I f li** H4y " 
Jitbie: A 'Book of Be 
riiti In I^tiiei 

1*M*7 ; jfcbdttfttxi lit, 1903}. Annng C2eikie' 
other worku" were s 1 . * Ueorge Hti^ilw, r 
Ufo in the WMC|II; IM ; Stott edit. 1W4, 
*> * l*l*'t*.i'''4'*'i*j on IJ[ff>(* IS7CI* *l* ' i.ilil 

.. rortmiUi,' W7; new edit. 
Oki TenUmeni Chwiiotwii/ 

itlil* IHH4* 4 * 



. 



* dhMttpioiitti lUi tho righto and priyi* 
" "" i Wiyiti, H. ttiok ( an active 
:3N*H in rluefttiouttl axitl toiigbUH work. 
tie w o!iftirmft!t of the Irrnukr juiftioon 
(vom 1870, * tntt of King William 1 ** 
CkjlJi* ml dhairmiui of . th< oauttoil of 
eduaaticm 'from W72 to 1881. for many 
ytmni h wiy$ ohatrttian of tho MAIIX 
Hfwioty for tho l*uW;oAtioft of National 
i)oaufttt)ntM| iwul In* odilxxi in IHill voi xii* 
it! I'Arr'H "AliMtnujt of Lawn f the Ilo 
of ilAn,' ltd wiw n3iw> wditur for th* 
;ov0rnnitcnt at th*i utatute lawn 
tflo froin I83 to 1848, and . to 

, ., and annutaUxl a revhwdi wiifcion 

of tho .tftaiutott dating from 141.7 to' 



from tho tittra-ProttMUuit utaiKiptdnt whton 
run tlmititfh nutnorouii *HUan. ^* 'Tho 
Proeioun l*imtao, or Ught from- Doyomt; 
iSS2;. & * tMdmariui of Old 

ttt tt i U *' i J 'INtt 4 

'rv. I8w4. 7* 



'oontributar to iraUglooa 

[Bootuman, April ifMMH AUibono' Diot. 5 

,} W, F 0.- 



lawyer -abd judge, boni at Konnaa on 
"82i3^wat Moond 

We of Ibn, Tha fiusuty of 



^mW*fm w l w~'rTwir"^~ ^^ BP^J.' ^.-r - - n* -M 

Mhod and Elng WOMam f s Oblk^ Goli 



An <mrnat oliuwhrnaa, hu WM for tho 
gnmtor part of hfc life a Smiday-nohool 
uwofatft WK! wiw ono of . tho ohureh com- 
mbwiotuAi tto trttMtoen of Manx ohuwh 
uroporty. -Hu ww knightodin 1877. He 
w'ipt . inoUng govenutr when lung Jbklward 
VII and Qiioon Atoxandr* paid their 
iurpriw vwit 't> tho tale in IWft and he 
nwoivetl. the \mwMZ of ttV.O, Ho 'died 
at ttaftttatown on 13 March liK)o. He 
mnrried on 17 Deo- IBfiO AjweHa- Marola 
(ei. 18W), daughter of William Oill, TWWP 
of Malow, ft well-known. Manx witotac ana 
reproientative of an ancient local fawuly. 
Of four iom and three- daughtew* two 
cm* Mr. JuaM Stowdl 



od. Owttotovn* aad WiUkm 



o ougi o. w* 
<M1 tioar o! ftmtefraot, Yortahtt 



o! tto 



tho 



0. 




'M 



CIEOBdB WILLIAM 



un 



BA.K& Of Ti*i*5!UttY 

ftaid-zuiirH.hftl and < 
of the ann>% wiw nnty mm 



n 



tHf.V 



nf C***nijo III, Hi* inttht<r 



of Fnsdt'Hk,lAiHtgmvttiif Jit.***** Cum*!, ' II*.? ' *4 

waa born at Ckmliritlgo Iltww, Hanover. ; w 

on .211 Murdi 181ft mid bring nt ihnt timn ; ilmfh iJ 

tho only gwmlehilrJ of Owrgt! It), bin birth O 

WM teitmiiy am<HUxi by thm* wittifrw.* " *yi 

"-tho duko trf C'lowtuw (tnUsr WiHiiuti IV), '" bv 
tho oari of Mayo, and tttmritr Itenrv 

',* /" *'#*.*.. * r ~ ' / 



MII 1 
fJw tfi.H.jw li 

J Aril 1MI 

t 
him! 



ur 



7, 



klt 







fUi*r mi h 



iuu 



:Jrrnv 



r 



^ -,--,.. ,.,, m , i^,., v ...,, *<.** -w, *f1| : 't B'lU t | *^|||| *t*# j 

Uanovor, and l*iittytH;*wrp Hvna'thiw (t]| : r;ivnirv ni fr 
ISSOj whoa ho wjw Mont u* Ktighutrl i tw* '. riitln%ai UIP'M^IV 
nndttf tho <?aro of VViliinm ! >uui Qtnvn 
Adciaido* lib tuu>r wim John iiyl^ IV^FJ* 
ttftrwal cwun of Wm*t*?r wh hmi 
jjftt utilucnoo ovw him tuid w*n 

bttmn & diary, *m a Jmy uf f<turti^, n, 

gulfurly naivn tttwf?iMn *f IIIF * * ' ' 

am.1 ho kept it up it within tt, 

bin dirath. In IWi*5 Iw ww* 

Mtl in Aug. I j&% K,('. In li 

bin imr<*nt in ( .ili4iif*vi*r bin t.wtor 

b^ a miUtiiry giivomor, litnitciiiiut- 

Wiliirutt livnrv toniwai) 
ifis Iut4 ton 



r 



It* 



t 

wwt 1** Ibn t>ii*'rt. 



th 



arm 



if* 



111 

ri 
>fn|r lMr 



now began to 1mm rogimoniat duty 
m a prtvato and an oflW, 
On ti&o M0im of 

Quon Viotoria, in *himi 
|WK! to tho dttktt of , 

tfao auko of Cawbrulgo rutunitnl with hi* 
family to Knglnnd. 'On 3 Nwv. IViiwu 
Oeor) ww modo brovot (iuloriol in thti 
army, and fa fejoiit. i3H ho wont u 
to Iwn |arrimi dutfoi*. ll wiw 
to tto Efel foe* for drill, Alto 

' 



tit* tlivtKiut* 



At ili** 

ill fNWt'ilttt 

but tthtifi lint itttirr Irji 

.Kuwiiiin tuiit<;r mi ark, __.. 

vwi | U H IP | r(4|li w ^ tt .. ll|4 t j |4 , 



t wf 



m .travel to UiAiouth of K 



(tbi )iijchimifl*n 



,. , n-^_ r^r Ttotiti f^Ve *iM|> 1 

to E^glmd ana Mn^, Otl w - A ^, 

HL2H WM "Jf Metto 4 to tlu Bib ' " 
uragooM ai .iieutonant-ooloneli but 
afterwards to win trwii : terdi to 



* 



wry wly in 

j tnw frmmlm$ btttu^ry, 
umferhitti/itnifi h' 
aUiut JfJO mfcdt wbilti 
duH'n ibtt utop, K<ii|lttk*< tii^riiW'hbit 

till iiitiiit*iSM:K tninri*t# *4 %'sj|tM* 



oe&l^i A?2 I 8 f li6 WM PPotoW 
n e T? **" w command tho tooiM 
^orfu. He spent two yoan there, and 



fi 



out 



m 



utit 



,. u liiit it*.* 

mj^^ .. ' i t t it i ." ",'""" -""'-^^""T.r *.fPllf.lw 

war, and bin . hoaltb had eufimd at V 



George 



n 
. . .. ! 



?T f :1 

iw V> 



Of thf Alum ht.j natal * When nil w*w Mvor | brtgnfiu wn 21 .l?Vb, \mi Ho wiw _ 

I could not hdp prying Mkn ?hiW * i of tho NatiunAl Hilte Atwicmtion, which 

(VN*r i* 73 ) Thrwdhiyt* Iwfow fnkrr* j wit* fmimtaJJit 1H5N ami luwi till iHBTjtn 

man ho 'hiwi written t "Quwn Vifll*rw ' rang*** at WiwModnn, on land n{ whfoh 

gloomily atimtt tho nitwit km i4 thn army, j hi,' wins piiiKilpnl owner; th<m IIP fimnd it 

Ho WOK *cirraf.UttHy knwkwi MJ ami tjittf*" | ntwtwary Ui tmlt ttjwrt it to g.tk 

worn out* by tiw hiittb* ; iuirl. wm* '|wr j *wJ Urn mngtw wre trA^fomjcl to 

suadod U g to .Hiii^liivrt for 

waa on !"H.rttti th frignl^ II 

whm it nttinm-Iy ttmjwl wnv-k in 

gsfttHt<>rm of M Xuv.mtr On 

So Itift this Crime*** lt*r I'^iiinf.mit-ttH..' 

on 27 P*w ** 'inf^Jti^il Iwiiirtl i 

him to Kngliiu*i. H ^ wiw iif*iifii^iwl in 

H^v. lHf4)anri iwrivt*.! tlw thiink^ti 



. 

.He Unik an'aotivti part in miiitanr wluoa- 
tiirn* MM! h^tjfuxi u* found thti Btaff College* 
lie had betm ar*|wint?d a mmmiiudomr for 
tSanclhurnt anil " f*r tho i>uko ol York'* 
KflhtMtl In 185(1, aiirl wan mado ffovernor 
f f,hs Milifnry Aiwk*tny at Wwrtwioh i 
IH02, On ih.J ii<'tti-h if ih f'rimm C.k>nori 
ho < i jt(}Sutngt^i thti w.ifcim'itiy of llw Hot4* 

Cor Umt if this C4rniM.iw*r 



of the 



.i. 1 '|f??# J, ?*? I ****** * * * : " * * ' '* **''. * 1 ',*^1.**1*.7 1-* |T:*.Wt*W .JC-.-BH" pi^u..,.. .^. >, - ,..... - .. , 

mt, thi iniHltti wiili 'I ninntw, iho Turkish j gwnnfe, 'On II Nriv. IHIIJI im \van mutdo hold 
! tlpt CiiJJi (ft July f *&>),; tsiu*!mt. 

trf fiihmltftr, I 'During the liwt th*rt*n yAW .of hw 
!*i Ui (?rimtt&, ' wonitniMHl tlu* dk w*w in tutoorci with 

' ' ' ' ' ' '< +** ji i % 

Hif ilftiiii*** Hiiiiiwtin |*j : vJ i iiiiii^fWiVii w*if niiiiiHl^f^i t.o<'ii4|||^ litu Win* 
wf'thtt urtiiy Uirwt in | omtittuAUy n*itunw! rating ngiwmtr rmliw 
irii^liii vnin l **wt I tioiiw **r urging i* *** **r 
him. In '.IftAttttry I Witt ho '^^ wnt t< j lint in 1'towmibMi 

A itrwt in th* 1 o*:jnfrtino tin [ Vtownt) Uiirdwril f i|. v, J 

l nf ihti wwr, hut thf [ f Ul, with OlwiMtono m prDraior t 
i* in Mnititt 'motto ii** 1 thy took In iwnd A uerio of rofornw' whioh 
MM of lit* *tflt|,, w0,rti moit dktotofal to him. First of ftH, 

On iWwiy ioMHiirtUftgo fq. v,J jmiignoti. tho iio-aiiUtfcl dual gwvonimont ol the wmy* 
ami tho dko mwmmlmt him w* geiirl | which dividod ,mi|mnHiiUty AXta w*i 
In ttJd^f, Hi? w*^ |m.i'myt^i i hintimnw.* to r*foriii wm* ftbohnhmi. J.$y 
m 2^ Jttiy ww nworn f j ttw W*ir OSko At ^>f 187<>_ tho^ oom- 
tht privy txiaiHtii^ *t*hi linwiktfuwn in t!.w ; mttndt^'iu^hiii^ wiw* ildlint 
OrhiiW had 1*I Ui gruni ninuigan It* wmy ! t* 1 * thtt war miulMUtr, t iwwi 

WAT (t'pftraUHi in iHAI (mm tho ooimM 1 tlvdy with oiUlttiit {H*nionndt . 
took *.*v*3f iii*^ iH*wtffi( **! llif* nocrwtAry At ^ iwid ttivwunj* lo ttiAfk tuo oitAngOi tft 

war, ami of. thw Imnnl uf cinliiiunoD, Wh.ili duko wai minimi In^Hopt 1871 M to 



uf 



o alm Uiok 
militia and ywitttonr 



intivo fftwi Uw Howe UuArdbi to Fill Mall 
thi! hoittP 1 He HgAvdod tlita AN a . blow not only to 
$mn tho ! hi own dignity but to tho righto of . the 
}*TliA* | owwn, and' th Quean Interviettuxl-.on hi* 

meatTor the wiHife"iiiilfittfy AdinitiiiitrA* behalf f "but he hid to dve way, 
tion ; ' but the general wniunmultag in The wcwnatnwtkm of to war ofltoo 
ohlef. AM rowsiientinu the oruwti, enjoyed i waa followed by tiw adoption ot *i\m 

- * * ' 4 "' formation of an army nworve, 



and eommand apifiobiUnentN and' pra 
motiona, Tit** abolition of the b*mi of 
ofdnanoe brought tho artillery twii (mgineom 
under hl authority, and the daw wai 
made ooitinal of theae two.oorpa on 10 May 
186L The amalgamation (of whleb be 
wai it itfong ml^oeato) of the European 
troop of ' the. Eat India Cto'mpany with 
the army of the orown ia ISti2 gave Urn 



eontrol'of if mm tenting In 

B * 



wr sw"^ n *(F FT w * ^ ^rwF TfW'flf ^rTpp 1 HBP m-Mpn-nw^p r w^piirwpi -tw B IWBW ^ -- -n-^ ~ 

uaf rieswily to it, but had m mat Wth to 
it, and was oppoted to a oaplts^on grant* 
Hefaeoameeoionel of the lit City of London 



the linking of battaiiona, and tttcur 

Uun. The purohuMe of commiimiowi wa* 

abuiiahed, aiid awdurity tempered by aelee 



tion'beoamo tho prbtoiplo of- promotion 
The duke wm oppoaod to all -theae tanova 

tion* MM watohwotdi* wara dl 
mmi d .eorp, and the regimental 



. 

allof whioh aoomed to him to .. 
Bat hokilhg it to be far the'totewit of tbe 



eiown and the ny that he ihould 

fata poafc he aeoegted- yttft of wMoli 
pprovedL The system md its 




to 1881 it wai.eaaaftd.ft 
0, B* QUldm .[q. v, Buppi I], 



George 

C-;.^ 



George 



with it*i trwiitioiw And 
bi.it d\ii'Ii i^jMH'i ally on 
and kxitvtvlHitfo c.f 



linked battalions being welded into terri- j his i 
torial regiments in spite of tho duke's | roq*^ 
efforts to unlink them, } hifl 

On 24 Nov. 1882 ho was made personal j world, hw rot*|.x$t for 
aido-do-camp to Quean Victoria, to coin- j priotiflH iI for |*l>!i<i j*inmn, Thw army 
momorata tie campaign in Kgypt; and ! wan atfudiod u> him |HMIW< 
on 26 Nov, 1887, when he had eomplelod j mm lit? bor^no ill will to 
fifty years' service in tho army, ho wiw 1 diiluml from him, lint, 
made commander-m-chiof by patent* At ' uf diffwnro wif li gm 
the end of that year Im fuwjtion woro : ii. S572, wq.}* Tlmu^h itUlm iraitmig uf 
much enlarged, t^io whole buHincHH of Kupply i trw*|H I*H in f*thr things IH win* 
being handed over to him. CardweU Iwi ! 8*.*rvfttiv0, Im ilmrongh knMwhtl^i* *4 3 
assignocl it to a siirvoyor-gtJWjrttl of thn i tmlw drill, imd hin tnifM|t.iktiri # imt Ui 
ordnanoe who waa meant to Im an oxmri* i wiwhiitio* ramiitrnlM miulo him it. 



* ihi* 



rm! i 



enood soldier ;. but the office hod bi^um<3 j itiHjKHiting tiflicrr and 
political, and the complainta about ttm* I t; 
during the Nile campaign led to lit* abH- [ t 
tion, Everything oxcpt itnanco now mum! ' it i:y 
under the control of tho commantior-in-chiidf, I I f ^ i.uii.!rf <wk %vith 
with tho adjutawt-gonorttl AH IIIH dt*jntfy, | that fell t<* him iw 
During the next few yearn nmoh wiw* d*>ij ! family, wbwh wi.'r^ < 
to iit 'the army f<jr war: nupply aiwl trniW" i tho timt.h * : *f l-hrs 
port were organiBt and ' barn&kM iui i itiMtiaicji'% tn IW-I2 hw wiw* 
proved ; but the mxptttry t>f wtalo found j of HI* tha i 
that the military hierarchy himionn! hi* j wiUjfUyn tho 
personal cotwultatwm of exj.wrl. ! diwtribi 

In Juno IBBH a vory Hiroii^ tjtiiiimiMi<>n ] with a 
waa ap|K)itit(Hi ? with l^ord llartirigUm (nfMtf" 
warda duko of DevoiiHiunO l'*|, v* 8u|*|tl 11 j 
an chairman^ to inquire into naval im*l 
military admiuiatration j and in May IHW> 
they' reoommendod that tlici tiHteo of 
<j0mmaEder4iicliiol should bti abcilkhiMl 
when .the duka aeatfed t<j hold it f mil 
that there should be a cinuf 'of tho ti*l!. 
Bir Henry Camptwll*Bamu)rmau ^ [q* 7* 
Supjpl. II], who beoanie war iniuifttw in 
180^ difisimted from this rc.QoiHiuimt'latin ; 
but he thought the power* of tho ootu- 
maader-ia-ohiof ou^ltt t> 'bo dimi**iih*.fi, 
' and the duke'n rotmmwnt wio a neoc^aiy 
preliminary- The* call for thta kn> g*w 
louder, and in. the upring of. JHte"tlto 
duk cooBulted tho <4wm Tliowgh 111 
yeam of a^e, he Mi WmMoIf 



wp a 



f 



t*:* 



i*|*rnt I** 
iv%hiMtiim t i* 



.0 won 

.ri!i 
in 



anil (Jhrint'tt 
hi* 



-tivrr 



till 



fur -fift 
of 



who wim wot iw 
tlmt iiM* 

fur it, ilm*$i tutirrly 
wvits itMilnly In nj*$***?tHJi4i to 



of 



HoH|iitat 
irt ' itt* 

*>f 



and mentally It for hit offloe- Tho Quouu 
replied, eluotaatly that Iw hwd Iwttup ro- 
sign (BEH, li* 395, ami on 



h issued Mi farewel ordor, hatuUntf uv<ir 



the command of the wmy to Lori 

To soften the blow, the Queen ap 



pointed him tor oUel personal afa)e*d* 



camp and eolonel-in-ohiel to .the 

with the right of holding the pamdo on 

r w * k u iy ** **!? *l 

her birthday* 

In announcing to the House of Com* 
mons the duke's approaching ntlraamt, on 
the ye of his own fall 



beE-Bamerman touehed on Uto attmotlva 
personality, Ms industry and activity, fate 



demotion to the 



of the trmy, and 



tluit * 

M.l4ii iL H2 

tt 
mwtiitg* for 

in it" t)io 

art til *4iJt.i *tt 



II** wnn iti 



w 



In fffiv&U* Mfo h0 WAM ilw jiumt 







IIli moUwr Hvd long 



tivw tivmf, 1 white "bt* 

the llnitiMJ 
lib tt) 



mm 



ti*.4r* 



to 



on April IftBi), miti Within yfwr ti hml 

iittiw It* th* limtls of 



Act, lu> 
B Jfttt. 



Mki 



tin 
'iftUr!jrt*t}i*'r tut 





i 



till htr (fawtb m 12 Jun 



burtod t KnNfl2' Un^n, Ui tltik( 
chief mounur 



George 



George 



Tho duke had roams at St, James's 
Palaco from 1840 to 1859, when ho removed 
to Gloucester House, Park Lane, left; to him 
by his aunt;, the dwiluBB of Gloucester. 
On the death oC tho duohoHS of Cambridge 
tho Qucum grnntfil him Kow Cottage for 
Inn life. Mo hiwl lM.m made ranger of 
Hydo Park ami St. Jamoa's Park in 1852, 
and of Richmond Park in 1857* In 
mldilion to tho onion* already men- 
tioned, ho WIIH mado K/i?. on 17 Hept. 1881, 
grandmaster and principal grand cross of 
St- Mfoluw*! and 8t. ('-.Uujrgtt on 23 May 
18(11), aUSJ.. in 1H77, aUJ.K in 1887, 
and (.U'J.V.O* in 1HD7- Of ftor<%n ordop 
lie rcwivtHl thi hiack <*aglo of PruBnia 
in 1852, DM strand oortlon of tho tegion of 
honour in 1855, 8t. Andrew o 'KuKBia 
in 1874, and tho untor of merit of Savoy in 
181)5* Ho wan in ado colon d-in-ohief of 
the king*H royal riflo aorp on March 
of thrj7th tanoorB on 21 Juno 
C th< : * Middlesex : wgtmont on 
1BIIH, Ho was ftlHo oohmol of 
two Indian rogi!ont'--th<s 10th Bengal 
lanct'W, and tho 20th Punjabis ; of tho 
Malta military, tho Middloaox yeomanry, 
and tho 4th .battalion- Suffolk regiment; 
of tlio Cambridg dragoons. In the Hano- 
vorian army (!.852-6tt), and of the 28th 
foot in tho PruBHian army (Aug ; 1889). 
He m^ivwl ilifj honorary dugroo of 1XCXL. 
Oxford on 1 !uno IHflrf; of LL.I). Oatn- 
bridg on 15 fl'uiHJ 1 804 ; and of LL1), 
Dublin on 21 April 1BCSH ; and hiwamo ono 
of tho <4th*r brothwtn of tho Trinity houno 
on 1 1 Marctii 1HH5, Ho roowiy<xl tho freedom 
of tlt^ CJity i*f London, with a nword, on 
4 Nov. 1857, nnti on IS* t)ot IHD0 ho was^rc- 
nenttKi with nn tuitlroHH froiti tho corporation 
and his Inmi (by Fnmaw WiHiamuon) was 
unvtulod at tha"SuildlmIL Ho waa mado 
a toman of York in 1807, of Bath arxcl 
of Kingstoti in 1B98* 

A todoM of banquotn at tho military 
oluba and moBfton ynarkcxl tho duko'i 
retirement, but ho continued lor several 
yearn to prcwida at rrgttttontal dinnors and 
to kot*p in clows ttmeh'with the army* Ho 
was -very vigorous for hfo ago, roclo In Quotn 
' Victoria*H. diamond jubilee pHKsmsion of 
1897, and at hor Cunorul in 1901. Mo paid .his 
last visit to Germany in August 1903i but 
Mi strength 'was .then .giving wy -He 
died aiGfouoestor House on 17 March 1004 
of 'hemorrhage of th stomaolj, having 
outKvod by a few weeks the 'commander- 
ship-in-ohiof which h Md so long. On 
the 22nd ho WM bmied, in- aooordanoe 
with his wish, beatds his wife at Keraal 
Tho first part ol the sarrio wa at 

LZV1II* SXJF, II- 




WcBtimnstor Abbey with King Edward VII 
JVB chief mourner. Five field-marshals 
and thirteen generals wore pall-bearers. 
Tributes wore paid to his memory in both 
houses of parliament. He had three sons : 
Colonel George William Adolphus Ifitz- 
fSoorgo ; Roar-admiral Sir Adolphus Augustus 
Frod'oriok Pitxgoorgp, KO.V.O., who be- 
came oquorry to His father in 1897 ; and 
Colonel Sir Augustus Charles Frederick 
Fitssgoorgo, K.O.V0,, O.B., who was his 
father^ private secretary and equerry from 
1880 to 189(1 

Jn Juno- 1007 a bromo equoBtrian Btatuo 
of him by Captain Adrian Jones was placed 
in front/" of tho now war office in White- 
hall, and thoro IB also a Btatuo at ChriHt'a 
H(:wj)ital> Horsham. Thoro in a memorial 
window in tho chapel ol' Hi IVTiohaol and 
Ht. Ooorgo in St. Paul'* Cathedral Of 
tho many portraits of him tho chief are 
ono, at tho ago of IS, by John Lucas (at 
Windwor), and throo m a field-marshal, by 
Frank Holl (at Buckingham Palace), Arthur 
B.. Oopo (at tho United Service Club), and 
Sir Hubert von Horkomor (at tho B.K 
mtwfi, Chatham)* A oarioatur portrait 
appeared in ' Vanity Fair * in 1870, 

(WillDiighby 0, Vornor, Military Life of 
i J>ukc of (Satnbridgiv 1005 j J. K Bhpppard, 
ir^s X)ukt ol; Ortirtbridwo, u< memoir of hifl 
vjitio lifts 2 VO!H. 1\W j Tho TIHWMS IB March 
IfM)4s 'Ijc-Uitnn ol QUWTJII Vitstorla, HK)7 ; Kintf- 
lak<s luvasioii ol' th(j Orimoa, IHIJJJ, &<s. t Tho 
uji'o l^iiKvrH, UH)B ; Bir Bobort Biddnlph, 
(kr(iwi4l aitho WarOilkus 1904; E.B.O* 
jm, I-ifij of HuU d K. Oluiawm, 1001 ; 
lAsiWH's AnnnlH <>f (1hriHl*H HoHpital, 1908; 
Third il(4|>ort of Lord North hrook'ft ooinmittoo 
on army adniiniKtrati,m, 12' Fob. 1870 (o. 54); 
Eaport/r)f Eoyal Commiioti (Pouzanoo) on 
Army rromotion, 6 Aug. 1875 (o. 1660); 
liaport of Royal 0(*raBx!Hioa (Ilartitigton) on 
Nnval and Militery Adminitratlon, II Fob. 
1800 (<5. $970) ; Catalogues of thoDuko'soolloo- 
tion of plate, inotttroH, poroolain, boolcw, &o,, 
Hold at Ohri*Ue' in 1904.] B. M- L. 

GBO'BOB, HKEEFOED BEOOKE 

(1838-1010), iuHtoneai writer, bom at Bath 
on 1 Jan* 1838, ww eldcwt ot tho thrcsp chil- 
dren (two a<m and a daughter) of Elohard 
FranaiH Qoorgo, eurgoon, by his wife EUasa- 
bath Brooke, He entered Winchester aa a 
floholor in 1849, and ^succeeded in 1856 
to a fellowship at How CoUogo, Oxford. 
Ho obtained first dosses in both classical 
and -mathematical moderations in 1868, 
a second okas in- the final classical school 
in 1850, and a (second class in the final 
mathematical school in 1860* H graduated 
- 1800, proceeding M. A* in 1862. 



G 



98 



George was called to the bar at tho Inn^r 
Temple on June 1864, and followcsd tho 
western circuit till 1807, when ho rd.tirncd 
to How College m tutor in tho combined 
school of law and hintory. Ho wiw 
ordained in 1808, but undertook no 
parochial work* After tho Hcjmmtion of 
the law and history fdhooln in 1872 Iw 
became history tutor of Nwv Oolk'j#.% mid 
filled that office? till I8W. .Tl*.v pluy^I a 
prominent part in tho wto,bIiHhi.W'nt of 
tho intr-nwli*giat*s Hytflin of li^turinjj; at 
Oxford Ho remained a fallow of Nw 
Oollogo till hin death. Hi hwtorituU 
writing and teaching mm oliinfly mm- 
earned with military "Imtory {in which ho 
was a pioneer at Oxford) and witli tin* ttw- 
rolation of hiwtory and gtn*gmpfty. HIM 
chief publication**, * Batik* w Knglwh 
History 1 (1805), * MajMilwiiV Inviuw'tti 
of RuBHia 9 (1890), * Halations of i\m* 
graplty and HMnry' (1901 ; 4ih wlit. 1I.O), 
ami *HiHtorica! Kvidouco* (IITO), alt nhow 
critical acuwon anri fertility <-f iilimtmf ion, 
if no rooondito nmwoh. 1 1 in * <^.nraigi<?nt 
Tables ill8trativo of Modam ILiMtory * 
{1874; 4th <difc. 190!) And ' iliHtitriPitt 
Ocmgraphy of ihn BHtinh Mmi>m * (IJHM j 

George took a- largo jwrfc i tlwi work 
of tho wniyorHity tw wt*Il OH in th n 
eationof his own <K)l!ego v wliioh li d 
in Ms * New Coli^b v 186^1906 * 
He' waa .0n of this fimt mom bora of tho 
Oxford Uttivendty voluntwi? OOPJW, wtti 
for many yoaw ha took an iitt^rfctttit 
nhare in the work of tlm hnsat nxamltia" 

a now direction from hte first vteit to 8wit- 
isorland in 3800, whon ho matLewHo Htophon 
ftt.2?ermatt and aoaompunkMi him tip to tho 
Rlffol by the (Kornor ghwior. In 1HOK ho 
accompanied Rtophon 'on tho flrwt wawa^i 
bv the Janflfmu Jooh (MAI-TUN D^H l^'/a 
of Btephm, onap. vl.) and aohiovod A firnt 
ascent ol tha Oron Vioolwhom 'MMnt 
ToMfwadf, L 07)* In ISBJI ho madfo a 
passage .0! 'tho.Gbl du Tour Nolr with 
QMstkn Aimer as guide, md * finally 
Bottled the long-debated queetion' about 
tho relative jporittowi of tto heade of the 
Argenti^ro, Tow, aad SaKne gliwksn, wiiteh 
erory^ flupoeindye noap had ' profasidi to 

2B6) % Though he eojoml tha^plyita! 
exercaso, his intent fn oHmbmg WM 
cMefly geographical and iolentifio. . 
one of the first Alpine dimbm to tiiplo 
photography* He joined the Alpine Olu 
in 1801, rad tha establiehmmt a 
Journal t WM $uggted at a 



In 



Gerard 

in l\w rmtjiiw at. Now (>>' 

w vohimfii (1KA.V7). 



of TynHiilt * (/Upinr. Jrnirntd, 
r *f 



of j'J 

t i 

KriHfuf, aiiJKui^h hi* im.ik no wfivn part 

failuro nf tljf* l!ik t JHHO IIM! only injnm) 

(iforgt 1 ! iintuiriuUy huf, iiivr*lvf*d hhsi willi 
IIIH f<*Il*jW"ilirr-i' ( f.f.*rH in KM a.ttnt*fivf f tri/il 



15 ifc'fl. ItMO In 1H7 P* iimrriM t. 

.Boimlillrtii fr/, 1H1I;!) youtiwi^i *lati||hl**r nif 
\VilItaiit i"Vli t*rtl *>(' lv%t it* tilth) |-y ulium 
ht.i hrui tw*: H.-M, 

inn! lid*. 



y IWU.J 



U-Ktt A l), I ,f AN K 1 KM i.J,V, MAIM* a 



7 



tin 



Htr 
I for 



f * 



a 



Kmtl Wi.j 

itjfi* r 

for H 



J;.|t>r 

i*i IH4H, 



da 



twin! witlt hlK niinj* i 

affarwunlii ' wifii nf J>.m iVrliw, niui with 

Imr funitm.i n lift^lrm^ iniimni^y 

prinowii dim! in lMfi:i Aflw Iliwv 

iit Iliit otmynif. t-f Mir* H 

burg nniir llmcmtx in TyM. Kmlly timrrifd 

tin 14 Oal* lim aiivaHtr 

mwnbw of an fM I*oHh 
and an crUtor in Urn AMMtriim 
ot|uainfAn0n nh0 itimlt* in 
a HVK| ftrnt iit Brxxittwu, Clulitil^ 
after ilia dnatih' iif hor ntotlwr in 1870 
*!it Joined hor th w, Fwrn 1MWJ M 
ho davotml. rnttoh ilnw t> 
lortlgn a|iari(ma In th lurrn ti 



tc$ ika 
aominand ol tbo oavalry Mgadu In Traiwi- 

' 




ha anibodled -bor obnorvaUonJi In. -*Tho 



Gerard 



excellent description of the country and i 
inhabitants. In 1886 hcsr husband retired 
from active aorvico with tho rank of lieu- 
tanfc-gencr&l, and thoy then made thoir 
permanent homo in Vienna, whoro aho diet! 
on II tlan* 10(15. Her luinband prodecooaod 
her by five weeks (JDiwember 1904)* Thorc 
were two sous of tlw marriage- 

In 18H0 Emily Utwird aollabaratod in a 
novel, *Rcata r (npw odit. 1881), with her 
eistor Dorothea, who in 1880 married Ju1iu 
Longard do Longgardo, a!w> an officer in tho 
Austrian army* A 1 ike \ mr tn^rnhip produced 
*:Beggar my Neighbour* (1882), 'Tho 
Waters of Itorouks'* (1885), and * A Sensi- 
tive Plant * (1891), Sho con ttibu tod without 
aid HovewJ ahort tales to Blackwood'tt and 
Longman'* * Mfiga%moH* roprintwl in tho 
volume * Bin * {181H)) and * An EIootHc Shock 
and other Storiea J <IH07) and mibttHluKl 
six novefo, of whiU the bot In ' The Voice 
of a Flower * (ISUJJ^ She wrote gracefully, 
and. niade tho foreign setting efTectiva, but 
lacked power of ohartwterteaiiun* She was 
a oomfwtcmt csritlo j for nearly two yearn 
she furni8hod monthly roviewa of German 
literature to * The Times/ and ocoauional 
articles on new Ctaramn books to * Black" 
wood's Magazine.' 

'Other works by Emily Gerard aroj 
L *A Secret MSwiion/ 1801. '2. *A 
Foroi^ntjr,' 1.H90 (hiHpirotl by her own 
marriage)* 3* * r rjio Tmgody of a NOH,' 
IB08, "4. '*Tho HxUsnrunation of I.KJVO, a 
Study In Erotic/' IDOL 5. 'ThoHwon'H 
Towor, 1 1904. .6. * Honour 1 * limy Bub 
We,' i(M$ and a prcfaeo to 8* Knoipp*H 
'My Water Cure; 18113, 

Burko* Lawltiti Claniry, ItKHJ ; 'i'ho 1'imow, 
3 Jan, 1.1HI5 ; Athonwum, 2,t Jan* 1005 j 
Who, 1W4; .Holun <1 Bliwk, Pon 
Baton iwid Miwk: /Biographioatl 
Sketohop IMHi ; William Blttokwmwl arid Ink 
Son* vol Hi. (by Mra* (Jet-aid Potter)* 1898, 
pn, 356-8,1 & iL 

W* m * . . 

. jcy 'U.j^ ^Vflr t iMMb, ^taE^ tf'' ; 'i : M Jt'% '*, 1 **" 1 *^ 1 / V ''i Y' /'^ W 'V %"% ''f ^ 'f 1 '^ f*V^I 

OEIftARD, SIE MDNTAdU QILBKBT 
(1842-1005)* genoral, bom at Edinburjjh n 
20 Juno 1842/wM ooond mm hi a family of 
threo ions and four cktightc^s of Archibald 
Gerard (181^1880) of Koph<>lo0, mm Ait* 
dri, LanarknUro* by hm wifo Euphomia Era- 
ktot (4* 1870}, eldest daughter .of Sir John 
Bobiaoix [q* T] H waa a groat-grandaon 
of Alexaaoor .Qerarf. -[q. v*3 philosophical 
writer, aad o! Archibald Alion fq. v], 
lather of the historian* The family wa 
originally Scottish apiBcop&Uaxv but tho 
mother joined the ohuroh or Bomo in 1848, 
the lather a little later, and the 'children 
wore brought tip as Roman catholics. 
Montagu's oldest brother became Father 



John Gerard, B.J., and his oldest sister 
\vm Jano Emily, Madame do Laszowska 
|q, v. BuppL II], Ho wjks admitted to 
Htonyhumt in 1850, and flubsequently 
I>aBHcd four yt^arH at Unhaw (1855-9). 

After Hponding some timo on tho Conti- 
nent, Gorard wont through tho usual course 
at Woolwich* Ho WJIB gazetted lieutenant 
in tho royal artillery on 19 April 1804, and 
undertook-' garriMon duty at Uibraltar* In 
3866, on being transferred to tho field 
artillery, ho wa stationed in the central 
provinces* India* In 1807-8 lio wa era- 
pioy(Kl on tho transport train during the 
AbyHHinian oxiK.lition ; ho wan mentioned 
in <lHpatclu8 and rctJivod tho war modal. 
In 1870 1 joined tho Bengal ataff corpH, 
and waH att-aohiul to tho Central India 
hows Promoted captain on 19 April 1876, 
ho aetod an brigade major throughout 
tho second Afghan war (1878-80), and had 
his horao woundwl at tho action of Doh 
vSarak whilo osoorfcing a convoy from Ohara. 
Ho took part in tho Socond Bazar valloy ox- 
pcxiition and in tho.dofonoo of JagdaJlak, He 
aooompaniod Qoneral (Hir) Charto Oough's 
brigade to Shorpur in December 1879, and 
Lorn KobortB* march from Kabul to Kan* 
clahar, and was engaged at tho battlo of 
1 Sept* 1880* He was twice mentioned 
in UuHpatchoH, and roceivtid tho modal 
with two clasps, the bronze star, and 
the brovctB of major (22 Nov. 1879) and 
of Ihut.-oolonoi (2 March 1881), Ginwd 
Horvtnl in tho Egyptian -campaign of 1882* 
and at Aloxaiulria fought in all the). 
aotiona that followed tho bombardment. 
!<j wa appointed deputy assistant ad- 
jutant and '.'quartermaster general of the 
oftvivlry divimon, and was present at tho 
rooonniaanoo of 5 Atag. 1882, tho battles 
of Kaaswain and Tel-el-Kobir, and tho 
Burrendor of Arabi Pasha. In addition to 
being mentioned in despatches -he was given 
the modal with olasp, tho bronsse star^ tho 
0*B.i and the third class of the order of tho 
Medjidla He became major on 10. April 
1BS4 and brevet-colonel on 2 March 18S5* 

Gerard had other qualities besides those 
of tho suoeoMHful soldier. In 1881 and 
again in 1SS5 ho was dc^patohed on secret 
missions to Persia, Alter serving as 
district staff officer of tho tot class in 
Bwigal, ha was selected to take charge of 
the tour which the Tsarevitoh '{afterwards 
Nioholas II) made in India (Deo. 1800~Feb. 
1891), and the skill with which he discharged 
his duties resulted in his appointment in 
1802 m British military attaeM at St. 
Petersburg* In the negotiatione oonceming 
the Pamirs bottndary ^dispute h played a 

. ' r- . ' .' *' . -B 2 



Gibb 



100 



Gibb 



conspicuous part, and whcsn in Mardi 
atx agrmwmt wa signed Imtwmt Clivat 
Britain and Rnsnia for tho dolimUafkm of 
their spheres of inflwmc*) in central Asia, 
Gerard wan sent out to the PannrH at t!w 
head of a BritiHh eommiHuiott, Mo inH thc 
Kuasian nviHawm under #*m?ml iShvnkovnky 
in Juno nt Labs Victoria, and front thai 
point oastwardH to thu Ohimwj fnmtiVr 
iluroarcatt'tl tho Imo %vhwh Iwwvforth 
divided HuHHian from Brltwli mfowf*. 

,Tn 1800 IM wan nominated to tin* com- 
mand of tho Hyderabad {sontmgutit, nnd 
in 1890 wiw promoU'd to tho tiommiind of 
a iirHt-olaaH dint-riot in Ik'ngtv!. llo 
was created 8I. in JBJ)0, K,C.B*'I in 
2807* and K.OJ! in 100& lio wim pro* 
motod major-general on 1 April 1807, 
Ikwttmant-gontTal on 1*2 8upt., HMW, und 
general on 20 Fob, 1.004* On tho out* 
break of the ttvwHo-Japan<iHo war in ItH'M 
lie went out to Manchuria aw hk'f Britinh 
attach^ In Owral K,rof)atkin''M army; 
but' IUH hoalfcli HueauiiilMHl f/o tht* rigour* of 
tlio catnpaign, and 1 diod of pnotuiionia at 
Irkutnk on 2(J fluly 11H)5 on bin way h>tu 
from Khar hi ru A ivqidt'iu tutwH wiw mtug 
nt thw (jatholitj clnii^h if Si* (Jatli^rin*.^, 
Ht. .Poti'-rwhurg, at which imtli fho l^ar 
and King Kdward VH.' \VOTM .r*prt'H'iitf,'d* 
Thi* bmly tvaa Huhw*r{ucittly anwiywl to 
^ootlandj and Imriwl .at Ainiriti on S St,p. 
tember. ' Ho miwriud on ill S|it, 1UB^ 
Hato Adakido, third daughter of IMwim! 
Eiohard Moado- a grantfaoh of John Momio^ 
tot earl o! Clanwilliam ; nho HUFvivini hint 
with ono son* C.J<mrd wan di.*vofctd to nil 



* 



houftntI 



* (A.lf 



an chilly |wrt<>d ti n mi<% 
twmt i^pi*riftlly Turkish 
ttm. ' Cjftvin 
of JU 



PI \ ' 
** 1* 

Hi Hw t-iiivf'rwitv of 



1 Hi 7 Jo 
tin* only i-oijfttvtiofi Iti iiif*l.i*H fftmilv hiMfi-tr^ 

f" * ' " " i" i TT i ifriifvvpDB'.f '?, i ft* ^ " T * W 

\\ ifliofi^iiliitH^iittliirMlitjn if \v^}t|*jijii'fij||y 
wilhou(> o^li'mul b**lp or Hiig^rMtutti thiCt 
tiihh j-HiJilinhiM.! in 1..H70, uhrn only lwi 
two, nu .Kii^iiHl't I jTJiMH'ljfiiifii} tif ii^ m 
i*f f:hn i'liofun* .f ('oH^f.utifiiioitlo ji 



H/ lit 



irtti* ( 
, 1 wJtMi 
nul 



\V*w in flu* t 
th fi.m^nntH'r ttf 

Military of 



n IHH4 
thf*Trih nf All AI 

Mttvtng f l*mi]<m on hiw 
tHHtl, ttntt dfiitftii|itg a Him 



if 



itt 



atid ro<>nU*<l hln oxfHW'tww n 

from tho Dlariow of a'Hokliur md & Bporto 

man, IB05-1SB5 J (1003). 

[The Titntw, 88 July, 22 Aug., Ktifit, HH>5 ; 
Tabkt-12 Aug. IJfi; Army IM Umfi; 
Stonyhuwt Magaitus OcitolHii 1 ItHIAj li ii 
'Hnn Tho Seoond Afghan War, HU, iii. 2ft7, 
HI! ; private informniiun- from Fnthtir John 
Cterwdt 8.J.] : . .0, H. W, 

01BB, 1LIAB JOHN WILKINSON 
(1867-1001), toientalkt^ born on 8 Jano 
1857 at 25 Newton Plftoe, Qlango.w wan 
onlv son of Eiiw John Gibb, wine morobtmt t 
and Jan Oilmfth* Both pacemti iurvivd 
their aon. He- wai educated lint at 
Park Bohool, OlugoWt under Dr. Oolliiir^ 
author of the * History of liigland ( * and 
afterwards at Olangaw Um?!ty, where 
he matriculated la 1878, arid .muiubd 
MB studies until 1875, but" took no 
degree, Eromptod- on the one hand by a 
strong linguistic taste, and on- the other 
by m wly delight in the book of the 



fnrt)tt*r from 
to May with hi* 

In 



ii 






it 



wy t*r tiny 



tioi* 



fHmr 
hnni#h 

witli 

tltr* lloyii A^intiti Ho*?!^ty i*!iiit 
*!1<ti Jtrnt vo!ii.Mtt4 tif tiiw work on 
tH-tutui 



of 



nu 



tf Torkii}i iiuwitum 
of tho 4Arii^r | 

wwry A,!*, imn^Jimi), wiw |>uliiMitHl in 
IHHJ, but In Ntivmnlior nmt ytar whib ho 
AN putting the* fittnt toiiohm u* tlio H^und 
volumo, Ii wiyi tittiwkt*! i,y W i*irJ*4 ^v**r of 
whiob lw dUlocI on H lit*; iuftl, Ift$ 
IniiiwJ at Kttjnitid Or^ti m^mt)U' 
faing attottUod by tlio Turkinh I 

tfcmki lk* *yt oth**r Mtiiitimt 
and 



, , 



ueft (afterwariia Mm* ' Ogiivio 

3n . hi* doaUt lili library wi, with wi* 

.... . , i * ill 'B It * **^ ^ .*..,i. 

among 



,, the -Cambriclifii Univanrfty 

"4 4 1 a, i ^" '^ *^ 

I 



Obmt&ritinfjpif! (wbiob mHiViHi many 



Gibbins 



IOT 



Gibbs 



list of the Gibb MB8. in given in his * History 
of Ottoman Poetry* (vol. ii pp. xvi - 
xxxi, 1902), A list of the printed oriental 
books, 422 in numhor, in the Cambridge 
Univermty Library WUH compiled by tho 
present writer and pubim'tunl by tho 
Cambridge University Prean in 19<)0. 

By dofliru of CSiblvH widow and jmrantH, 
tho prom>nt writer wlitwl, afUsr Gitib H death, 
tho iwrmmdor of hit* * History of Ottoman 
Poetry/ whitih, though not comptoto, wan 
in an lulvanml *4aga of proparation ; 
vol. ii. was puhHshttfi in 1SH)2; vol. iii, in 
1904 ; vol. iv, in 1005 ; vol. v. (containing 
thrws chttptfc.r on tho * Rim of tho Mow 
Hohool * and indux**** to tlw wholes book) in 
1007 ; and vol. vi, (containing th Turkish 
originals of tho jjooms traimiattui in tho 
wholo work) in 190ii A mmmth Bupplo- 
mtmtary volume, dealing with tho most 
recent <liw*lopMMtt of Turkish ptxitry, from 
Kcm&i Boy to tho prwwmt timt% ha& bwm 
written in French by Dr. Ri%& Tovffaf Boy, 
deputy for Atlrianoplo in the* Turkish 
parliament (1911)* and in being translated 
into Knglfoh by tho pruscnt writer. 

[iVmmtfil kuowkxigo and information 
mtppliiul by Gifob'ii Mtator* Mr Wattion ; 
nolia by proiwnfi writer Jn Athonwum, 
14 !)<, 11K)'I, anti Royal Asiatic 8o<i.*s 
Journal, 11M)2, p. 4H(KJ Ji (1 B, 



QIBBINH, HKNKV D1C iB'MLTCSENS 
(1865-liW>7)> writer on i,uiono)ni<} history, 
bom at Port JWHi/sabuth, <.?ajxj (Jolony, on 
23 May 1B05> was oldost son of Jowjih 
Honry Oibbins of l*ort Kii'/aboth, Houth 
Africa, by his wife Kluanor, daughter 
of i'lw Hon. J. do Bfdtgtmn of Stanford, 
Domittioa. Kduttat<Ki at Brtutford grammar 
school! ho won a HciholiwHhip at Wadhain 
OoUcsgo, Ojtford, in 1BH3, und obtained a 
gooond olaw lit olawsioal modcrja.tion in 
188IS, and a Hoaond cJusa also in tho final 
oiantiicai sah(>ls in IBB7* Ho graduatmi 
BA. in tho following ytar* In IBPOhc won 
the Oobdon ptisfio for an.' aoonomio oewfty 
in tho Univomity of Oxford, and in 1890 
received the dogroo of D/IJtt* at Dublin, 

From 18B9 to 1805 ho workid a oBHiHtant 
maater at tha Nottingham high school. 
In 1891 ho wan ordained' doaooh and in 
1892 priest# serving tho curacy of St. 
MatthewX -Nottingham, from 2891 to 18.03* 
from 1805 to 1800 h wm yica-prinoipaJi 
of livorpool Collage j torn 1890 .to 1000 
headmaster of King Charles I school at 
Kidderminster ; in 1906 h WES mado prin- 
oipal of Lennpxvilte Univamity in Canada* 
Ill-health obliged him to leave Canada 
after a short stay. On 13 Aug* 19P? he 

" ***' ' ^^ 

*r 



was killed by n fall from tho train in 
I tho Thacskley tuund liotwc.cn Leeds and 
Bradford. Ho married Emily, third 
daughter of Dr. J, 1L Boll of Bradford, by 
whom ho had ono daughter. 

(libbins devoted himself to economic 
study from Im Oxford days and published : 
L * Industrial History of England,' 1890. 
2. * Tho' History of (/ommareo in Europe,* 
1891, 2nd edit. 1897. 3.* English Social 
'Reformers,' 1802, 2nd edit, 1902, 4. * British 
I Commerce and Colonies,' 180,% 4th <xliU909, 
5. * lOconojnica of Commerce/ 1804, Bpanish 
tmtiH. 1903, & ' Industry in England/ 1806. 
7* * Tho English IHjoplo in the' Ninotuenth 
Cfcntury,' 1.898; 2nd edit, 1SJOO; Ruasian 
IraiiH. 11K)L B. * Economic and IndiiBtrial 
I*fogrc8H of tl> Conttiry/ 1901 , Ho WIXB a 
contributor to l*alg.ravo*H * Dictionary of 
lyiiicai Koonomy *" und edited for MeHwrn. 
Mothuon tlioir * Hocial Qu8tiotm of tho Day ' 
(1891) and aleo t!u*ir * Commercial ' 
( 1 89!|J} Hi eoonomio work popularly 
tho lutorical muthodn of oco- 
nomio study. 

.[Tho Timm, 14 Aug. 1007 ; ltotor*H Ahunni 
Ox on, ; private iiiformatiun.J M. E. 

GIBBS, HENEY. HUOKS, first BARON 
( 1 8 1 9-1 907), merohant and 
, horn in Powiw Plfioo, Queen Sq,uaro, 
y, on SI Auguwt 1819, WU.H 
Hon of (Jcorg(s Hanry CUbbw (1785- 
1B42) of Aldenharn, Heirtf<.u'clHhi.rc, and Clif- 
ton Hampdeii, OxfordHhiw, by his wife 
Caroline (tl. 1B00), daughter' of Charles 
Orawloy, retitor of Btowe-nino-churohoH, 
NorthamptcaiiHhiiu Hi family came from 
Clywt Bt "Cltsorgc-v and had boon settled in 
Bevonwhiro from the time* of Richard IL 
$ir Vicary dibba [q. v], the judge, was liia 



After education at Kodland near BriBtol 
and at Hiigby, Oibbs entered Exeter College, 
Oxford^ in 1838, and graduated B*A- with 
third6laHH olaMHioal houourB in' 1841, pro- 
eroding M.A in 1844. On leaving the 
imivcrwity ho joined <;>n 17 April !Si3 tho 
Lttwdon houHo of Antony GibbB *fe Sons, 
inerohantH and foreign bankers. His grand- 
lather, Antony Giblm (1756-1845), founded 
tho firm in 1787. in Bpairi, with branches in 
Portugal, Peru, and Ecuador j the London 
hoiiHo"was opened in September 1808* In 
1810 Gibbs's father and his uncle William 
(1790-1875) booame partners, and in 1876 
Henry Hucks Qibbs flucoooded his unob 
William, who was head of the firm from 
1843 till death* In 1881 tin older firm, 
established in 1770 at Bristol {as-Gibta, 
Bright & Co.) by Lord Aldenham's grand- 



Gibbs 



uncle George {.1753-1828}, oldtir brother of 
Antony Glblis, wiw taken over by thn ntill 
existing firm of Antony Giblw & 8on. 

Henry Hucka (Sihbs tank a loading part 
in London commercial afTair nerving xw a 
director of the Batik of England { 1853 4f)l ) 
and governor (1875-7), Ho win H^wally 
mteroflUul in currency <jMHti<mM, wan a 
strong itdvooato of bimetulliHm, nnd na 
active prowfont of tho Bhwtnltk; I^agin*. 
In 187 h publwhed * A letter to Jh Mar- 
qiuM* of $alwlwry on f IMI IH'fjrmmttimi of 
Silver * ; in 1H70* * Bimi.!tnlitHm in Knglanti 
and Almmd,* arid in 1H70 *Bi!v**r" and 
Gold, a latter to M* Cjamltst* (MjwMiMiii'd, 
with addition*, in mi m 4 Tlwi iJmtMn 
Standard. ')* In IHBtt ho IMHIH.HI, with Henry 



Cllsiirc'h If*ui% ivo jf*in*d tlm 



in J87tt, and WWK u member of it** 
until liiH dtmt.1i* One of If in kl fmhlir fii?ti 
wiw to jwrt in tire itj>f.w*al of iimitttnf.nt rhtaruh 
men for the mipJH.irt i 
tion in w?h:HJn (7V# T 
Inheriting Airlr1ttti 
in tH5(> fmtu hin iititlhrf, lie lictnght tltti 
rrrlnry nit<! ndvowmin *l Aldi'tilmin frfirii 
l/ml HendlrMliHii* in 1H77, *t.itd tit 



ft 



Hpn.'*n, i* 

fiuri in. f/lin jillitirw **C f hi* 

Hl in 1K7T1, 



trovemy,* n eolieotlon of panipltMx, nine 
of whieh wew from hin {ten ; and in IHOII 
ho wroto * A Colloquy on Oumw.y * (3rd 
edit. 1804)* 

Oiblis wan a prominent nwwi.w of tlm 
aonfiorvativo party m tlm City of 
and wa ahairumn of flto '" 
A^iHociiation thown llo \va 
mrliamt an a im-minT .for tht : * City at a 
)y(**(*Inalton on 18 April tHOl, btifc r*^in*d 
at tho ginu^rfU i'It.!tm in iluly IHW2, ht 
May 1HBO Gibhn with fitJii*r !nt*Nib*w nf 
hi family foumiod* In iho c*iHrvaiivo 
interent, iha -'Bt*- JamoN^n. i1nxittia f ' with 
Frederick UreenwtKxi fcj* y, Swppi 111 AM 
editor, .and the {wjxw remamtl tmir 
proiwrty until 1SSS* Hiimirvwi'ln I877-H 
on tho apoyal commiS<n on tlm Hli.tctk 
Kxohanga, on tho (Jity fwmahml hiiriti*.'H 
oommwmon- in I8HO and on tho mm- 
miaeion of IHHI>6 upon tho d*pmwiut <f 
trade. Oibtw, wlw* WHK a ,1,1*. for Hortfrwi* 
Hhiro and MiddkMw.x ant! high wharlllf *4 
HertfordHhiwi.in IHH4, wiui <miitt,ti Jfcmw 
Aldenham, of Aldonham, oh .11 Jan* IBfNI. 
.A. strong. ohifrobmani Oibl wit8 a mni 
ficent' benefaotor to tbti ohuroh. With f 
John Mannent eventh tiuko- 
[q. v. -Suppl, II], ho . Utmntlly . 
the Anjpbftn Bbtorhood ooniwoted' with 
Chriiit Ohtiroh, Albany Street, one bf tiu 
earliest tttabliahed la London, With othor 
membora of hii. fomily ha -gave krg**!y 
towardu building, endowing, and furnikh- 
ing Keble College, Oxford, m,d ww a 
member of It eonablL..Iit ocmjundtion 
with WB mother he xiiored tho ohurob 
and endowed tha living of Clifton Hump. 
den on Ms Oxfordshire .ewtot^ and OUR. 
Sftated to the support of Si -AnditwX 
Walls Street* and other ohurohM. A 
member, of tho hotuie of- by men of 'tha 
of Oantorbury, and tmuiurer of 



it 

Hi, 



it vieej.ire!tl*.itt| f**r 
eluireh Wfrk in FM*I .1 



uf 



, I.JJ, 



fin* 
.it.t*t} lM,*fl'j Him* iititJ 

r*riHf!y wtlii with Kir 
l./mJ firiiiifiii'tri'H 1 |'t| v* 
him *'*f flit* ItMiiMMr *f 
t*lui|w.I *.( fit** t'niffi^inti. [mi 
in H|ni<* ( l"#riji'iiln'*rj*'H *t|.' 
fmutmi.^ (it* 13 *!/, lilirj Iff u 
ni !ii 



n* 



two 



mrrittl n*f., 11*.* |'*j.il*Iil1 m 
* Awmwt tif tliM Iliji!'* Atfwr Hr 

l>1i.i*fi'li fif Hi, 



ri.H'ii u* 



Tho 



i 



i.Hwrt U,A, 



f 



with 



iti 



ti 



!i -a ' 



loud of 



,. mtti cm. 1 Hn|>t, 

mhbrtuni) t<* i**nn hin rlhl 



homitinutxi to 
ISndu 
lid iiml 



' mul iilmi 
.11 



11 







of : ilia 
from ISSli ho 



A f 

I*Iiii*l*igI0J Htwlaty 



by tha 



lattnni 



G* 1 1 
I \ i '\ f* 
rlUUS 



103 



G" /*7"* 
;inen 



University Prow* in 1880 with (Sir) J 
Murray an oditor, Aldonham holptxl to 
sottlo \h final form of tho * How Etigliwh 
Dictionary,* and road and annotatwl 
ovory proof down to a few wuukB Iwrforo hta 
death*' Ho wrote many of the articles on 
wordtf connected with blinking, currency, 
and ownww.10, >no of tho laftt twing 
* pound. 1 For tho Early English Txt 
Bociety ho wilted in 1H6& tho * Homanoo 
of the ChovoJoro AHwgno.* For tho Itox* 
bitrgho OhiU, 'of whbh ho wan a member, 
Jin prepared in 1873 tho * HyHtorio o| tho 
most* 1 * nobla knight Plawdan,* and in 1884 
tho * Life* and Martyrdom o! St. Katharine 
of Aktxatidria.' Ho wiw a good Bpanwh 
scholar, mid wroto a booklet for private 
turculatiou (printrH.! in IB74) on tlio gamo 
of oardM t^allod oinbro. Aidonbatn WUH 
dooply Vi ( ,rHc?d In liturgical KtudtoB and a 
colhwitor of ol<t Biiilcw, An onthuttiastiej 
bibliophib, iio d<5cril>c.i in 1SHS tho ohiof 
raritiiw in hw library in * A Catalogue of 
HOMO Printed IJookii and Manuori|jtw . at 
Hi, l)nHtiut', liogont* Parkland Aldunham 
Ht;)Ho, HortM' Hk roettdofioQ, St. Duzutau f iy 
Eegout^s ,Fark> ho took on tooaa. from the 
crown in 1856 j it was formerly tenanted 
by tho Marquis of Hertford, who bought 
and. InHtalltid thoro tho clock and automaton 
itrikwrt of Bt, J'ltuiHtiWi'fl Olumth, Float Street, 
when the* churtih wan rebuilt in 18J50* 

Aldctnitam wan appointed a tniKti.- of 
tho. National I*or trait OaUtsry on IB N*iv, 
wJ (iil(Httx.:l F.E,C;},B, on 2$ Nov. 
and F.K.A. on 4 Juno 1BB5, opying 
oa tho cunuKjii of thw lorinur aocbty, 
Ho WSB prttHidmtt oC Otty'i* Honpitid from' 
1880 .to 180(1. 

AldonlM.ii dim! at Aldtnihain on 13 Sopt 
1007 ; hi** ywwget on, Hoary Lloyd 
'CiihbH, dUnl on iite fallawitta day,' agad^ 
forty -nix ; both wore buriea at Aldett- 
ham. His will, dated 10 March . (oodioil 
28 Aug.) 1900, mm proved . in Dooember 
1907 j 'the groH estate waa over 70370i)L 
muoh of' hw projfHjrty leaving beott dis- 
tributed during !;t!i lifotlmo* 'Ho married 
on May 1845 at Thorpe* Burroy, Loutea 
Ann, third daugtitor of WUIiam Adams, 
LL.D,, ami Mary Ann Ookayno. His 
wilo*s brother, Qoorge Edward Ookayno 
[q, Y* Buppt'II], marrbd J^ord Aldottliam*8 
ilster, Miory Dorothea, oil 2 Doc.. 18564 Lady 
Aldenham'died at Bt* Bumtan*^ Begont'a 
Bark, on 17 April 1897 t and was buriod in 
Aldonham ohurohyard. Of their Burviviiig 
ohildron four sons and a daugJitor Alban 
Qoorgo Honry iuooaoded to the porage, 
having boon previously M*F* lor wio. City 
ol London (1802-1000) ; Vioary, M.P. for St. 



Aibaiis diviHion, Hertl'ordsliire (1892*1904), 
him roeditod tho 'Comploto Peerage 1 of 
hit* undo, Georgo Edward Ookayno; and 
Kenneth Francis" is archdeacon of St. AlbariB 
and vicar of Aldonham, 

A miniature portrait (ost* 20) by Sir 
William Eoaa ; EA. ; a chalk drawing (with 
his oldoHt son) by E* U* Eddis (1.859) ; a 
Imlf-liingt/Ii portrait by Watte (1878), and 
a full-length, by Ouioss (1879), belong to 
tho present Lord Aldenham* The Him, 
Vioary Gibbu poaBcsHoa' a half-length by 
T. d<;.l,<.!h (18H8) and a marble* bas- 
r<.liof of tlio head afUr death by J Korr 
LJIAVHOH. Thw Mem* Horbotfc Gibbs 
a Mocond portrait by Watte (I89ti) 

fO* J5 (X (k>inpl(?to Pocrago, oil. 
OibbH; Tlui TJHIH, 14 Sopt/ 11)07 ; KcntB 
nnd INmt Oftiw l^andou dircofcor JOH, 1808-20 ; 
Woiohy M(*tL Hint of fcho Cityof .'U>mlon, !B9(} r 
l*j>. JV7(MJ; Burku'M I'cftrn^o ; IlortB ObHorvor^ 
21 Baj>t. 1007; Bt* -AlbiiUH UftS5ott.es 18 Bopt, 
liM)7 ;' BankopH* Mag, (nkoUsh with poi'tmit), 
xlvlii, 2(17-9; Man" of Note ill Commerces 
and Piuartoa, lOOt)-!, p* 20; Whitaker'i* Rod 
Book of Oatriniarcc, 1910* p 374 ; Froo, of 
Boo* of Antlquttrio, xxii. S84r-/> ; F H- 
MoOalmot Fartimwntary Poll Book, 1900, 
pt. 2, p. 150 ; Ohwroh Tlrnm, W Sopt, 1007 ; 
Ouardmn, IB Sept* 1007? Morning Pout, 1-4 
8b. 1907 ; Daily Mbgraph, H Sept, 1007 ; 
information," 0. W. 



QIFF13N, 8m 'ROBERT (1837-1910), 
eoononviHt and Btatktieisvn, bom at Btrath- 
avtin, LiMwrkHluro ? on 22 July 1837, was 
younger non of Eobtsrt Clifton, a email 
moroiiant and an elder o tho presby- 
twian ohtiroh, by hm wife Janet Wieoman* 
Roborfc was ocluoatod at the village. 
Boliool and wa put in charge of tho 
Sunday-school library with an elder brother, 
John, who, destined lor the ministry, 
died prematurely of consumption. The 
boys road all the books' they could find, 
and wrote anonymouflly short articles and 
powns for a Hamilton nowpapcr* In 
1850 JRobort wa apprenticed to a lawyer 
in Strathaven, Threes para later ho re 
moved' to a lawyer's oflioo in Glaagpw, and 
remained there sevon yeara, atteixding lec- 
tures occasionally at the university* William 
Black [q. v- Huppl I], tho novelist, was one 
of hia olcwtwt Glasgow friends (Rum, William 
titeGk, p. 18), In 1860 he definitely adopted 
journalism m a profession, becoming a repor- 
ter and sub-editor of the * Stirling Journ&L* 
In, lB62he came to London its sub-editor 
of the* Globe 1 (1862-6), After serving for 
a time with Mr. John (afterwards Visoomt) 
Motley on the. * Fortnightly Beview* lie 
joined tfaa stei of -tbe * Boonomist, 11 under 



Giffen 



104 



i.n-.^T.-rn-r- r-i " J ""^ .-j*.,-. ^^ u^**,*****^**!**...*^!*, 



Walter Bagehot [q. v.] f aa assistant-editor 
(1868-76), writing the City article from 1870 
to 1870. Ho was also, from IB?:* to 1876, 



atldras cm 'Tim 



of 

' Owth aflmuml 
linked), Weighty and wtgwmK in 



City editor of the * Daily NOWH,' coiitributcHi ho wiw a pilfnr of ilw J'oiili 

to 'The Times* and the Spetatw\' ami Olubfmm 1H77 io HH, Though 1 



was one of the foundwH of ilia * SfalM 1 in tmitoftvoHm to avoid ].H.litiniil 
1878. Gosohenjitu IUH clmjsitmi * .Report on ! nhip ho prvafiit^Kt mi wviwuw thn 
Local Taxation' (1871), aeluunvltMigi'd in- H};utridM of a :ivii w-rvarii m\m 



TJ ij | i ^ 

(lebtedneae to 



P * 1 * JT 

ui for amstaneu an t\w 



collection of historical mafrrial and in 
the compilation of tho titbli'H in tho ap- 
pend ICOH, In 187(J (.JMftm wan app{..iin(..'d 



to tho board of tnulo m ii*f of 
statiHtical dcpartntoiii and con! roller of 



n.i 



public.; til*.. 1 policy **f 

1:1 IH 4<\amimifittM of I ho 

krw*rt liww? ruin. i 



of ll'H* t'frnvt'l* 
f*f f*M 
lit 1HIHI 



\yiirt 



thn 



a 

wc 

I}*** 



fit* wnn a \ufww, 
iw M ( Ha*rti in. t' 
Britain. Shirt i 



corn returns. In 18H$ tho 

department of tho botml o! trrw'Us tfw | Itrituin uwi !n< 

main work of which had winco 1870 

entrusted to tho foreign oflk^ \\-rn 

and muted to tho BlatiHticiii < 

under Oifron, wlw> botuumo AH 

secretary to tho board, In 181JS2 n tiiird 

departnmiit> tho labour di^uirtittf^it, wan 

added, and Cliflen bi*eain*.j control Iff of 

tho eonuticreiai, lakmr v unrl Bfntwtttm! 

departinentB* Il.o rotiri?d fi'(*in tho ftrwrd 

in 181)7 ami rciiutvcti trt t'hant^onbury, 

HaywtmlH Hi'itllt, I fin varied wrvi*'!^ 

proved of gr*at vitltn? to l!t(^ board, Mr* 



wlm-b 



<' 



\v 



u Jitwml IM* 



, fiv+..|rjwii i r. 

yf 'illi>r nl ih/ 

* on bat 



of 



fiUJIJ 

iv*, in 



of 



Ohamborlain, \vht*n 
minute written afur th*'* MiHig of 
Bankruptcy At of 



n a 



as * to a great extcwt the ron! author of iht* 
meaaure^ 'to. who^ oxhatiDtivo.jttmnorAtulii 
on the aubjeet I owe tho i*Ht part .uf my 
own knowledge,* Ho orvtl on 

' 



oomrniituoHi wan a 
of "tho royal conmiuHioimm lhcd< 
of agriculture in Great Britain (JHIKI 7) 
and on tho |t>rt of iwoiidon (J.iKH) 2 
and gave import ant fittfttwtimti mid mnu: 
mie evidonuo beforo utttnt^rutiH ro 
commissions notably tl.tc depredation "of 
stiver (1&7$) tlm U*rulon Biook Hxehango 
(1878), ...gold and -niiyor (18HO-8), and 
local taxation (1888-8). 

When, accepting office in tho oiviJ wstvlw, 
Giffon obtained pormMon to ouutinua to 
publinh Ms viawi' upon mattern of m 

Tkn 4 A.M.HJI A. tjlM.-,.^ l(ftWrf* J - .'-litfl* 1 ., '*. 



vi'cvv 



Hit 



IM* r*'r*rr*l*"<l in tim * 
Woti, f.iil!i-u 
in 



! 



fiiwl of Iti^trt 
12 Airi.t 1.1*10* tt1il* on 

t lit 



, tit 



ni 



on 

of 



in .tniH, 

of. I). M'Kwfi 
:NVv, JNIHI, 

of 



(*/, 



a 



A.nti 



on 



(Si 
.^r 

Itti 



* From 1870 to 1881 Ito ocUtotl th 



4 Journal of the Royal 

(of which he wai pmidmt, 188& 4), 

wrote numorooft articles and n m 

contribution 01 City . notcNi till Mi tToath 
lor tho * -Economic Jout,mal t s tbo organ of 
the. Eoyal Eoonomio toioty, of which 

president of .tho eotionof'ooonomktt 



and 1901), ho oavo.on tho tot 

Mdrw on *Tho Booout liitta of Uatoriul 

Etogrem in England * and on tho Mooond an 



t) .with 
atitj 



IM latent 

ti. Hin in 



or }tiit# 



niutiy of 
though hi? iJitJ nut il>v*<Juu it< 



by tho highr 

l I 



ouro* for utitwy wmal iiil D 

' 



vit*ww| 

of ilm 
Urn ' 



friH* trmitif, J** 4 t> 
imfiorUi "itti^ht bw j#Mli*Ml by 



,in 



jutigt) lor thum* 

and not to gtikkHl l^y 



i fiord 



105 

I In 



"-* * /y* 

iii for 



ol thdr hankt<rH, broker*, or 

was in favour of * frott4wuking/ 

& choquo might b drawn jKm 

whether ft banker or not, Mo 

tho rKhiotion of ihu rtf|rownt 

land In the* im ferial parliament* ami lhn 

boring of a turn** 1 ! nw.br tltts Iriwh Hwwith 

A vimi* to donor union* 

HXH principal pvibliMhtnl writing*, apart 
from wrtwU* iwidrcwiwt an 



in MwitiatlwHvifh'ul t.ripua* In tlw 
Im won tho tfhuntwlior'H tn(#inl f 
Wrt* a fellow of hta tioll*^ from 4 April 
Ire- ! 1843 till 20 Mimsh IH44. ' Ho 'j>rotmUl 
M*A. in 1840, and U1X in IHCU,' In 1843 

r ami in 

r f .King Kdw&itlV ~Hdux) t liir 
Ho 



minpimmt liti proved -a worthy 

~" " ' '" ~ " ir 1ft Jin' T ' V w 1 

turn: I. "* American Kailwaya an jmvwt* I of Jam<m IVinw !/* [>]* v,] anil ratiigned 
meniV in (,'riu^rwfCrt irivimimenl. TriwitH in !B*!^ nvi?tg to ill- health, tiiiltml, "who 
(LK72; 2nd anrt ttrd ttditat 1H7S) wriu^n hrwl I..HM.MI i.mluineii in t844 wa hom^rary 
at the Hp(|^eHlitn of Mr, Iternant Cnwitroft ; mm*m i.f Wi.r^^Hter (185IJ-77}. 'In 
of the JSUk Kxehartgtt, wiio |ir*.ivirltul him ; Iw 



rhin work mtrvt^i <4 tlfopef ; |<|, v,!, hiMfM'p of I'oferhorough, who 

iniHtriMi* **f ; tM.uil4.I him in tiu wwUtiy of 

ihi 



with 
Homo of 

Amerimw t w .. - , . + . . 

A Frentsh trunHiation by K, tlo l^vtileye j tho 



waw 



i at ' 
atul Mov<*untt of < ; 3* 



* Tbt* 






two 

'Hon 
tho 



of fixfiminittg 

'iVmijilo. " 'iri " IHW ho 
Hew of Mti^h Hiuiham, 

an KnHay rm tho Cbtiwm! Goum^ of Fluotua* j ami in IB77 WIIH ,mk? an honorary cantm of 
in their iViw-H/ IH77* 4 * J&wayi* in t Bt. Aibmin, |In lMB31uiwaMnoriMttat4Kit'Oiim 






u* (w.wtri button* 



, 2 



! 18^0 j 6th edit* I.SIM) ; 2itci 



on Irdond j imprint of . 

JH. <,-l.'ii] lottont to the* * Htatiflt ' on tho 

trinh land and homo rl <|iioHtionft, and of 



editorial 



th<rt*on 



4 



h 



Growth of Capita!/ 18K. 7. * Tim Caws 



*rf fditigkiii in HU 'I*a*rH 
and . thn following yoar- ho 



|. v, iw uroh 
.m.on.' ana oaiiou of lit 
hough (4iffortl wa sal^cst 

(1804, I860) and 'nt Oxford 



tt 



UifTmi ttotth'U.mtotf MJrowttt and 

Uon trf Wualtli, 1837- l.87/ to vol. if, of 1 1M3 

T. H. Ward 1 ** * Hiiign of Quooit ViiiliiHa * 
UHH7). atul iwldi'ti a tthafiier Uilxm! .Farr^i^H 
*Tho Htatt* it* it UoiaUun. U* Tratlw* (1110*2), 
Ha loft <jomj>ltnd In manuHritt a * Haiul" 
book of HtatintioM/ not yet pubimhwi* 

{PerNrma! kaowlml^ ; infortnation from 



(with itxowHtnit ' tutgrivvoii portrait) ; 
Koonomio Journal luiu 11H)1*. 11, II* 



CIIFFOEI), KDWIN H AMlLTON(i8a)- 
1905), arQhdoaoon of .Lundcm mid tht.n.)tt:igiait, 
bora at Brbtol on 18 l)ti, !.$)> won 



(inn, lHiK>-l) ho wan not au 
pr*.aair, ! ; le wiw bolter knnwii an a H<J 
iiuiU i.w ati et'tjlt*Hiiwf.it^ Oil *M~, April 1 
fjjjfoni r<<Mtjucm-.Hl h.w ttrt^hileam-ntry, and 
rtitire*! U* ArlinHjUnj !.|IIH* Uxfonf, whem 
ho ct>ittiv.tuii(l itiH Htudiw to tlw lant* In 
| wan <4ea(^'l an honorary folttiw of 
Ht. John'** OoItogOr Oam.brklgo* He died in 
Lonticm c*n 5 .May 1005, 

Uifford ittarritKl ; (i) Iti 1844, Anna, 
daughter of John Yoilamt of Plymouth ; 
(2) In IS73 f Margaret BymoxM dmighter of 



and 



iia 



tmtt>ti St 



[q v. SuppL llj, i hiul kniiis one 



son of likhartl inland 
by . his wife . lfoto dwiglito of William 
Bavfe . of -StonohouiiOf 'Iwvonithiro. . Aftt^r 
oduofttioh-at Slisiatetli* Urammar HoiuK>! 
Plymouth, -to wan admitted to Shrwabury 
Sonobl in- 18S7, undor . Bonjamin HftH 
Kaimedy [q, T*J andl in ISS0 ho p.roetsodI 
to Cambridgo, winning a noholarship at 
St. John's Colloge, Ha had a dtotingtilffhecl 
university career. In 1842 he won tlio Htt 
University aoholawhip, IE 1843 



d etnitributionn to biblioal and 
jmtrbtio Ianmifig whiah warn marked "by 
insight and ituouraey r inciludcKt: L * Voioos 

<rf '" ' '"" " """ 



(1874), tho 

w aeuvewxi at Lincoln'** Inn 1870-4. 
* Tho Bpfatio to tlii) Bowiang * (1881) in 

* f4f-i''i l(W**a jflntitwmm^jiiif*^ * 'St * PLflLlttftll 
OlA,Hli*Wli *9 WUUl**4W**wl*t Y# ** JtiHw* M.V** 

and tho Bpbtto of Jwmy. * (1BS8) to tha 
(1892; 3l"edit,*1896).' & * The Ostooteioal 



of St, Oyril of J0wutom* 

of -Kloene 



(190S), 6 .vok, 



("*#'* 
nrsr 1 
JfIL! I 



{'" 



""* * 



[Tho Time*, 6 May 1005 ; Oimwlmru 10 Muy 
1005; Church Timws 12 May MW*; ShrowHbnry 

it'l ,.-1, ,. . 1. 'i'lk. . * . i ... *t ***' J 1riint t Itt'ifH , ll^t. ,>. 



Hchool 



tit tht? UM?.^H wliii'li 
; v ftini 



thr-ir rt 



---" " 7 - * '" .^j- T- j ;-' T..." i V T 3- w: 1T.1 " If wm-* T w. w * "vv fli i - ^ E B ' * . 'It' ' . ' ' ff fl " W! ff S 1 i ^ I: 1 * ,^; /. flj ;, J^ g ^. Jl I ft* 

. ,,v^.^r (I.734-I1HJB}, 11HHI j llnk^n xn^nUt a **liwwhwtl lor rr.fi'fi<n% antf nti 

History of St. ,Tohn ? rrfjilc (,tnmhrit!tf*s lH<m ( ^iuntilfi whtTnvor ftKrir-itltwml rm.*imh in 
^? I6 L T|1 ?!.^ (r. j; A. VRI*K*H in 



-"* -;; -"';;; y;"."- ,;:;;;";* "7r "u*w "'"" ! ftuomjitw! * (l>r* *J A* Vot%i,f.'Ki$u m 
Litoratunswtung, 24 Oct. 1MM,J C.*. K \V* J^^rf ^^1 /| r f W ^ ^ t HK)J. Mi. 34B, 

*l ft./'t 1 !. 



CJI-A&A AMA8TAHIA, 1HI8 ...... H 



M 



I 



trnmi 



n 



n 



1001). agriemltMrnl clwrniHt, horn nt 'Hull un i wwkn nfu-r in fcirnnilinn, 

1 Aug. !H17 wanonoof fmrwm>nf fl'w|h : prtwtti'ntmJHHSS-a, ^ !I^ v 

Oiibert (q* v.'J* u cotigrogaUnniil .ruini^N'r, ''hn H**vnl iSirt<fy in JHfH*, ,iiti r. .,,, 

by hm wifis 'Ann Taylor |>*i Cliumirn i wilh IWIWI-H itn royal nimhil in iHfil, H't 

M^ AN], Tho family rt'niovwl In '!HiJ5; w*w rtwiwl in tHa mi hunnrary mmulifr 

to Nottinghftm* whewj CJillwri |ittt WH ; of tho Hoynl AriuMlfwml Nwii't-y, in thit 

HiuiHfif'Ut, Ami in IBtIB i^itfrwt th '. *;f tlm .l!MiiijyH|^| ftwiiwht.^ tt-^n* }-wl 
of QIniiit>Wi (ttHK'talmtng hi rtni^ ; Hh*iJ, In IHHI In* wiw i*|*p)iiitw! H.ili 

'"" " """ ** ' ' * " I tlm 

trrm 

in 



A 

in i832, which caul tii** IHH >! i.m f>- 
iin;-jitJml hin ginwrnl health f<;*r 
ilti next witrtel at Univi?rH*ty 
l>inclott in this IiU;M:rnUry of* 
Artthoiiy TrKld ThmitHoii }>| v/| wh^ 
hi.5 Iml tm a ft'lltm'-'Hluilt^ft 'il<ihu Hrim 
4*w (V, v, Swpji|, I], with whmn h 

soiytwlai I'll IH10 hi 
wont to (Jif^wn, whuitt hw ini't J**n 
Playklr [q, . v .St. 
Vodksker Jo* v] f wi.r 
Uebig,-iuia -took t!ia : .ti!*rw f tiiKjUir of 



<*' 



v 



for ni run*, MH 

In Wfili 
fi* ri t 



on 



In I HIM 



ut 



with tlm 

ovti-ly i*f 
^i f.mw 



, ruul I 



t 

noted m 184:04' i Affnijitant to Anthony ; jiiint Ii*bin of 
Thomoit At Univumity G^llrp, anI thw* ! 
dovotad Homo tim at Mnnttmtt:'r t^ri WHMH.I at 

of tt!io> dnllii tuit.1 



, jm'M), 



ni*i Llill^rl* a 







( _ On 

^ Jutui !B>nr . 

vlwor John Jflitnnt't Lttwod^ who hml nhortly i H.i# iUviiy nf ntlml itntl Ui} 

siliiir*t 1*1 thn !!, hut tht* tlwiilt of 

ntntlun In UK* wttrW at tti* In IftMlwiiii it riAt Wiw i<i Ww* ll* 

S*1 



.From JTOI 1848. to Augunt 1000, whi 
LawoB died, -the- two. teti|nUm Uvt* 

in . imbrokw friandihip.. mti- obltAb(ir*Ucm 

*What 

the two are 



wot 




fifth ywwr, tuui w*w iiuiitH) in Uw 

"' - ''' .-u 

i j" { 1 1 ' in IHfiO, 

j {g} in IHAA, ; 

him IM| M 

J ! n,t*ivil tint twiwitiii i.f llKtl, lit JIII4, " lit* 
. I nil fiMtiily Ity nith^r tinoti-ngr*. 1 - . 
1 ti.i tillA* p^)itt4) iy 'FriMik O, Hnli*f.itiry in 

i fa i' 1 * tfi'i t * i ' r * A 



oombined with iBxtvemo'-pAttenod . 
fal watohing of nwulti. With iht 
mination to eawy out-n 



to 



of tha two mindN,'ln'themwdvw 
flMWLtially -dlflownt, materially 



{with nartrtit) by I'lr, *!, A, 

vol, *!sl (IWii) ! th *!*.*tirnmi 

, nf Kr*Mliiil i oliil, ttiUim lif 

,...,- 



G* 
r 



107 



(""* Ml A 

ill he rt 



m h H 
18 



. 

b*, .rn < " *ith. ! |>iud for hut roll lath" Ur. wlnrh t.,k 
r S . X louJ. ( h*;.ml7Nov. IM3 M- ' My Mu|rn 
r. 1>r Th-mn* Morrk n i C<*Mtt, DM. IH03J. Will, another 



at 
a * 



,, 
(Sir) Chirk* ,tn* Wat km 

l.v W* wife Anno Morrh. fq. v.J, then ft well.known barrator in thy 
I.L* w tl mimanio Um drmiii, ami with tli thint 
Aw.tafmthtmvrtllihn fiimWwd * * of B,W 
Italy with hi* imnrnl* !wn In Mmiwnf* ]nu, Imt Iw 
kf h ww *Ubn t, 1 immor to hv hnd. .my 
-R an.! nuiimniwt for 2W. ; cUntem or iMi.Jww m ilia < 

' r.*g. ; 11- join.,! |,M nnrlhMW rmt m 18 M h 

f Uw r- 



.-i 



* HI. 



fl,. 



Main' wl.Hii. 

iwrarf mwn H . 

S l Sr U. uty. mid .^r IlftvU Wilkio W / ti,. Wwrjim.! -- ; nm ''' 

wl ly hh fw Uwt im fAiurl, mt ' .i!y -rnw. ///. IK ! 
1. picture. At tin. *g ! ! lt. r M,um. . 

went to lrim1 tit ItouU^nn. > dwa-nt Jnwmi.. ' l.y itril 
t UiirUn ! w at IhnW^n, (.urrrnt li.U-minns Hj. W"*r 
tinuntnar &l.l, Bromotmi, Md (toni linrt. Um iiutnntm JHB8, win Im 
thirtwn to ixt>n at top Onat Kaling ; tmwiaton of tho kit > K ^n fnm 

S i alKrSry^dU ng hiM, Bom [q- v-1. f < ^J* LfiuS 
In Oct. 1855 to tmtomi the dcpftrtmwit. I haliyhoot I, Itad ma. * iwil * 
of wnnwl Htwaturo and winw at King'ii ! lhw with 1l w>nft in IU ong nn! ttwwh. 
?(ifi, 4 "ul" .((/ ''" frw/5r, lu IHill WilU-rt c..iiHial Iwth a* until.* 
IW* i. H 9 ! Alfnl A,VrU.v.SPpl.J j ml arliHt. -mtri ,ti,* . *H.| ' ; ' J- 
and Wiit.*U.mnt IM- v. H,,j,l. Il| wuw j utmrtm C it l.n l..n w. a half 
fellow Hlnittnita. H..IUI. of hw wurlient hu-- i j.iw UritwiiiK on w<,,, /''' ''f ', f," 
rary dlnrtH worn vni omttriJmlwl to ihn uralr HIM hunt|np f Hairy J*" 

.uwti a ntudnt I Byim li. v.J. A * y < ktnlffi w*. 
to Oxfonl, miiii1d'lmmtrlbiiU>ftwitumrf"cMpy 



tho Crimean war wwi at it* height, and 

. I 1 t. * !>*.*,*) A ant lit****** "" 

oommtMHions tit tho Koyiw Aruiiury 
thrown opoit to oowpotitivo oxmni 

Owing up alt Mm of Oxford, ho road 
army bxamittatio'n ttnotnwi for Chrbttrnfti 
1856 (* An Autohiogmphy f in Th* Thwfai 

" April 1BS3, p. 2.17)* But the ww 



p. 



...., FUn* during the 

p f llyfoii -and that f Bpm'tt 
-, Torn Hood "the younger [H.yJ 



m 



to w abrupt liacl, and tio mom ofliaam 
re u o'xiunhmiion wwi in<U*R- 



required, tbu 
poitwnmL .Oilbort then 
BX at the Ltmdon Unlvowlty ' in 18ft7 
and obtained -a 'GommiMHion if i tho ttuliUa in 
M teitalion Oordon highiatidem. 
In.' 1857 fewaa A auoooiMCttl competitor 



MH exaxndnation'.for a 'olorkahip in 

* ' * of the privy oounoil 

"I'lfifitiii^t^di fikiidi 1.11- 
governed offio * ..be talii m to up 

unoomf ortebl yenw* Oom ing unax - . 

in 1801 into 8QOZ. f -'on-the hftppUwt 
ol my life I %m% to my'resignatloti'* 
had already on II -Oetober 185^^ 
Inner Temple as a' etudent 




tw . w ii no ovldoncw tlmt ho 
drawing In any nohixil, hut ho mm 
iiiuMtraior of tnuwt* In 1^5 ho Jii^l* 
iltuiitratiofi* for lib 'ftttherX itovel, 



, 

another of hta 



iKKiki,' * King 



, 

'* Mkldy.' Hta iUw*rHloi of 
own 'Bab Mttllwl' tow muoh dinwt 
' quaint humour; to, W* ' 

* i * - ..' ..I.-.^^^'IL^ji mat 



*..* 

.oadiiiy 




.4, 

i* 



Gilbert 



Gilbert 



thegnnmd that it wmi * too wmiibulistm for 
ilia reader* tewtaH * (Fifty Hah Bniind^ fmif., 
1884), Gilbert'** oonnt^tioM with * Pimrh * 
thereupon cimoed. * Thn Nnnoy Ml ' iij" 
poara!, without illtiHtrationH, in * Kuif on 
3 March 1800. (lilhwf^ othor work in 
*Fim f may im fcrntjml hy in^I Jigur** drnw 
IrsgH Bigw*d k Bab* A ncrlon <{ (irufrtut.tr 
nottiu-*M commofKTing 158 
wo Mtjct, by th Omiin 



Tim firnf. illunimird hallitd \v 
*JIm* (I flwui 18f7). From HUM flaf* 
thoy Ixttwmt! a titular ff<atim of t!w ftujrr, 
But ot until &'l Jari. IHOil, In roniUHititm 
with 'Tint TwoOgitw. 1 wiw thu iititi 'The? 
Bah BftHadH* m,H,l, Tlwy \v<'Tf Hrnl, ml 
fi*di*d In vohutii! |rm in* thn wuun y*-ar, 
Furt-lujr * Bab IJalladH* continutHi t*. H^W^*" 
m *Fun* at vtu^ii^ inlvrvalM uni 
A ocjllwlwt volnimt of * Mom lial* i 
in 1B7& TJt 'Hull Ikllitil 
.itb:*rt/n rfffiiiUiion IIH a 
huinormt iit ?ir* 
At ilw Matncj finin 
or Hfofit*H lo f 



awl in it * 

t|, v, Swppl, 11 1 iind LJMnrl Bnnti;h |ij, v, 
ojifil. II I lihiynl. If. niii h.,r 120* i-ii^hf^ 
A Iliinl hurh'Hijur, on f ho * ttohnnmn Uirl/ 
* f .riM Mrrry Xiiigaru, or ihr Tijwy 
f IVijwy WopHV," wiw j>rr1iinii| 
Tht^itrr "** 2t .SJurHt 1H<W by 
Ulivi/r, C> *JI Jiris IHII 
'llp'^ff** wiw tmfiHf^i h 
'. v* 



fh n^viJ," in 

I|*I H ) |il.iiyr*l f.hr 

lln *i|">ii*^ 4 
nh T**i-(ir f n) Th) 

it:* |'iJ"iit.roifi.nr** 



111 



tv 



!*ri'M 



^, *.*r Ihn 



h. Maid, 

vi'lin nf 



(i(MMi\ fir fh" 



^t'/iitf/ nmi * T 

thw J^iitiJtin (UK, 
to tlid * Jnvulifiii KiiKrti*/ iutdi 
dmmalki oritlo Ui VifM^ll^ '..,.... 
Ttmee, 1 inierofttod Mnplf lit tin? f4i*n*< 

to oontihue hh mJUtory dutii^.ftiid I 

mptain tjf lib itdHU^ n.^initnit in ,_., 
Ha witlrod with tliii rank of'tmijor in 1HH3, 
At thti ^}j( : | of I860 (']iUn.irt .itaminuutil 
" AM a playwright, 'R>ThmiwWi!iii.Mii 
f)Hortw>M (^ v.J, thit dnutmUnt, lit* im 
thtt notxKut intrtKiiujfion* Minn H< " 
tho lotwt'H) of fcjt, djuntw'M Thwatrts n 
ja C'hrlitmau piwc<: in 'a WtiUHht, 
Koborteon tueommitmUHi Uitl^rt fo 
work* w'kkh WM written in ttni , 
In A -wook. fttid }truriiitt.*d 



14 



StjrH, .Miff 



?J 'A 



tuii 



finlhuul 



^ Ui?r, 
l (,'*in 
lh< ^hi 

jiir; 

umf (Sir) 



on L'Elixir d'Amyrti* 1 

/, . ^ ar ^ f r tbi Wttil0 1>u ^ d tb 

Orwt Quaok, 1 frank Mftttiwwi ntiwla n 

aoooew in the title rtle, Mid it mn for wvi3rnl 



months and wi twkw revived. No twnw 



lit l)m 
inirftt 

H Af'r ** 

*n w*r*t jit 
'I 

vli 
on 







f 



Ht Jl, 

j, JIA), 



nt ibt* 
Hii (JuitN 



in 




. . i 

HO good a pte for nudl a mm. 



lrr 

at tofc in tlta Ifghte bmaohee 

on 



idra, or f rue to the Corps,* 
d t the Queen's Tlmim ml 



ut for tli im^M*iit im further 



druma. On i 



mm* 



* 



liw 



nfc 



tint 



Thin 

* 



ito will* 

tin* 
tt 




v* 



nr 



tlw 



(** * I I Jt 

.t I inert 



C.'iillirrt 



1$ Xnv. 



V ThU 
^ nf Hi** 



ami \V H, K 
230 ni 



n 



It pr>VHt n mi 
nt ll 
in JMH-I 
with 

til* 1 * |Hlfl. ({tH 



World, Ik 



4 f 



In 



*C 



1H715 



lif 



NMV, JH7*I) 
for 



1873, 






out' ly 
jjjil. 1(, < 
hw wham of fhn li 



V 



M. 



ran 



'mirl 



| * 



* 1 



uifh 



IK 



mul* 1 



!ri 



* 



h* \V|rkxl 



t ;*ii J . 
tl tv 



If'Uvlv 

- 



17 



<n* 

*r, 

' 

t 
t 



llitt bill, WWff* 

F* L Tututitui 

'Tbw Happy 

UmiaHni littt tUwm f tho 

Fwitw, W. I Hiil. mid K 

(manager of 

miombto 

Lowti (Lorrl 



)itt mnuifv 
Arthur A 



i* 

i 

tit 






inm ti 
flttmi 1 1 



nit 



4 iwrweu* ] m*rtf* ii 

with ***i" WAN fulkmn) 



fl i*t t<i j fur 

UNi|tiiliil 
A.H. Aytl4m nt nnr** itHw*ivii in 



M*t h jHti 



i!r. 



M f 



In 



ll 

'I 



inn 



* 



.-* 

^4 



* ' 



;r 

i*i ji nfi it**, i*r tin* 



* 

i*yt*l 
Uto 



tn iho 



Htory oU woman 
m hfo by 
It WMH 
genoral public, 
run 0! wgh 
of aueocHHful 



ItayiattirLtit, WM tint 
hwr owo 
'! 





Gilbert 



1 ID 



was brought out at tho Fifth Avonuo 
Theatre on New Year's Ew, III !.)<, 1870. 
Thcs parly rotnrw?tl to England in timo 
to produce * Tho HraUJU of l*w*ana * 
at tho Opara CJomiijtw on ft April I HBO. 
This ran for a y*?ar, 'FatuttHKJi or 
Buntho.mt*ft Brtdo * canw out at tlw Oprm 
Cwiiicjuo on 2ft April lHHl t and at* flin 
height oHta frmmjm, on 10 <.)!-. JKMi, it 
was traiiHftwd io flw * Savoy * UM* wvv 
0|)cra houso built by ,1)H)yIy (,*ari.4* fur 
Oilbfrt. and .Sullivan n|H<riu<. 
wan a Hiitirn mi tlws uurrtnit * w 
& * and t*njoy<Hl gr^ai JKIJ 
Tho iaaMiiiitn " * Havoy 



Gilbert 

"ii'M.H'rt*H |mrt.rHhij with Sullivan 



n 



rm 7 



It 
IS!*;?, 



\viw nu 
Jj, 



.Unli 



t.' 



* i*rttifnr.M * 
tits ntovi^ 



<r, In 'Tim 
imi *m ? Mnh'h IBIIfl 
<%yv% Ut)1'tt.rf nml Snlltvmt \v 



1 lolanthc, or tho I*otr ami ' ihn l*i?H * 1 A 

(25 Nuv* _188S) ; * FrlfUii'w Itla, or (.'* 

an (-Ji 
*1an, !HH4)i tiitil 

Mikado, or tho Tmvit *f THi}.i * (M I 

!&##}* !l l: ha limt jiiiMti,^ ran for l-\vo j 

wa playtnl owr MM) tiia^n in 

and unm<i favour on ihf (.Vni. 

wan tilt? u*t i;Hi|utliir *{ u!I tiiib'ri 

Hullivatt*H joint' workn* It IM mM CJi 

Btillivjvn* iiiui. (?arl*> <*u4*h 

out of It, * Hut1iil^ort\ tr 

(..lurw, 1 an !*Jn'fj*>mfmn of ill** t** 



|inn*uf**i hm riif^^r iw it, }t)ay Bri 
ir.fi.lIy anti with *t*v,Hmn^ kirw 
*lram. VM..arH|ninanri <ht Fairy * 



.. ( * t\v ^Ir. Arthur 

i'Jrtrrirk Th**ntn.? (Jt I 
! U II J)ir. 'H.H,f hwM!< 

; AVith tlOIMit N' 



y HH>-|), 

^n Vnirii 

, mino t* 

r* 

iff 



of 



Mr vlnnM'n WrJrh at fhH***]i?<wii In 11*11 
!it)*<rf *N 



JU**"d 



7 



or 

man and Urn Maul * on 3 O^t, 1HHH, mid 
* Tho Oomial.fa.ri, or Tho King of Itamt&rfo 
on 7. -DfKk 1BBO- Tho pA'ttntmhiit 
ihortly altorwanli inUwitptmL 
.mont an Untyioial: ma 

i, and Oilt:rt 

arti*. Hcumraiing for iht* 
timo from tml.li Sullivun utitf C,'' 

' * 



ami 



n 



n 



, II, A. | rj, v, iSit{i1, 1 1 j, 
' 



h< .mutt lml t 



4 Jan, 



lor 

duoaci at thw^yrjo Tht> 

In wrltiri 

wrote out t&o plot* jwf though If, wrw an 
anecdote, nd thte hn oxttatitltMi t tht* 
length of a magazine rttei -with um* 
"maS^ of oonvmatiort, Thin w*a v^r 
oomatec! nnd .nut dawn 'to ,'n 

,.. ...,o 

with entrancei. and xiti armi 
until the fifth MB. was th play 
fay aottul dfadoguo. BonietlmM 
would after a-fortoigbt'i reit be n-wntton 
entuwly . afreeh witicmt vdfemioo to ihu 
Snt drift. In amn^ng tho-MmiM, too, 
no trouble ' " ' ' ' " ' 

* /!!' 



uf tin 

dairy farmer, Lii^-kt^i^r, anti 
Ho WJIM intitlit J,l', in IK1M. 
, unt] tltivtiJ 



r 



fit 



w*v* 



it 



r l" 

tt tlui**, ttiid wii rltit^.l hy 
t ihn .tim-ridk Wuh MM 



mn 



it 



wai 



own to Ptotamouth 
round about. tbe harbour 



. i 

upon te quiuBterdec of to Vtotory for 
Ui waa f wbloli be obtetnad permiadlott to 
mob md model in eveiy dotall, 



nm 

l>vk on i M ny I Wt i , Th 

at 
O 

Ollteri 

'amotttf VlaUtriMii 



for tint 



mtule *n$ nmoh m.oi5y from 

Infw) in mi 

w 



immtiur tmrtaiata- ttminiy In 



Gilbert 



if i 



Gilhrrt 



logical <<p*y<frvt\Vi*t w 
peouiinr 1** <ltH*i'rt IM l*t j*Mfy l 
on it *'f *h' 'T'*^' 1 '*HH' 
himwlf cliiwhwinM wy kn 
tertian humour, fAiitttf Owl "nil 



Is*- art, ?pf*l 



with 



hit* rwrr*tt fniWn work^l uwh'f him 
urhiuiity iMul *ith n 

of hi* 

wwt Inrjti'ly dftf t*i thHr frwhwt fmni 
y aw! Ut'lhn rwiirw **? I IIP lyrir*, think I 
whiofi It only w^w ftittfti^nl inul |^rfm i f it* ; hr wi^ 
form hut nji|liHl ttim<t*Ty *f inHr <* thf whf*n th ^j"rt 
f thti intwt uhitUMt^iU wwl fau* , rrj?ri|wi v* y t\' 

i * * * * ^ 

llii hull lilll^ iir II** W (f Sii*n itiili lurhi * 

it w**fi*|fTfiil **j*f I* *r rhythm, 
' wtmN nut! mi'ln* 
thn imw^m ui 

i*f i; 



ktH**fl 

J TJi* i 



w 



will 






1 hf 



tit a 
the 



11 

mw 



Mll, 

in 



fut ruhft^niiitg i not 
in Kngiiuid/ 



A jrtnMi 

.A., In IMHT In ilf^tMir^i J.r 
i*otlr<ll Unlh'ry. II*' tti 
r<U h 



dtutifuUy 



on 37 



ti> w thrtv U'tH^ki* or n i 
at th* r*h*ttri*Jif hi** ' 

w* t* 

In thw<* iwttj* hy 
linnUmiHt 



from 

4 



i*f 



(NW liM 



of ' 
1B77 
in tha 



* hi 
l * 
ytmr mwipl&mlng of O 



in * A 



velopcd thw priotiiw til Tarn 

who wan porn&pft the flwt Rngllnh 

wiight to iinpimi 

wheamal on tho 

hearsed bin pfocon In hto 

of & nicxiol Mtivgo ft4>d Hgurort, 

erery group mi lao 

In the withorW mlad 



* in I 
tically notlw 



(HllH*rt f^ 




ordinary eooiftty a ready, 



'An Oltl 



* 



til 



n 



y 



)t 'Our 



Tha Ratlin* wl Jiy ( * jbrtw bv IT 

flt a & jtfJi. i=** *^ . ui <Wfr. qt^ 




C* 



* < * * 



1 1 ^ 

t * 



Gil lies 



by Frederick Ctay (Htromi Thwtw, 
2 Oat 187(1); "M" 1 NitVr.tlo-Wn'1,' drnina 
(Olympio Tiwntrc?, 25 Fob, 1878) j *'&>% 
Korty'n Fairy,* . fairy comnly (Oitoruw, 
15 'ifrc, 18HI); * 'Brunt aitflmwo Hdl* 
droma (Hi, ,!ftiw?Vn.H'niiv, 52!* Nov. 1HHH) 5 
*TI;m BrigamK* ojww bwiflV' in ibrw JIHH. 
mtiwft l*y Oftt'it^M'h* wliitjkH.i from * Lrn 
BriguwlH* of Mrilimc ntitl liitlt*vy (Av*ftw 
TJu>iitr<-% instil* JSHli); ' HowmrriiiH/, ml 
'rii,* a friWHty on MliuuM/ w 



tiruo }o wnrkrnl 



, In 



ho 

in 



* u* 

ik i m jinrl in fin* iillnir 4 
k.'i, Hi*irluMl*\ Jji 

a rrjw 
nlr t'tf 
t'Vlnwr 



" 



I 



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* l*atit.fii 

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\lWttliaroSuiw 

'In The '1'hoftitti, 2 April JHHH, lip 

Etlith A, Bfnwmi, W,fc. : UiHwrt, IM7 5 Arihtir 

William Arohtr .Kit#iih llnutmtMn *.*f * 
day 5 Willkm Ar*jfw.r lii'ui 

Hnv*v 

i^niiiti, !tt> Mity Hilt 

"t % ^ i 

.linns IH 

; John Uolltuj/Hhcml'M fJnrh*fv f*hi j ' 
! KfttflFiM'i W.R niHrti 

Mwntlily, IBIfii asvjiit 7f*4 i Hmrtll^v'w lamthm 
Lottoiii 2 vojH., 1BU<>; iuitl tik Aiinl*V.Ait^j* f iii 
MinorioiM iilli Tho Ktigltah Ar4t*phttni% nrl, 
1>y Walter Biohel, txiFcirinighily Kovitm^ li*J^ ; 
W. Davnpori AdaniKi -Dk'i. ortho Drnmti. I 

IS A P 

/rf"*-* f Y'^C* 1"\ ft *,f W A *.'f : 

CI1LLIEB, DUNCAN 
premier of Victoria, AufttroU*, 
January 1834 at 'Over*Newtott t 
of GiaNgjoWt wan neocmd icin cf 
Qilllau* a markat gsrctoer of thai 
by. Margarot fain wilt* ' Alter tnltit 
at Qliwgow High Softool lia ingan a 
nmn onroai 1 in a ouutl,fig4i0ii In 
native oity. Me rand moon in bii 
obiefiy in hlitory. 

18d2 -he emigraiad to Auatralia* imd 

ft 1 ",i, , Hjfrk* ft** .i r 

at Fort PhiUij), 



|l> 



i 



il**. 1 



ht *lI 



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ifi in il* 8tif vl 
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Gillies 



Girouard 



secretary, each representing his own party 
in the cabinet and the Asawnbly. 

The period of the CUllieH-Peakin nunis- 
try wins' marked by great social and political 
activity. The revenue and expenditure of 
the colony incrwwod to an tiupreaedented 
degree, whilHt railway** woro oxttmdod in 
all directions llneful legislation was pro* 
moted, of whioh tho inowt important wan 
the Irrigation Act of 188(5 with its numerous 
off-shtwtH, but tho government before itH 
term of oflloo ended hod to contend with 
acute labour troubles, culminating in dm- 
afitrouB striken* In IBS? GillioH declined 
the honour of RJIMXI 

At the general eloation of March 1889 
GttlioH wan rotnrnod for the Eastern 
Suburbs of Melbourne, and tho govern- 
ment* B power Homned unimpaired, though 
then* were nignn of coming difficulty. The 
litHt HOHHion ptwmxl without diHantor, but 
in the wecond seHnion a direct voto of want 
of etmfidtmao wiw* carried on 30 Oet, 1890, 
by 55 votes to 35, OillioH resigned on 
5 Nov. and led .tho opposition to the 
Mun.ro and Hhiek governments. (Milieu 
wan a aotwiwtent aupporter of tho oaueo 
of Australian, federation. He represented 
Victoria at aovoral intercolonial con- 
forcncoB an well m in the Bcoond and 
third HeHHiorm of tho federal council of 
Australasia, Hw prcaidod at tho fcd(jral 
conf^rtMUso hold in M'.oibounii in Fob. 
1890* and was OIKS of tho roprom-mlativtm 
of Viatotin. at th<. national AuHtralanian 
convoution which nust in Bytlnay in March 
and April IBDL 

From 6 .Jan. 1894 to 5 Jan, 1897 GillioH 
wa agont-goworal for tho colony in 
I^ondori. Uoturuing to Melbourne, he again 
entered Parliament (14 Oet IB07) a member 
for Toorak, and wan ro-olectpd in 1000- On 
14 Got, 11)02 ho wa uuaiiiiuouly ' ehoaen 
as speaker of the HOUHO of Assembly. 
But failing luialth hamporod tho perform- 
ance of hiu'duttcw. Mo uiod of hoart failure 
on -12 HepU 1003 in- tho Hpeaker*^ apart- 
ments at" the Btato Parliament HOUBO, 
and waa buried in Melbourne general 
cemetery* 

Gillies .lacked many of tho .qualities of a 
popular leader. .Even among kin political 
supporters Ms general demeanour was 
aomewfeat cold iwtid unsympathetic, but 
ho gained respect by his conspicuous fair- 
ness and magnanimity* His spoeohes wore 
models of clearness and force* He proved 
himself a powerful leader of the house, 
and iu that capacity displayed taot and 
resource. 

A portrait of Gillies in oils, three-quarter 

VOL* 



length, by Tennyson Cole, is in tho National 
Galiory of Victoria at Melbourne* 

[The TimoH, 14 Bopt, 1008; Melbourne 
Ago, 14, 15, 16 Sept* 1903 ; Melbourne 
Argun, li fcjopt. 1903 ; Australasian, 19 Sept. 
1903 ; JohnH*H Notable Autrulian, 1008 ; 
Tumor'a History of tho Colony of Victoria, 
vol. it. 1004 ; Auwtralian Year Boole, 1904 ; 
M.ennull*s Diet- of Austmlas, Biog, 1002; 
Colonial OHico BeoordH.] 0. A, 



aiROXJABB, DlSIR (1836-1911), 
Canadian jud^o, bom at St, Timothy, eo 
Beauharnois, Province of Quebec, on 7 July 
1830, was Hon of J6r6mi Oirouard by 
IUH wifo Hippolito IHccard, Ho -wan 
tloHCJondtxl on the father' B Bide from Antoino 
(Girouard, private secretary to Do Kaiuezay, 
governor of Montreal in 1720. Alter at- 
tending tho Montreal College ho took the 
law eourno at McGill University, obtaining 
tho Unit prize tltree yearw consecutively", 
and graduating B.C.L. in 18(50, D.C/L. in 
1874 ; lie WUB alno LL.IK of Ottawa Uni- 
versity* Ho wan called to the bar of Lower 
Canada in October I860, and was appointed 
Q,C, in October 1880. Ho attained groat 
diBtinotbn at the bar, especially in com- 
mercial oases, and -was a well-known writer 
on legal and international questions* In 
1860> ' before ho 'was called, he published a 
UBoful trcatiHo in French on bills of oac- 
chango. He alwo wroto on tlio civil laws of 
marriage and on the Insolvent Act. Ho 
was one of the chief collu.borato.rM in ' La 
Eevue Crititpo,' which in 1873-4 gave 
cxpnsHHion to the diHatisfaction of the 
Montreal l>ar with tlie thon existing Quebec 
court of appeals and led to tho reboristitu- 
tion of that court in 1874. He iirat stood 
for the Canadian Farliamont in 1872, but 
was not sucoGBBf ul till 1878, when he became 
conservative member for the constituency 
of Jacques Cartior, and held the scat for 
seventeen years, until the ciowo of hi politi- 
cal career. In .Parliament* wliere he proved 
a good debater, lie carried in 1882 a bill 
legalising marriage with a deceased wife's 
sistor* Later, m 1885, with some other 
coimervative Fronch-Oanadiau members, 
he opposed the government on the subject 
of the execution' of Louiw Eiel [q. v/J. He 
was chairman of the standing committee 
on privileges and elections, presiding in one 
well-known .ease- the Langavm-MoQrecvy 
easeover 104 sittings. He was offered a 
seat in the dominion cabinet, but preferred 
a judgeehip, and waa appointed in September 
1895 to the bench of the supreme court of 
Canada. He was senior puisne judge when 
he died at Ottawa from a- carnage accident 
on 22 March 1911* 

' ^ ' . ' : .' ''. ' I 



Gissing 



I ! 4 



Oirouard wan not only ominont as it 
lawyer and jutlgo, but bo ww* afeo nn 
authority on the early Imtory of tho 



men! of Montreal In mwgwtitm of lii 

' b 



pni|>tnwiiii 1*^.1 biin info 
r nt 



of! 

In diagrams aw! hi prido mil biin fwirift 
awl mark* a temifwrnry jwrmh nt bim ; bis 



IAr 



ovwwo 
bf* or 



in}>rary 



historical rcwardwH bo \vaH 
tho govornor-gonoral with tho G 
tton modal in '.189$. Ho bt*#im jwblwhwg 
tbo jft&ulift of IH HtiulioH in iHHJ), awl in IHfKI 
hiH pa{K)ftiy imtiwlatwi by bin nori, Ji, 11, 
(tironard, won* tioiluotml at M<ntn*/il iI*T 
tho title * Lakes 8t, IX)UIM Old iitui NVw, 
and Oavalior d(.. la Sallo.* 

HowaHthrootiinoH inarritd: (Din 1H112 t* 
Mario Mathilda, daughter of )t.hn l-'ratt nf 
Montraal ; shodiod iin IJMI3 ; {2} in IWJft in 
IMe daughter of J>r* )<iHt>}ib fMinwiii f 
Ballynamona* Ireland; H|H diod itt iH?9j 
(3) an 6 Oct. 18H1 to likiitb .Brrtha, yoiingpHi 
tlaugbUir of l')r *folin lU^atty of i'*hitii^* ! ntvnr in 
Ontario. Ho tftft four iliiu^uf-orM And nix j tiMl* *!** 
noiitt, 0110 of bi HOIIH by bin Htxiottd 
Kir Poray lmnirt!* at fn tins* 
of tho lOiiHt Africa Protwtoraff . 

I'TlicTiHw^ailMurrb Hill ; Mttttfri'wl .HutJy ! .M" 1 ^ i!t "'" wliiwry jl ; 
Htar, !22Murc*h 11*11 ; Ciutftdinii INtrtinttt 
hits j auuuiim* VVbt.'H VVI'io, 11*10 ; M* 
Mvn ntui Wtiti'jj of tin? T.iiui., 



ntu! wi^ (or it 
ti*tfr Hiit t-bntt 
t 



tituci 



t^irli*; In J 
Mtnrv*ifi"ft, 



iil*>.,i!ti| 



n 



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f 



CH3H.i.N(l f (IKOHCIK HO'I.USHT 

novtslmt f }:'im in Hit* Mnrko 
Wakofiold, on 22 Nov. IBIS?, wan t*ldct uhitd 
in a family of ihrao 0nn.nd ; two 
of -Thornm Wfclter Qiwilng 
ft Suffolk man 'of Uti)mry"mi 
attafttmont^! wlio -Mettled At 
a phammooutiaal cihomint t wiy* author 
a * Wakcildd Flora,* ami Odm^ondiHi on 
'boianlttal Hubjt*<!t with Hooker, 
arid othw I.K>taniHt. Tho 



noil 
ti1.t(4i.ju 
mtml in flm 

uwinw, b 
tul lltt*n in rim 



f^ilml, 
ml -urn 



to fw 



(till living) wim Murftnrot, dtuightor of 

" of DiHldorbiil. a wo)lknowit 



o 



t* orn . 
d**noo nt tbin.iiimi will* *i 



lolicitor in 



A youngtnr 



itt. youngtnr roion 
Algernon, enjoys tkima ropufiUiw an a 
' 



xgo, who wa 

l 
private day schouta itt Wakafiotd to 



Rdgo/Whoro hli unsoaiiibiUty mid. 



time* waplcmiwfttly, but .whore ho Hhone or* 
speeeh^ayi {oo in tn',Ia*|i f ahao; iL 
la 1872 Ea oamo-out flt to tho Unorbm 



. . r^^^^^. ^tr*r W gfty .*,<* ^r*(f . %((P^#!| 1 <r%*.JWLW* 

Manohoitor, -At .tho' ond o! hli Etit ooMion 
ho won Dr. Ward's 



^ _" - "' ' -'"".- nxvoo^nwwivH J-rfV^tuffftiM JM fi #|^f | 

ho alao gafaad a poofari prtfio'Jor'cdiyHloi 



tho ShftkoBpcuu* aohofitnihip, nd took 
a high place with honotuv to tho Loodoa 



Mag, Jan, 1004, p. 80), -Unhappily, at 'this 



(HHKI) n*i 
forms an *iiif*if4ogm : |*bjmij timn-i mi'i it 

lvi.njf^ iiiul. 
On his mtttm to Kitgltirul Ji.itnt 

of l*i? in* 
to. Q 
navel 

\m\), in 
, uf tfwirw.% 
white Omtl is bis Tmttonio ttcttikituito< 



nf bis 

mfmciy u|x>n lldn knik, minttdtmtl 
antiol{iiiiiNi 'brp {.milllir. itut tin* 
wa..rtwl by tew-wivo' tito nriUcM. 
tiotinoed its * dstigumtis * ^rpj^ii 

ww cmee 'mum foeed by- hunger 



<ui<t 

iont to Mr. John Morl*% ami i-o Mr* 
Haninciiii both of whom 
powor and ihtoiwi^ In 1NH2 lw uutbor 
tutor- to Mr, Harritftm' 1 * 



Gissing 



Gissing 



obtained oilier pupils and an opening for 
occasional articles (such as a sketch * On 
Battersea Bridge *) in tho * Pall Mali 
Gazette/ His means wore still small, but 
ho was no kmgdr destitute; yot his "un 
practical contempt for journalism, hm 
idealism as an artist, no loss than tho neces- 
sity of providing an allowance, however 
small, for the wife from whom ho was s0pa 
rated, involved him often In pecuniary 
difficulties* Devoted to classical literature, 
ho read assiduously in tho Britifth Museum, 
neglecting tho chance of obtaining further 
pupils and of contributing to tho "Fort- 
nightly/ and cultivating the conception of 
himself as a social outlaw, Hi next book t 
4 Tho Unolawwd* (1884; now odit 1895), 
dedicated to his lifelong friend, Mr* Morloy 
Roberts, * Isabel uarondon * ( 1 880), 
* Domes* (188% and.'Thyrza' (1887), 
woro all written from this point of view, 
and illustrated the degrading effects o! 
poverty on character. 

'Demos, 1 which waa tho first of his 
hooka to attract any popular attention, 
brought him I002 and with this sum 
ho carried oat a long cherished ambition 
of VMtlng the classic sites upon which ha 
lived in Imagination* He sailed on a collier to 
Napk, where ho began * Tho Emancipated * 
(published in 1890), dosed bod his first 
sight of Vesuvius as * tho proudont moment 
of bis iifo,* and proceeded thonco to Rwne 
and Athena* On his return ho put *The 
Emancipated. * Cor a time OHide and wrote 
for serial publication in tho * Cornhill * * A 
Life's Morning* (1888), the most vernal in 
atmosphere of any of Im novels ; but it was 
followed by tho gloomy * The Mother World ' 
(1889)*. a f uiMongth fltudy of tho animal con- 
ditions of semi -starvation, which, goes far 
to justify GbHing'i title as tho * spokesman 
o! despair.* This and * New Grub Street * 
.(1891), a realistic study of the rain by 
pecuniary caro and overwork of an author s 
powers of imagination, for which he re- 
ceived 150lt, are the most closely observed 
and vigorously- characterised of all lus 
fuller developed novels. 

Qisslng*s' first wife was now dead* and -in 
1890 he married again, with unfortunate 
results. Comparative auccosta enabled him 
to liva away from London. At Exeter 
he wrote tho disquieting and introspec- 
tiva *'Bom-itt Bxlb* (1892)' and bogan 
'Denafl Quarrier 1 (1892; new odii 1007), 
which ha completed at 'Dorking, whore he 
met George Meredith, one of Ms earliest ap- 
preeiators. In 1892-3 he wrote at CJevedcm 
'.The Odd Women* (new edit, 1907), m 
artietic study of throe luckless and moneyless 



women* His novels henceforth, with the 
partial exception of * lu the Year of Jubilee * 
(1894), 9 Eve's Hansom* (1895), and 'Tho 
Whirlpool' (1897), in which there is a -re- 
curronce of his old semi-autobiographical 
manner, show an inferior artistic sincerity.. 
His critical study of ' Charles Dickens* 
(1808; iltaatr. (.nlit. 1002) ia. a masterly 
vindication of Diokens, whom ho had wor- 
shipped from youth* 

During tho last ton years of his life he 
re -visited Wakefiold several times, and spent 
mucih time in southern England, at Bud- 
leigh, atjd at EpBom. His love of the 
countrywide, of English living, and English 
inannora he dowrribod in papers in '"tho 
* Fortnightly Buviuw ' utidor tho titlo 
of * An Author at Grass * ; they woro 
reprinted as * .^rivfttts Papers of Henry 
Eyecroft* in 190JL The autobiographical 
value with which they were credited is a 
testimony to their artistic success, but they 
faithfully reflect hie lonely temper and his 
impatience of control. In the autumn of 
1$07 he revisited Itaty with Mr. H. Q, Wells, 
and his experiences in tho Oalabrian por- 
tion of his tour wore recorded in the graphic 
pages of 'By the Ionian Sea 1 (1901). 
At Rome, too,. fresh -material was accumu- 
lated for * Verauilda/ the most deliberate 
of hm works, an Instorical romance of the 
city in the iifth century tho time of 
ThtHxloric the Goth. When in England 
again ho contributed flltort stories, to the 
weekly illustrated papoi-s and wrote * The 
Town Traveller 1 (1BOB) and * Our Friend 
the Charlatan' (IDOl), inferior novels, 
refashioning ome old niatoriai The state 
of Im lungs . rendered it desirable for him 
to go south at the oloso of 190L Mov- 
ing from Paris to Areaehon! and thence 
to 8t Jean Pied-du^Porfc, ho there com- 
pleted for bread and butter an caBy-going 
romance of real life, 'Will Warlmrton' 
(1905), and in June began for fame hta 
historical romance .' Veranilda/ Ho was not 
destined to finish the romance. In Nov 
ha moved to St Joan do Luss, contracted 
a slight chill, and died of pueumonia on 
28 Deo. 1903, at .the ago of. forty-six. By 
his second wife, from whom he was long 
separated, ho left issue two sona, Walter 
Leonard and Alfred Charles 0i$s!ng, to 
whom a joint pension of 741 was in 1904 
allotted during their, minority from tho 
civil list* The unfinished * Veranilda * 
wa$ published in 1904 (with a foreword by 
Mr foederic Harrison)* Gissing carried 
Ms classical learning easily ana lightly, 
but his classta*! romance will not rank 
with the. novels -of his early manhood* 

' ' 



Gladstone 



The intollcsotuai beauty ami 
friendliness ol GiBMing's nature worn 
by & poMtliar prkl or 



16 



Gladstone 



His kHoHyncroaius wore down an ho gnnv 
older, bufc lie lonfc also hi* wttntordwary 
power of intflnHifying tlw miwry of Urn 
world's liner Bplritn who nro thrown among 
*thoherd that fml and lm.u*d * nwl aro | am<r 
stupidly oonfc*nt0:L llin |runn Myl^ in j in It 



wiw i'tir ifty y?Hrw r.h/tirinan of f hf H 



riimitl oj I-JMV% nwnMirx. ,i.i lafhrr t*ftme 
front K<*1w., wh^rn thn family luwi i..xitsii 



IVH $1 w 



nuin n 



T a 
*.Ira.f*rr ntitl \vatvitouM(* 

in 1H42* l*: 



liavts 



him a t'lawidMt who 



Im vocation, but fuw 



havi* 



writtuu H much or HO wdl Hm iwj*rfi*r"i. 



of 

ditctxl hi puiilio wll<* l*t> It 
arcs mnft that hw work w 



hut 



for 
on 



It'll t lit* I'hi'iuMr.v Irrf 
H ( *m]miii jq, v, |, 



of 



a 



fo 



lnatldtii<m to tho 

(Jinning wrtits : 



* 



ho 



2, 



Hull, ihrri* IK* 

in |K'lH .I'Voiii 1>iMI I*'* 
Jwltwr on *'hf i iif4,ry al.Sl, 
nt! will in iH**I.i .hn wn:* 
! nut on list! rovikl * 

., ' " r ' 7 '" 'i 

3* * Human Otldn and l f i 
4* * TJjo Cnnvn of Lifu 

Ct*bw4sl:m, aiui othiff Storiivi ' (with nn :' in 
intrtKlutrtury Murv^y of (iiH.Hing'H f.nif*kM by 
tho irtiHc*rit wrik*r) HHXI. j day (.j. 

A imrlrnii itpjif*arH In Witiiatti .Holhru- i niry at 

" ' * ' ' IH77, 



i<* 



on- 
l'I.H, 



lnin I-H*VJ i<* iHilL*, tint! on tin* 
-vvlu*'h lit** war 



It* 



M4fhiM.il f'*ara 
mm>r of rhi*m! 
Ifmiiftifion in JH74> Ittit 



in later (p.iuk<'t} oditi*.*urt ol th< j.i.*|Iar j 
4 JtytiGrof i J'*aj*rH/ A dmwing t.y M r,, I L i'J, 
Wolln i mprocluiitKi iti Iht* * Now 'Viirk 

li *. Tho MHHi of CijMftintf'M tii*v**irt 

to hi** to 



II 



, 7 July llltHij A<uli'iy, U fUi'i 20 . 
j ISItnv York Niitiim/ I! .luiii* It'HW j 

' 



h*t*l in 



fTlK>Timwi ( 20'l).iK* 

(r ~ 

K)4 
HKM 



. . 

Criti<t, Jiurn ItHl^j lioukmiih. .July ItHMl; 
Albany, C'hriHtmiu* Ko,, 11M-$ j Mitntitty H*v, 
vol. xvi ; Mttrrnv 1 ** Majf. iii. filM JK; Niai 

* 



Rev., tM, 1897, *Nuv. liH'H, Nv, liHlftj Stttur- 



w*>r* jt 
74) of whi^h 1**^ \\*tw Ji fcnt 



of 



an 



in 
of 



^ j 

til i 



on 

l..>rai 

Javy 

tit* 



aiul in 



'' of 

A long twit* of jiai'itii^"' -i*f.4iHHi*r Tiltte* 



ll*m at 140 Ny 
in 



vitrnttn 



, f .III t)nrt 1HII5 twiit Hi 
pent, Mag, s Fb, .imwij 0. F, tl, 
In Peril ol C 



, 1IKir 



.,-- Fob. 

.1 Mny ltK)l$; Kvanittg 



,2'tuw 



1910; Geti-rgo Uiiwiiiij, &n Impn^MJon, by 11, (J 
originally writUm .*" . introcluotbn to 

' 



the oW0t'iion of Jolin Glatktono by 
wife Alison Hall. Tiics noooncl, wm, 



lid* 
iti 



In 



.on to 
tlm *l 
of tlm 
H 
w 



on tin* 
8 ( .with hin 



Iti 



I ftj'|mmti*n .T 
tnmadinUiily followi^l by 

tt Of t)t* W1|*|M^^ 

.it for l*r:tlit o 



avid, 



Gladstone 



117 



Glaisher 



were pnbliBlvod in Uto * Journal of tho 
Chemical Boubty ' Iwttwwn 1872 mid 1875. 
FapwH on , simitar nubjwt, * Tho (JhermHtry 
of tho HtHHindary BalU'rk'H of Plantt* and 
Famv,' which wew ooiwmmkmled to 
4 Nature* (1H82 -8), appeared iu 1883 iu 
volume Ion it* 

AH reformer and promoter of wluoaf ion, 
GIaUtono holdn high raiik. ll'o wa n 
pioneer of tociutifal (uluatt-itm and mamml 
inatructioii, and oiui of tho <*rtrluHt a<lvo 
catoB of tlus ijifrodttctitui of Hcidic-o into 
okmuwtary Ht'lioob* Fmi 1873 to 181)4 h<* 
Hat on tlu/L)nd(m S<.:hou! .Btard, tH-itig vk^- 
chainnati from I88B to 1891. In 18118 1m 
couiKfejU'd Hit* parliuinoiilary ripiVHotation 
of York an a liberal* but wan rmHum'KHfuL 
and though hit wim fr(?qtipntly ttHkinl io 
Htand fur itlw*r (?oimtittHjncH'8 (isf* 2d/ 
/^rrl Ktlmn* p. 7(U), hb mfnuln'rHhii;) of 
Hchool board remahitHl hw only 
oflka To thin he gayo tiiiH* and thought 
and aw olmirrnttn of tho uohool 
snfc and tho bookn and ap|mrtttu 
lu WM rowpottHiblo for many 
of tilt* eliangt i in the onrrbxtlum and 
impfovomente in tho mcsth<xk of education* 
which ho dotioribed in tho memorandum 
ho wmtributtnl to tho 4 Life and Lattom 
of I*rofcHHor Ifuxloy ' (i* U50). Ito waa an 
ardent ativocsaio of Hjwlling rtsforni, and j 
muicttodttl in 1870 hi 'getting tho nahooH 

r v | 1 g -j . 

Imard to PUHH a riHoliition in iin favour, j 
Tho B|H>lliug Kt'fonn AnHOoiatiou wiw 
started In 187U after a inciting in Im 



(tl 18IM), only child of Cliarlcw Tilt, the 
ialu^r, ly whom lie luid one non and nix 
; (2) in 1809, to Margaret, 
of David King, LLJ)< [q. v*] ; 
H!H* dutil in 1870, kjaving a dangliter, A 
oartotm portrait of GlitdHtuiiG I>y SSpy' 
a|)pnir*l in * Vanity Fair' in 1801, 

itewte thu \v<rkH mentioned GJattotcme 
was autlior of; I, A inernoHal volumo on 
hiB first wife (privati4y jmiitrtxl), I860, 
*2, * JMi<jhaol Karaday*' 1S72 (of toil reprinted), 
a work hiN|mi'd by intimate* personal know* 
lodge awl frieiulHhip. 3, * Bpwllitig Beform 
front an Edticaiional ".Point of View/ 1878 
$mlniit. 1H70). i, H)bjoot TcaohinK,' 1S82. 
ICt. CM.>ntribtit((.I to tho * Memoirs ' iHued 
by tlie l^yit 'Exploration Fund paptsrs 
on tho coHipoHition of the* tindalH found 
in ilui wmrno of (lie oxploratioiiB ((if* the 
vohiuit) (Hi 4 1'k'iidurdi,* 1900), Ho alo 
wrote a few hymnH, which have beon 
Ineludpd in cjollootioiiH like * HymiiH for 
Cluiatittn 



UlaUwtono wan aotlvo in philanthropic 
and charitable work* and kti-nly intoi-oBtud 
in Chmtittn endeavour, organining devo- 
tional tnuctitigH and bibb cla8ea among 
ocluoatwl u?n and wt.m>u. Ma wm a 
vice-president of tho Christian Evidence 
Society, and wrote and lectured frequently 
for it on Cluiatian apologetiow. Ho pub- 
linhed *Tho Antiquity of Man and tiie 
Word of Clod* (anoiiyniouHiy) ( 1804) ; 
* Theology and Natural Hciwjco'- (1B67); 
4 'Paints of BuppoHod OolliHion 'between 
the .Scripture** and Natural Heionee' (1880) 
(in Ohriatian ovidenoo knitureH* 2nd aerO ; 
and * Miracles' (1880) (6. 4th Her,)* He 
was oiio of the earliest collaborator with 
Sir George .Williams, .[q*- v. Buppl- II[ iu 
the work of the Young Men'a' Christian 
Association* with which ho was connected 
from 1850; he wa apeokily aotivo in its 
international relationship. 

Gladstone died at 17 IPombridge Square, 
Wotting Hill, London, on Cot* 1002, and' is 
buried in Konsal Green cemetery. He was 
twice married : (1) in, 1852, to Jane May 



i'or, Hoy, 8o.. vol. 75, 1005,* Tram 
CIi(?mloa! Boo. April 11)05 j Nattiro, 1<J Oct. 
1002 ; Phono ti Journal^ 2- Jan. 1B1J7 j private 

information.] J* B, M* 

GLA1SHEE, ' JAMES. (1800-1903), 
aHtronomer and jnoteorologiHt, bom at 
Eotht'-rhitho on 7 April 1801), wan Ho'n, of 
JmiK'B GlaiHlu?!', who HOOII removed with lite 
family to Ummwioh. Thercs tho l>oy, whowo 
opporltniitii'H if wlueaiaon were wlender, 
uuwlo the noquaintajujti of William .Riehard- 
Hon, an oHHiHtant at the Ituyal Obworvatory, 
then uu<l(*r tlie direction of John Pond 
[<], v.] aHti'onon'ier royal. Cllajsher viHitod 
tho obHervattry and was deeply improBsod 
by BMuFn delicate manipulation of the 
8ientifio intruiriouts A younger brother 
John became a computer in the observatory, 
'Fwnn 1829. to I8JJO Jattica worked on tho 
ordniuioe survey of Ireland under Lieut-eoL 
Jiuuofi* The oceupittion was thoroughly 
congenial, but Herioun iUnewn brought ou by 
expoHtire terminated tho engagement. In 
1833 Prof, (afterwards Bir George) Airy 
[q, v* Huppl I | t then director of the Cam- 
bridge University observatory, appointed 
UlaMier an aHHiwtant tlusre, and with the 
equatorial he made a HericH of observations 
of tho panltion of Halley's comet at it$ 
return in 1835. On 18 Juno 1835 Airy 
became astronomer-royal at Graenwioh, 
ami Glaisher followed him to the Royal 
Observatory on 4 Deo* Ha was succeeded 
at Cambridge by his brother John, who 
ten years later was assistant to Dr. John 
Lee (1783-1866) [q. v.] at Hartwoll House, 
Aylesbury, and died in 1840. 



If 

> t 



Glaisher 



In 1838 Airy put C.<Iw8lwr in charge* at 
Groenwioh of thu mm* magnetic and mctiHiro- 
logioal. department, wfiksh wiw at ilwt 
designed to last; for a period of thmi ycaro* 
But the term wan aftenvnrdn oxtwufiHi f<i 
fives and the department \ww finally inado 
l>onnancnt* Aa if H chief till 187-1 (Jlabit^r 
orgatiised tlits Hctt^nct! 1 of tnfft.<*timlt.tgy, tutrl 
earncnl ftr hinm'lf ilio titk* * N<*ior *f 



a in J'<H i 

when (HawItrT IK$MI Inn work in if* and hi* 
fimfc dTurln wm* tbvuti'd fn imfwtviug 
irwtrumcmts awl organising 
In February 1817 Jw comitmniwvftt] f* 
the 'Royal fttKsfaty hit* flrt 
a nistalt of 



on *Tli amount >f 
of ht^jii at niglit from Iho earth and from 
variotiH bodice plw?t.H'l on or iu 4 Jir tlt<iMurlfiuu> 
of tho earth,* In 1847 ho jufiljhwi hw 
t^fid 'Il.grom<*frial Tublt'H m,lur>t 
the 



gteal Sc^i^ty,, wiw fr*rfwl with C*lni 
iM^rf^tury , J April 3M50 nf. a 
Hntta.tm<H;nv J*>h.h !./<? [rj, v/| at- 



Hiirsr aa 



IB72Jmt during 1807-8 rcti 
to rrvi* itrt 



Ou* Dry and Wwi iilbTiw>rmo- 
iisli j'wwHt.H.l ihrotigh very nuwty 
From !B-<fB to : IH7(| hn irgultirly 
fed t<? tlm Hoyal Sui'tHy *r 
tli*s M<voruloi<jal Society W.tuJaHoMM ami 



iruwlo at. Ui'wii wits li. An' tm*i* wliich O 
dttwted in 1847 in un .if the regitriir 
atJiwsrftl'8 quivrU^ly t " 

tod him- to orgaitte 
.motoorologtootbbiiorvaii w 
whoro all .previous attempt* hwi Wletl 1 In 
induoctd . mxty voluntoum (tnuiiUy tiutUm! 
mon and olorgymmi) In dilleitnit part* of 
the country to toko dtyfy weather iu)U*M 
with th ^utcurato ntandntxi tltertuomeier 
invont<d by .Hfolumi HhwjwhiiukM jq v,j. 
Filling up va<?an(fit'M ait"tht*y imaurmi 



Kwcocodtxl iti maintaininK bin voluntwy 
wrvioa till hte death, .Fnwi IB47 to ItHnS 
he .pteparad tho motooruitifjicat nsportit for 

IM | ngifttrargenorl l i rt>trnn of birlb f 
deaths and tnorringw, ' Ditriog JS49 ha 

holped the * Daily " Nawi/ by'"fntlti.g 

'' 



t 

to OBtabliith a daily weather m'port. wUoh 
was first tried- on 81 Aug* '1848, and 'bring 
than soon abandoned, WM nevived In 

pprmanoiioe with Oidiher's Qo-dperatkm lit 
tho iollowing ' year* 

e Qiaisher joined', the Eoyal: Astronomloai 
boo iety in ,1841, and wm alaated F.R.B. 
in 1849, Other fooiettai in whose afelri 
he waa aotive were tho Eojd Hiorbiooploal. 
of whioh ha WM preridenfln IMMCand 
tho Photopaphw, of wbioh he WM president 
from I860 to 1802, Tho- British Satm>ro. 
logical Sootety, now the Eoya! MCeteofolo- 



it 



init.ii'rt,vt*uii i tl tvifli f 

io .r<:M^ii:"/iI valw* t.>f 



m 
fti 

lit 



with 



mi 



in ,11*113 
r*n tho 

'l tlKJ 



ami 

|$ithlm tHitiiM? tiy hi** nrlivt 

HTt'>t1|ltifii'H lit 

ioi'i rr*ii}*|w.*iuit"il n 



n. urrtiw 
fr*iint*uily int 



:,O 



in 



inimi 



fnitn 



wtm 
iitirj^iwi . liv ltrnrv ('Vix.wi'di {o. v. 

Htifipl if, mul iti i- tm ^" '- ' ' '" " 

witll flf' < *tit''M*iftirt* 

*l * Hff'l **. *.'' ftJWfW 

Ei't I JTw laf iitl I it HI f 

llm Oyihtl t-'ttltKH*, ?iit*I In 
Hill, iiPmktti, 

wt*!i IIM mt ^nldiitry |iint)tmgtir' r <in 
fi*r jniMb exhibit Uiit/ f i'lti gr^ni**i 

tin llt^w t:(?t?ttifii>m wun l-K^lww^tt nix 



frt* 



of ilio IMtinh 
iiilitt atul Itiun^ntm altitm)?ii 



Wt (IvorlianiiiUtrt, a iitfight of ifiCMMI !ti 
roaobtK), aita o 18 August, 23<KX} fut, 
mtMit fPttiiyrkuWa fimt wan t-lto tWtil 
from Wtlvtirharti|iiMti on d H0pt4?iiilr t when 
th height wins mkouw} at itirly 

'' IJ J ^. 



pp. i 

itJot inr 
Utnporiiiy 

* 



im cdovnUun pf *2i 000 



the 'UIK 0f i 



And by fltk mmui 
to' iliwocmd from in 

of S7KI tot, Nultlter Cllditer 



lit in. ISS4* ami' feu* to 



('* 1 * 
1 ** f L* 
jr id I S 



1 19 



1865 ami I860. Ho publiftfaxl In full 
detail hin moUorpl<>gical oWrvations in the 
* Brit ml\ Awmtii ion Koports ' (1862-&), Sub- 
sequently ho aHOt'mlwl in a captive balloon 
at Chelwa, *ifc tho invitation of Hi owner, Mr* 
Gifliml, and matlu ohHcsrvationw at low aUi- 
tiule (of. Bn/iWi Awwitttitm Ifapwti 1880). 
In 18(H> GlatHhrr contnbulix.1 an rvooaimt of 
bin ft,so,{,'ttt8 to * Voyages A/*rion f * in whioh 
0. Flammarioiu W "IX 'Ftmvilto, and 0, 
TiHHandfor wen* IJI'H coadjutors* Ho after* 
\vartlM MijKwnUmdcHl tho production of 
tho Knglinh w,liiitm of that book wndor tho 
titlo ' Tiwdn in the? Air * (187.1 ; luiw edit* 
1880), Tim Aoronauttoal Bocsfoty was 
founded in 1860, mid Obinher wtw itfl firot 
treaNurtr< But hi.H ini^rt^t in < 
\vm alway tmMdiftry to tho 
msults to \m obtaiutnl by thoiff 

In Hiu? of his <livotion to moto 

ayM maintained hi interortt n 
and }nathtmatioal Koknoo* In 
hti Joiuw! tho aommittooof tho Briiiih 
on inathomatioal tablee of which 
IIIH HUH, J')r. J* 'W L. QIaiaher wa reporter. 
With iwlji BuppllocI by a grant from 
the riMBociation 'ho .oomplotea for 'this 
floiwnititeo 'tho- * Factor Tables* begun 
by -Burokhardt in 1814 and oantfmxed by 
I)ao In 1BII2-5* 'llai8hor.oomptttod tho 
amallfHt factor of ovcry rmtnbcsr not divimblo 
by 2, Jl* or 5 of tht. ftmrth, fifth, and wixth 
millionB, i.htmo of <!,* fii^t, wtsoond, third, 
uoventlt., eighth, and ninth imlliorw having 
boon doalt* with by hln j>rod(*cosor8 
Qlainliur publiHhtxl It IB onumorations iti 
3 vote. 4to, I87 8, 

Altor ixjliriiig from tho lioyal Ol^aorva" 
tory at (ittH*rt\vioh in 1874, Glaiahor oon- 
tinuoii to Hiipply his quaft^rly ro|>ori 
to tha rogtetrar*gonaral until tho 3ai 
year of hm lifts. Ho took groat . intoreet 
m.tho Pal8tino Kxploratlou Fund, toing 
chairman of tho oatooutivo oomiuittoo from 
1880; ho oontributod to tho ' publications 
fiftoon papora on motoosrological observations 
mado in.Jtokmtine* . . . 

Qlaishor retained Inn vigour of mind and 
body until noar his death at Tho Bhola r 
OroydoHf on 7 Fab, 1003, in tho ninety- 
fourth year of his ago, A buafc prosont^di 
by the Mlowi of tho Royal Photographic 
Society in 1887 belongs to. the Royal. 
Meteorological' Sodety. 

Glaisher marrlid in 1843 Oeeilia Louia, 
youngest daughter of Henry Belville, 
first assistant- at the Royal Observatory. 
Ho had two sons and a daughter* Dr. 
James WMtbread Lo GWsher, F.R.S., is 
surviving son. 

Besides tho works cited and papers 



communieatod to tlio 1'ioyul Society, the 
lltjyal AHtronomicttl Society, the Moteoro- 
logteat Hociaiy, and tho feritiflh Associa- 
tion, dlaiaher trannlatcd Flammario.n*s 
* Atmosphere ' and duilloinitf s * World of 
(3oitttJl'(187(J). 

[Qtmrtorly Jourtu Koy. Motoorolog* Soc* 
(by Mr, Mnrriott), vol, xxix. and xx'x.'; Boy; 
Atron Hoc. Monthly NotictiB (by W* KUitt) 
11)03; ObMarvn tory Mag*, March lk)3; private 
information*] H, F* H. 

OLENBSK, firwt BAKON. [Boo BOBTK- 

WU.1K, iSlH AUIKHNON, 18*304908.] 



PATON JAMBS (182^1900), 
theological writer, born at Forth on 
17 May 1823, was cWt8t eon in tho family 
of six ohitdron of William Gloag, banker, 
by his wife JOBBIO Bum, William Ellis 
Oloag, Lord Kincairnoy [q, v, BuppL III 
was a yoimgttr brother* His wldoBt ftisior, 
Josaio Bum dloag, .c^Ubliehocl in' Forth one 
of tho 'fltat raggod sohoola In Boot-land. 
After finishiiu; his iohoo! training at Forth 
Academy in 1889* Gloag studied at Edin- 
burgh university (1840-3)*. Owing mainly 
to fcho' disruption of 1840 ho left Edinburgh; 
and oompletod at St. Andrews' (.1843^6) the 
curriculum preparatory for tlio ministry 
of tho Church of Scotland, 

Liconned a preaohcvr by Forth presbytery 
on 10 Juno 184(V Gloag, from 1848 to 
1857* W&B first assistant, and tlum suecossor, 
to l)r* Kussell at Dunning, Perthshire, 
and from I860 ix> 1870 was parish 
ministor 0f Blantyro* Lanarkahiro, whore 
he provided a new parish churchy and 
Ggtabli&hed a savings bank* Moanwhilo 
ho publiahod' * A- Treatise on Assurance' 
of .Salvation'. (1863), 'A Twatfce on 
Justification ? (1860), * JMmoyal World, or 
Relation .of- 'Qoplogy to Theology* (1859), 
1 The Resurrftotion"' (1862), and * Practical 
Ohriatianity ' (I860). In 1857, 1862, and 
1807 h visited Germany, whoro ho Biada 
friornia with Tholuok and other divines, 
and familiarised himself with German theo- 
logical literature* 

In 1871 hobooamo paritoh minister of Gala- 
shiols, and' while there greatly extended 
his reputation m preacher and author. In 
1879 he was Baird lecturer, taking for Ms 
subject *The Messianic Prophecies.*' .'..A.' 
new church was completed in 1881 to/meet 
the needs of his growing congregation* 
Although no ardent 'ecclesiastlo, he moved 
in the general assembly of the Church of 
Scotland of 1887 for the relaxation of the 
eldership test, In 1880 'he was moderator 




Godfrey 



of tho gonoral iwwomMy, and in km domng 
addr ho urged (ha importaitea of tho 
highoet pOHmblo ctiltiiro for tho ChrinUan 

* * J '* <Mt ^ -,,ii,) 1.-4.'. Hi tt in it U 



UU)AU, WtLUAM 



""~~T73 "* '~ " r " ""'^ "" C r ""*" *" ~ "" * "" "5 '' J ' *>" *;"* *^ " w ^ * , w,,r UK 'v f m -i, '^,i ,* m d m.if %*-j|i T* i * *^ " * * I * fcif -f * f. t J. Jt * .* fl 4 'f . . f' f fl 'J vv Jw lT ^ \\ g IL-ft, ,*4 I ] 

miniBtor. In Juno 1892 hn irmgnotl Im } William fUmg, J.wtiUt<r in iVrlh, by 
parochial charge, devoting limtwlf in Edirt* I wifn *f*,<4j*% daughter r.f .ff.thn Hum, w 
burgh to thflologfoftl mwftreh, iiiul ftmliitg | to thn Higttt*t, i^iinf.*itrgh 
in tht^Himly <*f iiumtMmaiku In i IVrlh grnmniHr *w*!iou" 

lAtHwlmiUmvpntify, In Mjirch I t! Srolit^h har, \vh*n* hn iiii*vi*i1 it 

/1 n t 4 t , . . : J *.| * ! ^ ' * a , "* '' ' 

vuong iimi n^.'i'tvi'f.l tuo !}'mrnry ,' |*ntnl n-.T.f, A fMnwrvniiv** nj tKilifirK- 
of ( U.1>. from Ht, AntinnvH, ntnl h^ j wiui .!( *ilfi.T*Hl ^riMmtltt>n till IH74, ^ 
matin LL,I>. cf A}H*nt(N'U hi A|ril IHIHK 1 In* vinn aj*|inlfHl. iM'lvMraf** *l'f*jjf*M>n 

mvrtw tH:?l<l>mi4*ii i f*>rinulii>n **f II 

by Atudwitrt and fri<mdH. AflT IHfig hin In 1877 In* IM'IVIHII' *liiritf nf SlirJi 
hmlth- gradutilty fniltKi* 1I dii*H at l)nin)i.rfnn, nnti in iHH/* nf 
Eilinburgh n.n H Jt*n. lUOft, ami WMitttorw! j In I.HHP JIM \mn mwnl i* fh*t H 
in thn family Imryittg-grmtm! in 1>y.nnirtM i Iw l*'n*k flu* tit!** n.f ;b.r 
olmrehyard* 1'ho CI*t!imhii*lH partHhiontM'M i <.*i'iHr nn n jnti^.t JJI-I-VH| 
pkcad a momoniti wiitdnw in Mi IVwirn ! fttl. Id? ti'i^l nt Kinwmn'v nit H 
Churoh., <*aliwhilrt. On 2*1 Jan, IHti? i iMt p nnti WM linriti-f ut/ ' (fopjith 

marriod Kli^ilwfii a J^ang, ihirtl j JHH4 liltwig iiiiin-iiHl IMrn, rtitr^hiirr 
.. of tius Ht*v, Uiivin luting uf <-<titii- Juww 'Iiitni witfrr l.* lit** Ni^ji^t, f> 
ford. Bin.* Hurvivml him wif limit I.NHUM* I htirgh * by whom hh Imc! Mfm ^'m, 
Wink* (.Jhmg wiw mi.U*i'nt4:r thn m*fm1*rH j Mwrmy litMitK. rmfrwMr *( bw HI 
of hiH coijgn.gAiiou {mwjil^i him with j l?wvi-'!rml> '"' 

portfiiiw In oiiHj> *>y Mil* l^^tjt'n*! J.li'iti, I it fHiritiMl **! !j$iu liv Sit* 

in 



)IJH 



n 



valuable for 



oritioimti anil 



- 



.-. . ..,. . ., M4. VH4 v. ooWiKY, DA.viKL IIH:IJ 

no Bupprt to tho rmw fugl$r witllwi.i. . lmndmnMtf<r nrwl i**un.w*^ t*uii^t 
TIKI oiuof of thtm aro: L * 

"* **" "* ,:.<.,,,., *, r .V9K.J f ' :-WTn .-I. T .'!* if t ''^ 1( .'*** | ' 'V Jj m|,i]'i|{l|l 

oa 1*o A<st of tho AiHwtl^ 2 vok 1H7, j tiw '^Mnlvmm gmm'lH ' for lifiy yn 

iw* *. * I ii v.fv.Jt.m^ V'lvll* yf t vT 1C) 4 aLiti 1 iiiO i^jt iltefc r I i! ^M ' i 1 Ji lf*f t Jfi f *=% i^ii^ ^*i* h t**i^ 1 d.*'<" - * j ^ t ^ ^ ^ * it tj? * ; j 

* ' ^1 'i -* f'W iff * *r* IV" '* *| ** : l' f* PT! ' *** **ffl If 1 !^ *ff '7^ V |* + 1|| f 1 1*1 1 1 f * "*' 1^1^ 1 1 i 1 iri 

1 |, * Commentary oni th KuiMtiiMifHt, **Mimt bruHii*r, <mriiw Wilitum i'j 

, 1 * ('-)* |ft J 1 ** - - f - . ' I , , ' .. ' * .*.''* m.- * f f <>],4t4 ij 

* IBH*i 4, K : 3 _ T 

lit tlu 



nu<l w 




, . . uttwliiotion to tlw , militry 

JohftnmuoWriUiw/1891. 8. ' J.iteHludwn In l t 

to the Hynoptio tiMpoh ' IfflMS. J M |||n B ' 8 orrf.**!, rt ,i ttt M 

GUag .tramktod mto Enalhh lAwhioriuui Uiwm. fa jNfifl, ., tiu 

amVi'ApMtebnHbbhUi'la 1865, Moyor'ji of Sir 
ApwtokgMhiobto ' to 1887, 




by Dr. Veltoh, 

Jy>lolti i*l'lfll^il*S ^ 

(1881), and a *Lifa oTSt. John v ; 
In 1891 ho .published 'Subject* and Hock! 
o! Baptism/ 

. GJoftg'ft Paton J, Glbag, 1),I) M ' LUD.. 

t information from Mm, (llcmgi Lifts M d 
Work Magaxmo, July 1880 ami Fhraary 
?S! ? gf'otpanand (Jlt^gow Iteuld, 10 Jan. 
I wd; Border Standard, July 1007,] 

" *T 11 
l- * l J 



I*. fi*lf**W, 

? |*!nyr*r in 
ItnliiMi 

ttitititin 

thrtiMiih 



rinuw. In 



inru 



fnmotm 

. * iMil KiVf*!! ity thu 
of tho ttuarttM (11 lC!i*n Kilwarti VII 
Aiaxanttm ( thi* Pnmm niiil 
of Waitw, tin tlwlr niarrsAgt. Thiii 
by tbo^Mai^r itmi"* H'iJtia* 
'.ttdJoytNl utilvttrwii fHipularity. 
ooj of ttu. viaiUi uf tba icuaitln 

nGiouaiy naught Uw tiimiu) 
of them* ant) it %urw itt iliw finato to- 



Godkin 



'! iff 



God kin 



tho fwPHt act of Bissut'H VLi'H 
iWlt'H/ Godfrey made a four with tun hand 
in iho UniUsd Ktatrn in !87i* in <wti*bmti<.m 
of the otintcmary of AtiH.Tiaitt IwU'jHrtHtwKw, 
It wan tho lirnt vimt of nn Knglmh military 
band Him;*! tlw omttion of tlw rti|nihtiti, 
and a ftpmiiat At?t of Parliament had to lio 
pawned to authttriHtt it, At Qutwrt Vkitoritt'ft 
jubifoo (1HH7.) hi* WHW jinjiiiotod Nwmd* 
2ioutonant'"---t.htt fiwt Im-miiiuiMt^r who re 
eoivexi a tumimitmnn in the* ftrmy* Ho 
wan ftlno <itwmUHi with tlw juliU.Hi nK* 
and lap* In I HIM hit rwwhixi l!w 
limit of Hixty but hin f H H Hu4 of wrvko WUM 
extondwi for iivti yearn. "Ho rHiml from 
tho army rm 4 Si*it* IHi)0, with th reputa- 
tion of 'Knglfvmi'H Imdiug bafultimMUr 
8ubtfr<}u<*ntjy bo formal A private military 
band which |>l;.tyti ftt thti h;f oxlubitionH 
in Kn^and and with whtah ho twicu Untmi 
Amoritiii and Citiuultu Ho rr.nd.WH.l Mpicridid 
Horviot to tho oaunu of iniliUiry iimki and 
wan vary mi<wfwf ul a an * arranger f of com- 
ptmitionH for .military baiid Ha died itt 
mwUin, Notthigljaumliirc^ on 301uni> 1003. 
Uodfroy inarritHl' in 18156 Joyoo Boyle f by 
whom ho. hcul two fonn and thrcso daugbtora 
HIM oldest on Dan Oalfrny (&, 186S) f a well- 
known oonduator, fa .musical director to tho 
corporation of Bouniontotith* A tsartoon of 
Ck:ifr.\y by SSpy* a|>]H*artHl itt * Vanity 
Fair 'on W Maroh 1888* 

^w, Aii^ liHKi; Britwli M.Mi<!t1 
H Did* of Miwiw, JilOfi, H. 
n.% 1H1H, IH1! 



*l. t*. 



information.] 



OODKIN, .EDWIN LA WRKNCIK 
1JK>2) wUtor und <utthor, horn on S Oat. 
1BJJI at IHM maternal jgrandiuotiior^H houHO 
at.Moyntj, co. Wioklow* wan ottlmt child of. 
JamoH (iiidkin [*} v.jj pnwbyterttin olorpy- 
and jcnirnalmt with (strung nationalt 
atlibH. HiK -mother! Barali I^wrenou 
Sva of OromwolHaxi anooutry. Of doltoato 
hoaJtthf ho Mjwnt hiK oarly childltood ni ; ah*ly 
in- Wioklow* and when -ftuvon yoarn old ,wn 
Btmt to a preparatory Mohool'Jn Armagh, 
where hw father wan. then living, For 
over four yeans, from 1841 to 1846, ho was at 
Silooatai eohool far the children of congre* 
gtrtkmaJ minlter/noar Wakoiioltt in York* 
eMre, ' In 18410 he entered Quoan'w Oolk)ga 
Bolfaat, Bir Eobart Hart [q. v* Bwppl, 11] 
being a younger cx>ntemporary* Ho wan 
first . proaideot of '.tho- Undorgraduatw' 
Literary and Scientific Society ; at the time 
.(he wrote later) -'John Btuart Mill waa 
our prophet, but America was our Promised 
Land 3 (Life and .Letter*,- L p* 12)* In Idffl 
ho graduated B.A- and went to London 



r<<ml Cor tht? harut Lim*,uin^ lun taking 
inn itt tl* 'I.Vtii|>Ii.\ llu w>nu t.tiriunl to 
auil.uirMhi| mitt juunutlinm. f lodkin 
took IMM Httjrary work for C. 

}IOUHI% wit.h which hin futlmr wiw* 
In 1H5JI tlmt ten f>bliM|-Rd 
hi lirat t,tf>ok, r * Tho Hint4jry of Hungary 
ami tin* M'tigyarn fmt tho ^arlicwt '.Poriull 
to the (iloMdirf the* {jAto War.* In Octolwr 
.1853 t-ho * Daily Now*' nont him out *w 
comwj.Hi>jlont to Turkoy on tho 
Orttn(m war, Mu joinmi.C>mr 
'w army, and WWH in thtjOrimnatmtil tins 
omi of thu war, r^t-u ruing lionw in H^|>Un 
1B55, TiiiH trxj-Hnrit^nw gavt? hn a Hf 
hatrnl of war ; ho Jikt that tho inont 
itn} ; K)t.1>atit' ri^Hult of fho (Jrhiican WMI* 
1 * the creation antt dovoloptiumt of t'lm 



fatten* I 1<K. 

Alto writing for a nhort timo for tho 
1 Nwttwri'i Whig ' at Bdfiwt* h<i wont out 
.in Novitfitbt-T iH&ft to tho UniUnl Btata* 
ttttti tthwwt immediately mucks a tow in 
tho southern Mtattw, noting tho-dTootM of tho 
siavti system* Ho oom)MjH>m'Ujdl with tho 
London * Daily Now*, 1 and WJIH adniittod to 
the .'bar of tho ata'to of. Now 'York In Fob, 
1858. In I860 ho mode & tour in- -Europe 
for IUH health. Whilo ho wtw in Europe 
tho Amtricau oivil war hroko out and ho 
Htrongly HUjjporUid <J'. North, writing to 
tho * Daily NOWH ' in tsoi : ulruriation of tho 
Bdtmh attitudo vvitti i-t^ard tu tho f ! 1 rent 
inoidt5iit* On rotumhij* to thts Uwitud 
Htattm in Hojittnuboi* tHOSJ, wliilo continuing 
hit* iottorn to tho * .Daily Nown, 1 ho- wrote 
for tho * Now York Timon,' tho * North 
Amorioan Eoviow,' and 4 Atlantic Monthly.' 
It ako took charga for it short tima of tlio 
* Sanitary (/wmmiHMion Bullotin** In- 1864 
ho wrote of himsolf * I am by nature 
rathor fitted for an .outdoor than an indoor 
lifts. I havo not got tho H<^mtry tpuijH^ra- 
mont* (/7*/fl mid Latter**, L 22i>) In July 
1865 ho oHtabliMlitHl in Now York a wookly 
journal * Tho Nation*' to rwprontwt iiKlepan* 
dont thought in tho Unitod Htatow* Tlie 
panor WUH Htartxi i>y HuliHoription, but it 
did not pay hi itn oarly Htagou, and after 
tho firnt yoar ho took it over almost entirely 
as Im private vontunv Ma oditod and 
wrote mmi of it till 1BB1 9 whon ho sold' it 
to tho 4 Evening Pont,* of -which 'it became 
a kind of wookly edition* In 1883 h 
bocamo editor .in chief of both papers, 
retiring on aooount of ill-health in -1800. 
During moat of this time his sub-editor was 
his friend, W* P. QarrlsQa,.. son of William 
Lloyd .Gftttdflon. 
The tot prospectus of the * Nation ' stated 



Godkin 



Gocikin 



that it * will not be the organ of an 
party, s^i s or body * {/*/! rf ./>lfrr/ i. 



t thus inaugurate*! a w leparturo in 



Amnrioan journalww, awl it i 
public opinion in thft UniU^l Ktalfw* not 
by tho oxt^nt ofjt circulation* %vhti*h wa 
(Hitnpamtivdy nmall, but by itn litumry 
|Kjw*^r mul iranH}>ar<7nt Ijoncwfy. li^n ^on 
tribulom in^ituitni tht. tnuHt lUTofrtpliHht^i 
inart of loit^TH on both Mm *f tl Atlaniit*. 
(Sir) Leslie* SUMI*n |>{. v, Stinpl* 1!|, vh 

iUtCUKmiti in Nrw York in IH^Hajit! 

a high opinion of hm clwwmtfair aitrt 



ftjimit*d to tlirviso a * Plan for 
Ht of aiiiw in liw Htut of 

whirl* ft*wM] l thi* 



capacity WUH KngliMb tH>rrwn|*r,mtltnit of tin* 
pajwrfirom that yoar tit! IH71 (MarnA^t^ 
237*). Tiw Natbn' * WJVH 



Mmv 

Yurfc l^wfiittmi in *JH77. In JBHf* 
mruiu an 'utifutiii trivil wrviim <jom- 
% In iHHt) lu* ftiMtl it vimt to 
mi hitomtl iif \ 
ft^r lit* knjt in 
with tiiNi ami rv<wl.j< in t.hu I'Uii 

^ fill* r'iithl'Hi d*f J.HM K 

i\ (fjtiiMw Bryfn* unit i*r*>f*:w*r A, V 

F . 1 ,. .*. , * ^ * T 

f>iw\y, tin Wii, Iikn hi* inline lwf*.irt? Inm* 

* wlvornl* 1 nf hnmi.* ruin for lrt<1umi 



nsatl by tho 'two clartnoM wl*t*!.i in 

iHt to dw with forming |K>IilitiiI 
) opinion, (nUttirrt tl 
' 



ami t*t.miri1mt*H.i Uu* nrtirlw to Uw tita 
*4 Howe* .Hull* 1 (1HN7) 



!*y 'Mr, Jtr 



*^* 



WJI.H in Jim* with tin* ml 

hut I wii'ttt 1*1 iliii 



wiw 'duo to on iiiwi* Mr* K. L 4 f.vikt, j 

with whotu/ wroto *1, !i, J^nvoll, * I. tj*i n>i j fr*ttl, (iittl !** t; 

alwn^j4 agrtm., but whunc* lU'iilif-y, inff^iti^ | UM ii*mli<rH tut tin* t**rv i*lt* 

iion-und utifiinchittg i^*jctriiv |IHV mmk* | r*-* fy.lt>* ir^j>witulwl in t*w *l! 

tlrd n Naliutt ** what it tH * (Ufa tnt<t ijtt?r#i CV!rti.riii-H * (N*nv yirk 1HIJ.X 

x 2**I} ll,u \viw4 it t1i't<^rti.h.tHH! ujijtoiu'ni *4 M***!*^'!-! thnHi^r<tr i y * {Nf*w 'Vrki IHIHI) 

olf comifjtioii in [.tolitirul nrul riMitiii'ifniJ ri<l * iiuf*:rt^i^n'f*i*ii'iu i ii*irf 

Ufo in 'Am<wn. Thot^it Jim f^iIHird j (1ltiwt4rt t iHIJH). in 'tKU7iu<Wiimji 

KytupiithitiH ittiii ljuti u-ith th.i n^nthliisui | (iitxtt |t1t.^:i^urt% IMI !*** .|i,C*I^ n( 

nn ti#iiinjit tho (U*tntK5ratitt tHiriv. v<4 ' 

' * '4 * '-Ik * ^ ' 

TlilillTtt fffliltVifsU li!Jt M f '!_** I ni*fL'H'H 

|,ii*M**y i^i. *jiyin,ift ijsfi t% t-ivij pi 'i tit' i* i 

M otimtitUttim fwr t)i* lit I>t.v ii:*irit uii SSt Mny I.(ft2, nutl wim 
:ftiw. lib |inj.r j bwriml in !lii^!l**wih iihim1.iyfirt! it* Nurtit* 
tho rboognbied- organ a! tte indM|Mm* i ai{it4ftm}tiri. An InmrriptHin tut lik ravft 
or ^Mugwumjm' butwtH'ti lBH4"untl I by 'Mr, llryw tlt^ribw liim JM * i'tilttemk, 

ti tho otlttir hand h trtngly | MH'iiurnii(. *! *'*< *- J - 

whtm in IHilll li nt j Iho * Cli.r" ' 

Knglaw! in hin Vmttwu^liin nuwMn^d, h*f fnm Mtiv^rniti^ni. nrj urn 
Ha wan ivi|.HH!ially cn2t>f}Hki*n ^tunut i the C : ''lilw*i s '' WPRI t}At4l*linktHi i*t 
Tammany ilall ami itn ftytiUim, ami WM : Univurnity/ 
bjtMstol In otini^mjiicinmy t<> vimhmt i CiwlWfi wwi inarriui twb0! (J) in 

ieodem of Tftmnuuiy. In lMfcuiilit^"lHil4 M bath (rf, IftWj, ol*ltr (lau^ht^r f I 

after tfag tamporwy dtpfoat of Tat.ni'nany j Kcimimd Futtttt, by whtmt 1m I****t t'Jmw WI- 
largely or ' mainly owing to bin aftortM, ! d.ran,.attiiiif wluiuttacHm. wrvivwil Win i l(r>l 

be ww. oreeentad with . loving up * in | In !iS4 to KathoHno, tUtiniilor uf / ' " 

;nitbn of fmrbii. mm 'tin*. Hattdn, llcith wivee won* 



in bi 



on 
nr 



of 



;rj -.---..- -- -w -m-. w-. Jiv^l" "-" c ^-"TW ; w>fl ^nirw inn qp, n w f^P? |ETW^WB^ . . Wlf BT r'fcW TfflJf F IW 

ialtoriitg ienr fee to the elty of Now York ' 
(lift md imw, ii 181), 'He.wM:oppoed 

JL ^ ,1, iflt * . it ji . i **. 



the SpanUb-Americuui wnr well _ 
to tbe South 'African war of Orml Britain. 
and to the America**' annexation of Hawaii 
. and tihe PliUipplneg, Ha wm do oppoinxl, 
on eoonomio grounds, to high tarilb, to tho 
Uver po!iej and to biDieteiUttn 

In 1870 ha daoHnad an oL 
piofeeionihip of luatory at Banratd 



. 

ity, fa 1875 ho mmovmi to CambiUge f 
Maohoettii but want baol ' "" "" " 
1877. XhU70hel>eoam* a 



lies eoiubitiedi with wkte 



^tut knt : iw 



whub madft'.Uta tiio * uultbfu! fmmd M'ul 
'ing oampanioii * of U*. fofiKlwm of 



pbtdly asefailfttad* Matihew Armild 



!nic\yuu\V 
earlier rar***, 



lit 



of 



with . n 
iwu 
* jw>l.i 
man &}t 



Wur in Hniii}A.}iir* 



iin wit* 
afpfti 

i in 



tlww of i* |'hiUw|*hi*i 

later anil tru.itt* jM. 

iijumtmiHi radical " |X*/r nwl /x/frj*,, II, 2 

Ho MHj|iHl It* Ihi* ***h<Hfi, wltluml 

thu piltifjtry, *:*{ Ui* twrly Hrnl 

aiul }< f< 8 iwiw4 to tit*; Mwi *? hi** Mr. IM* 

iulvuuml lii^rnl In HM* wtiw \vhinh tvrjttlii 

him* him gm*H fit tint! !w l'lWHMi IH4H 

and 1H?0, 1.1. M wfiH tii-nl w nuifb a IMHM *4 

anginal itlritw n *"irigtiiiit in thii Mlrri 

and (MiiiMtuiH^y will* whtdi. h Ju'A.I li 

principttM itiul b*'!irf^ By llm mm* f*n; of 

* i r 7 

hirt <?Mitvi^tkuiH liitil Ilir libility with wfitoh 
HiiiHtmtctt iht'irt hi civakitl. n fr 



nr.w 



wf 



, mMi (with 

1111 It tti#fi*U ' t. 



.11 1 



i*d i I or tif * Hi 

0. Ilk 



ntw 



govurmnmit find 



tf. 



u KfMmyM, liHJO ; Lettor* of 
Inn, p. 23fl s Tin 
Atmuaf 



of Kthv 
, nn*J. 



wtrvv* 



a 
ti 



born at WSnoh^t^r 4 ,lnfy IH10, Wi 
an only; Htotw, Haralt !^.*:wi^ji lW "wiw 
tip at Wim*ht'U*r, and wwi Hl*tciit*.Hl 
a privafi* utihtHil, AfUir tm^aglng in 
tuition, ftn<;| tiufilifyittg m'"IB$H at 
Ixmtiou Ck)il(*gt* tif 'Diviiiiiy* ba w*tn 
dkmacm in IHllfl and tiriwit in IB7U, lie 
ubquotttly proumlm Ui TrlnUy <:, 
Dublihi wlittro iio gulncHj Ui OIu.II iiji* 
prto.in 1882, am! gnuiyiitI W,A. lit 
and J*,D. in i$B|, After Illling utiriwim at 



Capd St. Maw' (lH70f ), ho mm ap. 
pomtml ohftploin of iho forwwi in 177 and 
continued in flits army until IHiK), wrvin^ 
b Malta, CUro,- I>ubbn tin* Curmgh, and 
STettoy' HoimiUl.- From 1HOO Url'803 to 
waii.-vtew of Bart Bok!re and tt(U holding 
other imrocMil ppointmontiii fa 
ourato in obuga of Stokwby, (tout 
mouth, in 1901; 

God win was tart known M ait antiquary 
and local hiatorliui, Ha wan one -of the 
founders of tho Hamphlro Flold nb wd 
AroIujBologlcal Sodety, tid waa *' laadiiig 
authority on the -hiitory of 



do! kitfiwNlttif w 
Hfirlitw, 'If* 1 
iittt in i.*ill!r Wwl* 

viiliigt'% Utithvin v 

13" lVh. IH?( t M*iry C'Un.lwin N 

rrjil' fninilv}* ly whmn 1**^ hml 
ii tiii" H 



... r ,-...- 

*} Tuwti, who mirvil him wi 



In 



n 



,.m w 

t A 



EnglUh . Cimwh Uiilory* 



rv.>f 

kliti iff .tiiti, IW1 1 C!n^kf**rtr 

w**, lU 



l W, 



tin 







w 



uity 



Otto ww gi 



**s ihii * 
nuIi4iKihti 

utd; futlwr 

with an .Kngltah IMIIJ* 
firm 'hftfiiig bmioliDt in 
;*r. t in enrly ynwtt* 
'tttm.mii hyJukuli 

(youn^r hmtht'f i*! A!*.iyi) ind. 
try I'VItnl W, (Irtliwi 
oponcxi Urn 

I April- 1843, , r __ 

it In tfio following mitttmu* H' 

for ' thpd ymi#'. 
for 

, m t 

1 




Goklschmiclt 






Goldsmid 



tmrpoBC. On 31 July 



playt'd in. 



\vitn hum! l*y hi* tviCi'V hit if* uf, W t ynt1 



IN int- (*n tl.t:' Mdvrrn Hill*, lit.' Ml hvi> 

HniiH and d 



h 1m wJtVn n-Mirity. In 
'l* iwl hm Kivni 



ii-r irin1' liirn 



I /lit, t/\/t,T1kf* .". *.r ** - j.? - , . 

London at a concert givim tor chanty \V 
JiHiny Lind (who wan by thiw thw n-han- 
cloning tho ntw) * *^ lf com.u.-rt'room of 

in 'London 'on 27 March I Hit* at ICUa' 
Muaicai Union, In January IHnO K* 

sumo ywir Hho'i*'#tn a long Ant*n<.-.an luur I n 

undor* 'Miim'iw T. Harnum. In May l^M > W "7;". r 7 '';. IV , 1H y 
whi-n hor ninsbid dimMnr, pianint, and \ UNI (1^^) ml W.IH ^ 

Ih-i, WUH leaving firUi:*!d turdui Vhff*w rM 
iuidMchmidt i" tntit 1 1 t'fnnuuiHh'r rihVuMi .i tn* 
niarricd at. HnMun 1 Hr w*i> u ^hit-l ' I|3 II J*' '*[ 

i, IHriSS. Hm' u^ 1 WUH fl'n j imw, 

f,w^nty*ihrw*, Kn:tn inr*^ j |{'?iht*y 

't-fctuirn. In 1H50 thry wunr I fhi<* in 
and 



hin 



Midrr :f tho 
i flu? S wed i nh 
.HM,* with tint 
hr i-1ur 



I hi' 



'' 



Stndf-- 



tHT>i) 



uil 



with Hir VVilliiim 

* i 4 i^ 

I>l>(Hi t*H 
(K;k-ilHU*H 

liiri'iwly 

Winkworth in iu*r * 
W and i> 



f.t j'lj, v| | t!ri.H^*>hu H f*ly' i 

wf, it hymn- \ p*riuMl, !1- ^ud 
hy <?;tt-hVrin*' ; uhvayw 






I.o Mm* 
,'iir nnti 

jit'tialh^^} UM im^ 
Mt'Mth.'ifeHnhn i*fi-iMd- 
l.^uht*Mf' **!***. 
ti^hiimHl U 
* hin 



Liud 



itt OtiHHrlrforf atlhn Whir* ; f 

pianof ortu jtto^Hw.ir, under Chnritw 

, and 



IWiH), u jih*jMrl*.' ni*n-rt.. 



In 1 \\ 
urn 



, >ii| 
^i **' 



, t .Mr*'hi I T 

il<! Mav 



to IHfitt hwiulviml Dr. T*ui|ilf* ali*u 



at Rwghy. In IHII7 Jrnny Lijid Hung ut I 
llunjfowl nttiHical fr'Htivnl, mitl t *<>hlMnhiidl. 
protiu<HH.I tht*n> hm * Rulh, u Uihliwd Idyll ' i 
thin wiw htninl ugairt in IKti!) at i**^*^'*' H.ull* 
and in l)ibwi<kh*rE i>n 20 lan 1H70, whi.*n g 



i4 J 

* it' 

f *Vl - **;' 

f. s T| ,,\ 

-;j4iiii j'tiiiN 



of 



f 



at J*-H 



except for oharity, in 18if A, I), Wilfrid^, i HJi.*w*s..| <ui 
an onthuBtttHtio nmatur, got i*ij<otiwir * ! mid itfur L 
amateur ohoir lortho flwt' prfumtiwioi* lit ' i Pttfh Iwt 

"England 'of l*wh' B. minor Miw (m ApriLj wjh.<ifij u> King*** WNis M**I* ; ,* 
l87SSt.Jwtto i Mtt), Tlw * Iteh Choir f j Jtowuury i.Ha In* mnnvn! *j w>nui.iiitt 
thoroupcmoamolnto'tolngaitdOtiUlHolimiilt !-in tlu-Kiwt India (..VitwiV** ftriny, wiw. 
w^ apijotetod wmiuottir. Ho hold tliat in AjirH j^iwii th ?ih Mjwlrim tmtvi 
offloo till 1885. 'Hia-wlto htrtpod in tho infantry, In Aii^wt tm Im 
ohcruft,- He odit^xi. many mimU&pitHH** WIM on)<m^| i4i Wilim* and Utn MI 
for tho oollootton oallod tho * Biuth Choir nor v*I IM iMtjuiant In t-lu wtUnw ni 
Uagaaiito.* In 1876 ' ha wan pltsolud ' a witl along ill** tuwwf., fr wliioh h 
memfawr of tho Athonwum Club umlw ! Uio dhini^M war nit*it**l In tho ooumvof 
Eula 1L Hw wifo Uw4 on 
In February 1891 'ho 



a yalua'blo 

oolleotlon of her oadon%aM and' florituro. 
Hi diad on 24 Fob* 'IW at hi* houm>, 



IMoreton 



i fekwifc KoiwltiigtoH, and 



to ttontudy of Oritmtat lanicuitM<% f*r whw 
to'Mhowud amarkiHt fiwaU-y. . lttuiiiiiu Ui 
India iu IB4S he quatUittcJ 



Goldsmicl 



125 



Goldsmid 



for Format! in 1840 and for Arabic in 1851, 
In the lont yoar ho obtained hw company, 
and watt promoted aHsistant-adjtitant- 
gonoral of tho Nagpur Hulwicliary field 
foroo. Shortly aftor, thankw to tho iniliusjico 
of Ckmwal John Jacob [q. v.], Uoktomid 
entered tho civil sorvioo, "first an deputy 
collector and then an (WHiHtant-oointnisaiontSr 
for tho Httttlommt of alicmatwl land** in 
the newly aotpurod province of Hind* 

On MH return to Knglanel in 1855 lie 
vohmtoorod for active Ktvrvicjo in tho Crimea, 
and wan attached t* tho Turkish contingent 
at Kortoh tindor (Jerioral Sir Robert Vivian 
[tj- v.]. H<m ho soon acquired a knowlodgo 
o Turlunh. In recognition of I.UB worvicoB 
ho recoiviKl the Ttirkwh war medal, tho 
order of the Modjidio (4th olas), and a 
brevet majority in the army* Ho returned 
to India in 1850, and took up judicial 
work at Bhikarpur* Bubneqiiently lie 
Korvm! on the stall of Sir Bartle !I?roro [q, v*] 
then chiof eominiMHbner of Hind, and 
<Iuring the Mutiny ho dmtinguiHhod himself 
in variotiB dangerous* raiwuonB, 

In IHCJl Cioicbmid limt became connected 
with tho great sohomo for linking up Eaat 
and Woflt by telegraph* In that year ho 
arranged with tho ohiofs of '.Baluchistan 
and Makran for telegraph coiiHtruotion 
along th tsoiU-st of dwadar; hw HU<^COHB 
in i,ho nogot.iai.ionn wan acknowlfwlgod 
by tho Bombay government. In I8(KJ lie 
wtlH promoted brevot lieut-colonel. In 
1B64 lie wan nolecttsd to HU perm tend tho 
gigantic tank <f carrying tho wiren from 
Kurope aoroHB I^ernla and UaluoluHtan 
to India* lie a^eompjuued (JoL I'u trick 
{Stewart when laying tho Pernian CJulf 
cablo, and lat<n* prootuHliHl by way of 
Bagdiw! antl Mow* I to (Joimtantinople. 
Thoro, after protraaku! iu*gotiationH, he 
carried through tho Indo- Ottoman tele- 
grapli treaty. In JHCJ5, on tho doath of 
Ool, Patrick Htinvart, ho wo aj>|K>inted 
dirctotor^onoriU of tho IwJo-Jtiuropoan 
telegraph* and at onoo ntart(^l for Tolutran 
to MHiBt in negotiating a telegraph treaty 
with tho Pemian gov<*rnm<^it, For IHK 
senriooB in oouring tho Anglo-Persian 
oonvontipn ho wa mtwle a (/Vli in 1866, 
and received tho thank* of tho government 
of .' India* . ' From Tohoran ho tmvollod 
overland to India anti back again to 
Europe to settle tho terms of aamifision 
of the Indo-Europaan tolograph to tho 
Euroj>ean system, Subsoquoiitly OoldHmid 
personally superintended tho eonHtruotion 
of the telegraph lino across tho whole ox- 
tent of Persia, Of that arduous work ho 
gavo an intoresting and oharaoteristioally 



modest account in ' Travel and Telegraph ' 
(1874), 6 F 

After resigning tho direetorahip of tho 
indo-Kuropean telegraph in 1&70, Goldsmid 
was appointed in the following year a 
commissioner for the delimitation of the 
boundary between Persia and Baluchistan, 
and his award was eventually accepted by 
tho Shah's government. In tho samo year 
Goldsmid was entrusted with tho even 
more delicate task of investigating tho 
claims of Persia and Afghanistan to the 
province of ftdstan. A full account of 
tho ju'oooedingB of tho commission is 
contained in the voluminous collection of 
paijt-^H, entitled 'Eastern Persia* (1870-72), 
wliieli was edited with an introduction 
by Goldsmid, and published under the 
authority of: tho India office in two volumes 
in 1870. It was a singular testimony to 
Uoldmid's tact and ability that despite 
the determined procrastination of the 
Persian oommi8tiiohors a temporary settle- 
ment of thifl- thorny quowliion was roachod, 
but not till tho British Gommissionors had 
twioo visited tho disputed territory. .The 
arbitral award was published at 'Teheran 
on 10 Aug. 1872 ; Porsia was confirmed, in 
tho poflsosrifon of-Sotstan, while a section of 
ihv Helmund was left in Afghan territory. 
The strict impartiality of tho award satisfied 
neither party, but it had tho desired effect 
of keeping tho peace. For his services 
UoldHmid was oroatod a K.G.S.I. in 1871, 
and rtjccivod tho thankn of tho government 
of Inditi, l':Io rotirtsd from tho army on 
I Tan. 1875 with a Hpooial pension and 
tho rank of major-general* 

GohlHtnid'B public career wa^ not ended; 
In IB77 ho was appointed British ropre- 
Houtativo on tho international -ponimiBsion 
t inquires into Indian immigration in 
Etaiiotu A joint report was issued in 
February 1878, and a HOpurato report in 
the. following April In 1880 Goldftmid 
tuiooptod tho'poHt of controller of crown 
lands (l)aira Banich) in Egypt, and witnessed 
the outbreak there in Boptomber 1881. 
In Juno 1882 ho was despatched by Lord 
Uranvillo [q. v,| on a diplomatic mission 
to Constantinople ; and on his return to 
Aloxandria. ho rendered useful sendee in 
tho campaign of 18S2 by organising -the 
intolligonoo department, for which he 
received tho thanks of Viscount Wolseley 
and the war office* On his resigning the 
control of the crown lands on 1 May 1883 
tho Khedive bestowed on him the Osmanie 
decoration of the second class and the 
bronze ataiv ' . ' 

On leaving Egypt, Goldsmid accepted 



ooclall 



126 



Good all 



from Leopold II, King of the Bdgianft, 
the po&t o! * adminietmteur cU)#u<6 dc 
^association internal kmalo ' in the* Congo, 
and he undertook the organisation of the 
administrative system in tho new fitnfa 
But soon after reaching tho G.mgo Oold*- 
xnicTs health broke down, mid h<~ returned 
to England on 3! DOT, 1883. Tlwm'ftfort.U 
he resided mainly in London, devoting 
himself to literary work cowiceU'd with hi 



of bis fftthc.*r, who taught him oil } 

alwo joint*! at. mtwn a lifn dann in Hf,, 
iti'H I^ru*, \vfirr** Kfty hm'I rwrivnl in 
rwrf km, In 18.18 h*> vvriit on n 
tow through Normandy, itnd wn nft.vr 
ItiM travt'la in Ilillljtiiy atwl Iri 

IHIIl! CiorHiiiU c**]iiiiiUfi 
t.f Willrwli'ii Cliiurc-h 
.SndrJ y of 



AH 

water 
and 

fit** H 



inl of tho Hi*'i^l.y. At HIP HIHI 
exhibit n I in JH.'IH IM oil m 



t* 



tlm 



o 



f 



'ii, Iw 



n 



Oriental fttndfcfi, and taking an 
mtoraflt in various religionB anil 
thropia m&lltufkmft* Ho ttmd lit Brook 
Green, Hammctnmiith, on 12 1ati 1008, 
and was buried . at HaHmgbwirno, Ktmt, 
On & Jan. 1849 ho rtmtrkd 'Mary (& tOW), 
cldoftt dmiglitar of !.Jmit.*goniTii) <J 
Mackenzie Stou&rfc, 'by whom Iw had i 
two SOUR ami four 

In addition to tha'work Jttowdy nwn- j omitting tlw thrw y^irn IH/*K, U. ,_ 
tionod, and to many jmrnj>hk*tH and n<- j 1874, T\v nf hin niVly wrirl^, * T!M Tirni 
vicwB, QoktemW |>iiblis}i^i * 8iiM\vt and i Soldi w ' |IH4'^} nnd * Ili*t Villngo i 
l*unhd f ' apofcinm thflrmgiiial Hindi* withu i (1H17J, an* tiuw its tlir ViTiitm wilt 
metrical tranHlation (tB(KI)* iindan uufhori" j Uw* Tak* fiallrry find ^!IHW 1 1*** $ 
taiivo life of *Bir Jatu<^ Chitmm " (iJ volw. j of Wilkifv a g***tl iutjiy r*f w'hnm* * l-Vrtny 
1880; 2ml milt, 1HB1} Kin kiwwlwig*' P! j Winkling * * "" * "' "' * "" " " 
Eastern JatiKaijf'H r*ln<rwl hurt in' th<* | A j*i*?tuh% * IliiWun . t-ht* Mnypilt*/ m 
forofroHt of Orient ni criticH, Il< juitHni ! Afm!**my Irt "" "" 
thti I'ioyal Aniatic Ht>i(*tv In IH(M and WIP j an wiMmvli 

an ordinary momlwr of th ctmncii fur hrM j 1 I8d:i UrHvdili wiw i^tin'itvl AM, Ik, 
pericxb between 1B7I5 imd 18811,' Ho hrfd ^Omntnifr at thw Truitur 1 !* 
the not of 0rot*ry from Novamtwr !88 
to -Junft 1887* and that of vhO'prniiticint 
from 1890 to 1005.- Ha ww ate a 
president of the Eoynl 
and presided oyor'tlm | 
ol the Britih .AmjooJatian "at "the Binning 
Earn mooting of 3881). 

[Tho Titrn^ 1,1 Jiin. mm; Jouimi, li^val 
Afliatie HK*i, April HKiH, *rt, ly T/1L 
Thornton? Cicwgnitthfaitl JtMirnal, ifeb. IIHJM, 

art* by Hir T, H, """ ' " ' 
^ "' ' ' 1, Trivol 



I In (jfw fiy !ii i 
nilrm'ii^i Il iififii*-i* . 

t JLJ ^ f 'jfr ! ; i t i ! 

thft nai.niiUfeM* 1 *f rtirttm* I 



j Hir t-' 



IH74; Hir 
(iampnikn of )KH2 in 

t ^ ..... ,* #.. i. ... 'i 



Lord Oumm afid After, 10il f p. 117 ] 

, . . ; . ' . a,- M w 



rtiiit 'bom In St. .John* -Woad t tontten, 
on 17 Sept, mm, .wm fon-'of-'Edwiuvi 
Goodall [q* v,] f the Una ngntTor y by hi 
wife Alice Le...BBtit, granddaugbtor ol n 

Jmmshmm who was a printer of ooiotimt 



ward QoodaJI and Walter GootMI |q. '? 

aboxnodb a reputation. aa.ftrtia 
Iwdeiiok, who a* a child WM 



the Wellington Bowl Aoadmv t a private 
ok>ol vhioh-Oiarhe Diokena had 



to twenty-one ho wan'* pnpi 



trf IHAK mid 

In K 



i 



tif 



jrmfiyiitrity, Tbt Unit i.*f 

liiiw WM * !*^rl .Mor 



of Hlitjf* (liuvnl 



Mint tfcrn 



* 



In IH04 v -iui hi* 
utg 
" 



vc% 



. 
oflike tltftme wldrfi fuliiiwod 



i 



1 Ifttg*ir and !iliitiiM4 * 
at iho Wdt* 



rp 



2),' 4 



0m 
1 



of t 

hor l*1iKik * 




Knd 



) fM'ul '1!y Mm Kim **f 

now ftt tlia I*wi{In^ I%)MI 
ho |iiilni,J' 



Goodman 



127 



Gordon 



landscapes such as 'A Distant View of 
Harrow on the Hill' (1889) and * Boachy 
Head J (1806). Meanwhile ho pursued his 
Eastern themes in * Sheep-Shearing in Egypt * 
(181)2) and * Laban's Pasture' (1895). In 
1897 *The Ploughman and the Shepherdess * 
was acquired for tho Tate Gallery by public 
subscription- Goodall from time to time 
in later life painted portraits. Among his 
sitters were Sir Moses Montefiore (1800), 
William Beatty-Kingston, his wife (1800), 
his daughter, feiea (1894), and (Sir) Ander- 
son Critchctt (1898)* Goodairs portrait by 
himself was exhibited at tho Eoyal Academy 
inlSSL 

In 1876 Goodall purohaflcd the ontato of 
Grims Dyke, Harrow, and on it hin Mond 
Norman Shaw built an imposing rowidonea 
But after aom twelve years Goodall 
returned, to London, and his Harrow house 
pasHod in 1B00 to Sir William Sohwenok 
Gilbert [q, v, Suppt II]* At the and of 
his life lie publfohoa a volume of gossiping 
* Reminiscences * (1902)* He died on 29 July 
1004 at 62 Avenue Bead, Si John's Wood, 
where h had resided ainoe his removal 
from Harrow, and was buried in Highgate 
cemetery. 

He married in 1872 Alice, daughter of 
John Tarry, a lawyer, and by her had a 
large family, including Frederick Trovolyan 
Goodall [q. v,] and Howard Goodall [q, v.], 
both artiHts, who predeceased him. 

Goodall fully BatMied tho public tanto, 
which liked a ntory told in paint clearly, 
correct in detail, and with a certain wimple 
kind of aentimont. His painting throughout 
liis career showed much technical ability 
but very little inspiration* 



ttcwiimHconcofl, 1902, with lifc of 
jwituroB and drawingn ; Gravos'ft Eoyal Acad. 
Exhibitor, 1906-6 ; ThoTinum, 31 July 1904] 

F.W.O-s 1 . 

GOO DM AH, MKS. J U L I A, whose 
maiden name wan BALAUCAK (1812-1900), 
portrait paint or, born in London on O.Nov* 
1812, was eldcHt of the family of twolvo 
apns and two daughters of Simeon Ken* 
sington Balaman by liis wife Alice Cowcm, 
Charles Kcnaington Salaman [q. v. SuppL 
II] was her oldost brother. After attending 
a private school in Islington, Julia developed 
a taste for art, receiving lessons from Robert 
Palkner, a pupil of Bit Joshua Reynolds* At 
Erst 0ho successfully copied old masters but 
soon devoted herself to portrait painting, 
and obtained many commissions* In 181*8 
ihe exhibited for the tot time at the Eoyal 
Academy, her last picture appearing there 
in 1901. Among lier sitters war many 



parsons prominent in society, including the 
Earl of Westmorland, Sir John Eriehsen, 
Sir Francis Goldsmicl, vSir G, A. Maefarren, 
Prof, David Marks [q* vl Suppl. II], and 
Gilbert [Abbott & Beckett, Her portraits 
in oils or pastels' numbered more than a 
thousand, She died atJBrighton on 30 Deo, 
1900, and was buried in the Golder's Green 
cemetery of the West London Synagogue 
of British Jews, 

In 1886 she married Louis Goodman, a 
City merchant, who died in 1876* Among 
her seven children wore Edward John 
Goodman, at one time sub-editor of the 
c Daily Telegraph/ and Walter Goodman, 
a portrait painter, who painted a good 
portrait of his mother* 

t.TcvviHhChroniolo,4Jan;i007.] M. K ' 

GORDON, JAMES FREDERICK 
BK1NNEB (1821-1904), Scottish antiquary; 
born at Keith, BaniMiiro, in 1821, claimed 
descent from the Gordons of Glonbucket, 
in Strathdon, Educated at Keith School 
and then at Madras College, St. Andrews, 
he gained, when fifteen years of age, the 
Grant bursary at St. Andrews . .Umrersity/ 
and graduated there with distinction in 
1840, proceeding -M. A. in 1842, Appointed 
organising master in the (episcopal) national 
schools at Edinburgh, he was ordained 
deacon in the {Scottish Episcopal Church 
in 1843 and priest the next year. After 
a tot curacy to tho bishop of Moray 
(Dr. Low) at Kttcnweein, Fifeahire, 
he removed in 1843 to Forres as 
curate to Alexander Ewing, afterwards 
bishop of Argyll and the Isles at 
Forras (1843-4)* His experiences at Pitten- 
we<im are narrated in his * Scotichromcon.' 
In 1844 lie was translated to tlie charge of 
Bt* Andrew's Episcopal Church, Glasgow/ 
the oldest post-Relormation church in 
Scotland, and there he remained till 1890, 
when ho retired owing to advancing years. 
At Glasgow he devoted much energy to 
tho development of episcopacy, and raised 
funds wherewith to remodel and endow 
hig church* Ho was a pioneer in ei!ooting 
the removal of ruinous tenements and 
slums in tho neighbourhood, thus ini- 
tiating the movement which resulted in 
the (Glasgow Improvement Act of 1866, 
His * High Church ' tendencies sometimes 
led to friction in his own denomination j 
but his earnest philanthropic work brought 
him general admiration* 

Gordon led at the same time a strenuous 
literary life, closely studying th history of 
the catholic and the episcopal churches in 
Scotland, and the antiquities of Glasgow, 



Gordon 



Gordon 



pur ii i l*l foms ui 



lo tlTili 



Hi chief publication wim * Tho Ecd 

tical Chronicle for vSootlaml * (4 vok Gliw* 

gow, 1867 )> an dftborutc ami onulitn work, 

which displayed nuwh rwarch ; tho ttrnt (3! Oct.). Amwriwr, nwt Kulfaiijmr, ni flu* 

two volume^ entitled * S<KitU?hrrmt>rn,' nicfliMHui rrtniuro of .Lurktiow! tuid Mtorin- 



Mutiny riwijwign ff 1857-8 with t -hr* 



contain a Hkotch of the 

clmrchf and an (.vxt-f.'ii<lw.l v(*rnion of Kfi 

* Catalogue of Sc;fttiM'h BinhnjiH' j thi* third j JH 

and fourth vohnnt'H, <ntili*'fl *MonitHtimti/ ,. (o 

givt* th<3 history of tho S*.?,rtt inlv mmuwti'nnj, 

and hk>graj>hi<'-H of th^ Homn.ii tfatholit? 

liwhopH of t-he prmt.-Ri'fori.tiafioii 

(ioivlon nlno puhliMhoti (all at I 

L * GlaBghu KariH ' {a hintory of f 

written in a lively Htylf*) !H72i 2* *T 

Book of th OlironifihrH of Kc'tih* Oi 

Euthvni, C*aimry and I.iotn|thriir%* 

3. Nt^w edition -of 'Lnt?hlan Hhaw*H 



of" tin* Kaiw*r Bii#h. Tin* 

hint, .Frr>ti 



lory of tJu l*rovin<w of Moray*' JMH5J. 
4. ' lanu ft Diwaritifw of <) Mniid,' 



, IK * Vatl Mwtiw to and through 
thu ('aihwiml of 8t 
18M, (kmlmi alwi anniribufrd nit 
on fiin *Sco 



(Jx.mdon, IHf*!t), and vvn*t* on 

oiu^y * to 
and jotmmlH. in 
grw of D.D* fmin llohurt 
ll.o wiw an t'ltthuHimUif; Frt 
lj<Hn iiiiliatwi m a Mtmkinl *tt Hi. 
In 1841, and tutwnn thtvoldwi in<i*il*i*f of 
the 'crftft at. hli df*atb. Afttr nw^ning 
the almrgo of Ht* Aiulw<w*i Ohurtih in' 1Ht'> 
iio lira! In r^tirvin^nt at Jitjit'h, Ayr^hin^ 
and dst^d thftn* on 2*1 Jan, 11KM, Iln 
intorrcnl with tt'utnonio liontmrn in IJtu 



(Sir) William . 

iln* frtmj'w* MI* I!H* r*nu'u{ Trunk 
in* Hf^nan'M, nn*! th* ii*>1*| fi.mm 
rmfimH in ShuhnhwL lit*. w 

iit tin* Itiiifc] Hltitfk cnt hig<li*M* 
itm! hi Iht* a^i.i* of Nmvwii utut 

M<*iiHofrwl in 

<;*a|;*l.iun on 
i*Hwl 



Jinn IH-iil, (l 



22 



l'<r ihr 



^1 tluly in 

IJM 



iiij*r it* IH<10 
h r 
ii thr 



nto 



2 



will* fi. 



Afnrli 



n 



77-H, 



prominent |.iart 

it*fiiMtr t v which w 

Vfill' t 
' iu fti 
Nov. IH7H, 



II 



i* 
ttml 



ul 'MuJ..*iM Kiia on 

w*ivrtt'*i Mmt 

I 



up 



OH. 



of thn 



I, 25 Jnii. iWH; HrtttUiih , , , 
5 Ft*h. 1WH; Chfixy Lint, I.1MH s | ^ fmnlul 
private informttiion, 1 ' A* If. M* |l.**ltn llo.Jitc 

imiH, p, 354) 
OOBDON, HIE JOHN J'AMKS HOUll ' ' 



reort Oisult* Sir 
toi^rr^ uimml 
01* (hi* IViwitr fi'olitl 



on 

at Abonlccnt, wrw t-win H<*ii of 
C&ptein William (Jonton (l.THH-tHfM),, 2nd 
Queen 1 * royal regimiml. The father- wrvtl 
tlmmgU th X^ftinMular w&r 'ami nmmHJ 
at Suntarcm in 181SMarmni'itiCkrh4tal^l f 
daughter of Lnb ' Gon$alvui dc Mclln, *fc 
govophmiwnt oftloial in . tha proving! of 
Estromoclura* Hm twin brothar i Uttna 
Bir Thomiw Edward Gordon,. X.U.B 
twim waro the youngent . ohttdren itv 
family of four .ioim ana a daughter. John 



at Dalmoivy itnd at th 
; 



ScottiMh Naval md 
Bdmbwrgii, . and with his twin bmther 
antoad tha anny, joining thp S0tb foot 
out 21 Aug. 1840, and teooming Ifautonant 
9 Jan, 1854. Ho oryl In tho Indian 



n t!f 
wi KlnJ 

Hit' iti|<t itmrnh wtwnt 
2iMlt ^anjtii) Infant ry ftml 
want Ihti uti^ni of tli Ilril'Mi 



of 



ho 



n itt 

mtm rtwuiift in tin*' <lii-' 
of thr* t?ul|iritn. Hub* 
n tl Xaimukht 

umtMiU of Kiiva, 
ho ioiti*anilt**i tho right tu-ihnun of 

For }m mwmw in 

with 



Um Afghan war h 



t!u* 



mid wan mmltf UB. in 1H70. 'In 



I WoxIriN In 1H80 IH* WJM brigiultor- 
in oommiitiU of ilm iromi* (//mil, 
rw * ml 7 Nov. W7). Ho duo 



Gordon-Lennox 



129 



Gordon-Lennox 



served in the Mahsud Waziris expedition 
in 1881, when he commanded the second 
column ; he was mentioned in despatches 
and wan thanked by the government of 
India. From 1882 tc/1887 ho commanded a 
brigade of the Bengal army, and was made 
major-general on 20 Dec. 1886. In the Bur- 
mese expedition ho commanded his brigade 
(1886-7), and he conducted the operations 
which succeeded in opening up the country 
between Manipur and Kendat. Once 
more he received the thanks of the 
government of India (Land. Oaz. 2 Sept, 
1887). Returning to England, he was 
made assistant military secretary at head- 
quarters in 1800, and retained 'the office 
till 1806. He was promoted Htvut, -general 
in 1801 and general in, 1894, On 1 Jan. 
1807 lie was nominated member of the 
council of India, and held the post for 
ten years. He was advanced to Ik, (IB, in 
1898, and to GLC.B. in 1008, and became 
colonel of 20th Punjab infantry in 1904. 
He resided in his last years at 35 Onslow 
Square, London, S.W* He died at Edin- 
burgh -on 2 Nov. 1908, and was buried in 
the Dean cemetery there, He married in 
1871 Ella (A 190S), daughter of Edward 
Btrathearn, Lord Gordon of Drumearn 
[q, v.], lord of appeal in ordinary, and had 
issue two surviving sons, both captains 
in the army. 

In 1004 Gordon published a history of 
the Sikhs, illustrated by himself. 

[The Times, 3 Nov. 1908 ; Lord Roberto, 
Forty-one Years in India, 30th edit. 1898 ; 
J. M. Bullock and (1 0. Skolton, A Notable 
Military Family, The GordonH in Griamaohary, 
1907; bod's Knightage ; Official and Hart's 
Army Lists ; SirT, E, Gordon, A Varied Life ; 
a record of military nor vice in India, 1006, 
p. 23(1 seq. ; H, B. Harma, Second Afghan 
War, 1010, lii. 118 ; W* H. Paget, Records of 
Bacpeditionu against the North- Wost Frontier 
Tribes, 1884; private information from Sir 
T. B. Gordon,] H, M. V. 

G E D KT-L E N K" X, CHARLES 
HENRY, sixth BUKB oir RICHMOND AND first 
DUKM oif GcmboN (1818-1903), lord presi- 
dent of the council, bom on 27 Feb. 1818 
at Richmond house, Whitehall (replaced by 
Richmond terrace af tor 181 9; WHIUTLBY 
and OroraHaHAM^s London, iil 162), was 
the eldest son of Charles Gordon-Lennox, 
fifth duke of Richmond [q. v,]. Known 
until hie succession to the dukedom as 
the Earl of March, he was educated 
at Westminster School and Christ Church, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1830- Ho 
entered as a cornet the royal regiment of 
horse guards, retiring ae captain in 1844, 

VOL. LXVUI, SUP. n. 



but never saw active service. March was 
an aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington 
(1842-52), as was his father before him, 
and to Lord Hill, the duke's successor as 
oommander-in-ehief (1852-4). Meanwhile 
he was returned for Wost Sussex in the 
conservative interest at the general elec- 
tion of 1841, and held the seat until the 
death of his father on 21 Oct. 1860, 
He spoke with some frequency, and became 
a recognised authority on agricultural 
questions. In March 1859 ho was ap- 
pointed president of the poor law board 
in Lord Derby's second ministry, and was 
sworn of the privy council ; but his tenure 
of office was brief, as the ministry fell in 
June. After the return of the conservatives 
to oflico in July 1866 Richmond was made 
knight of the garter on 15 Jan. 1867. He 
followed his leaders on parliamentary 
reform, and at the reconstruction of the 
government after the resignations of Lords 
Cranborno and Carnarvon and General 
Jonathan Peel [q. v,], ho became president 
of the board of trade on 6 March 1867, In 
1869, when the liberals had returned to office, 
he was * sorely against opposing the second 
reading (of the Irish church bill), but wont 
with his party ' (GATHOBNB HABDY'S First 
atari of Oranbrook, i. 272). Next year he 
accepted the leadership of the conservative 
party in the House of Lords, which had 
been in abeyance since the retirement of 
Derby from public life in 1868 [sec 
STANLEY, BPWAEI> GEORGE GEOFHMY 
SMITH]. The relations between Richmond 
and Disraeli wore at first not altogether 
cordial. In parliament, though ho never 
attempted high oratory, .Richmond proved 
a vigorous upholder of conservative princi- 
ples In 1872, while permitting the ballot 
bill to pass its second reading without a 

JU *!*' 

division, h carried an. amendment making 
secret voting optional by eighty-three votes 
to sixty-seven. On a subsequent amend- 
ment no retorted on Gmnvilie with BO 
much warmth that the clerk had to road the 
standing order against 'sharp and taxing 
speeches 3 (FmMAtnuoM's uranville, ii 
108, 110 ; Hansard, ecxl, col 1841). The 
commons having rejected his amendment, 
ho pressed it to a division, and was defeated 
by 157 votes to 138. 

On the formation of Disraeli's government 
in February 1874, Richmond became lord 
president of the council, though he would 
have preferred the secretaryship for war. 
Ho accepted his disappointment ' like a 
truo man, professing himself ready to act 
for the best of the party ' (GfatHorne-Hardy, 
L 335), On 18 May he introduced, in a 

' . ' ' . K 



Gordon-Lennox 130 Gordon-Lennox 

conciliatory sponoh tho Scotch church [ with local admiuiMtrrtiioii, tiiho rent- 
patronage till, Bubetituting appointment by chargis tht. law ot dining nmi cr*mpn!ory 
election for lay patronage in thn Church i mmiH*iwtion lor tnw.xhatiMlt'ri iinpn.we. 
of Scotland, ami tho mt.5a8iir iK'eamo law. ; wHits (Prdiwimrtf ttr.mrt, j'ttfi /-*- 
Hooka carried tho Endowed School* Act ; 1HH1. )i% 277H.1, **/' *t"i Ml**rt, 
amendment hill which had fown hotly ; ./Viper*, 1882 l, .MOH *iv. 1), J1 
dobatod in tho commons Bielimorufrt rwtuomw* wiw llw Agrit'iimiral Ho 
agricultural holdings bill of tlio following Act* paHHwi by "H? liU'roJ Kovrrnmont in 
BcflBXonJntTodnmionlSMaa'iilH/^wlAb- 18H3 ami th* ewilmn of this I ward of 
lishtnl proHumption in favour of tho fe.^nant agrirulttw*. 

with comtHWHaf ion for various aliiwi'H of Aftvr tin* nrai-lt oi .Mnf Br'n-t'onHiirld 

; it paMHi?d tfw lordn without {li April !HHl} Hirliinotid in n HJ-IWP| of 

.. * , - ta ^ * 4 4 "it _i4 -U . , . i * , ^ i . . , ,*t .. * 



Htrongly agaiiiHt any I 

with iil)erty of coritrmit between lamlkmi tioti in llin 
and ionant (tfnnmrd* ccxxii. col* 1W3), : iiwliratiitn l.tmilm wnnlil Iwn hnvr ki|tt it 1 
In 1870 he took churgtt of tho (lcntitry , (i:fatliMW*lfardy* \l\\n]. Tin..* hfiilftuti thn 
Bdltooltt bill, a ni<!atmi Hupphimfnf^ry to Uiirl^nn *I<^idHl him tif o ntlvnnrM hm 
thu Act of 1H70, and dfHigfH'd. to tiuom.i daiwH, i:!iM'i.ntiiitirH**fn.bmirtiv?*jmrt 
attondaJiWM but hin burialH bill of IH77 iru.U*tiU tvhil<, 
Wiw withtlrawn alt^r mi antoudut^nt allow* on \\w iini:tt*Mj 

u&, 4*^'^t 

ing iioitcoiiforis'iiHt Ht'rvlty^H In tihufc'hyardw . HIIOIS,*^ jiM."rHjv*'*iv 

hiKl iH-'<m CArrit'il agairmt Itim In tlw'liwii* ; mm bill of IKHJI, \vbirh \vi*t to** f'r fr hw 

bv 127 votf'H to I! * Un .11$ *ln)i, JH7H iawN*. nud i>n MM* I'nl'l <4' Kbirl-i*tii* Of bin 

v '" * " * J1 . i i 4 * 

Oordon and KnrI of Kiurani in fhf }ii*raK> ; difiott that m <^limn-tiim ronijiiMiMaiini* no; 
of thf'i United Kingdom; tJsc liHr of J)uK* ; iiwuvirit ^Ip*ti!d l* luk^n *4 t-tu* 
of (Cordon in tin* pt*rrnj^o of Snttlund ha<l viiJuo \vhi'li wnn t <iu*+ t* lltn 
csKjiirmlin Itt'M withhwgr<*at-tH'li%(fHirgis ; <|Uaitli^ in thi noil WA.H at>t. 4 i.*| 
fifth J)uk<> of Otwiton j'.q, v,|. In Augtmt ; ionw k*itt.r fy tlu* tfuvt'wtwwt. H* 
187(1, ot i DiHim^lfH j>r0iiu)tiin to tlu^ pwr* , <l*H!litn*d h*wrvt'r, to tlo iMiyl-hiiiju. wbi(?ji| 
ihinund <?0amid to titi luadvr in th i by rkking, t-h* m4****HM of tli^ bill, would 4 
Hmolfortiifo)?th0agHmtitum'UnU*r ; * wpugtmnt t* fit** fw*liiiurt of 
amtinutxi j in 1H7B# on tho rmtbrc*ftk 'of tin* tiwinl ntmt^rn uf th*. 
of oattb cliHuofio, ho ourrkH.1 tho 

diM(ufi(H (animaln) I>ill t whk?h dealt Mtrln- ', tint vmw of JHM, pr**inri*il by t)Mj i 
gently with inftMkm In tit hom^taadb ! of tht* |.HH ( f l<* |MWU< n. fritit^liiw* I till 
and modo iliuiglit^r of iinportod b'Oiwt.n <?om : cnittipttniffl by n rrdilril*ti'0ti of 
{ftslnory* iixc<sj)t whim tin* privy ttuutuiil \ .Hii*httitnt.rH iniitt^ni'-ti wan 4*1* tht ^itk* of 
WAR HittiHibd tlmt thu lawH of thu tiK|Krtiug ' , 

country afforded H i fiMonai.iid micurity agaitwi j wh<i hoM hint in iitifJi rf*uirtl !**> 

did not go an far Httltmiroi tm UIHtij>t M ftH*l 



aa Richmond wlnhod, but hn 
it dratiii0aUy v rGor-gatuMlng tin) vutfriiuiry | ff t?oinpr(nii* jut f ww*i** of lriiihi* this 
dopartment of the |>rJvy oou,ntil, -which w*i j **i*wiing <!*rr(^jii.lrni' with Hlr Hry "* 
af towards replaoatt by tho-1:nmrduf ngrioui wmhy (if, v;'J * m,*t up *i .wihifury ft^rii 
ture* Thp farming industry Wnggriovowly (Miiiii^f 1 ^ iiM.*fam) ill 1UO, *!IU). Jt 

ou ittfrioulturo auku oiH<twd tiotiiiituuitialiiiiM with 



* 
' 



was appointed (4 Awg* 1879)* and Richmond 
aopoptod tho cilialrmammp, Admimhly 
suited for the poition ho conducted a wide 
Inauiry kiting until July IBS2, whon to 
oolleaguoB proBonfcod him with a tokoa ot 



etcoiu in . mlver* ' A prMmlnftry reporti 
dated 14 July 1881," dealt with mm 
hml tomm : uwtf cautiounly admitted dtfaot* 

IVt -tli/i I riii4nH Aji4>4Vvi nw*/l ^ /"(i.lij i 1^*1?. 



tlrnt 



In .H'xl failh 



ii 203). . Northaot4i diwlnrtit) tlmt tin* dukt* 

* to Uttki iiioro that* a. c 



mtrlA f Dwi.iVI* f^lHilf^Wt Mtl/l * jfil^i^fl^K 
v**v vi^iuyji \jurtuvuti n,jn* v-uimv-jii 






moualy, though with HUp 

rands axpra&iging disulowoo on 

points, rooommondod reforms connooted 



totwiitin Uw citt kD f l^cmi Buli^bury* ami 
Ckirmt anil tw ft wiimtiutUal $m$ 
to tba ooumci to lw> tiik^n <wr tho 



tif ianb * (A, LANti'n tftoff 

' 



arl n/ Mtfakigk, ii*' 205) ; it Ii. 

Umt hiii m^lktloii w*m of vmltit, 



^ part wm ttc^Hy f*I*iywi In 



J 885-0 ho aoted AN wor&tAry for 



Gordon-Lennox 



Gore 



but when tho second Salisbury government 
was formed in 1886 he * went down to 
Scotland deliberately, and BO put himself 
out of tho way * (Qathorne-Hardy t ii 254). 
Gradually ceasing to take part in public 
life, he died at Gordon castle after a short 
illness on 27 Bept. 1903, and was buried in 
the family vault in Ohiohoster Cathedral. 

.Richmond, who wan a conscientious and 
large-hearted man, by no moans confined 
his public duties to politics. He was 
chancellor of the University of Aberdeen in 
1861, receiving an hon. LL. IX in 1895 ; was 
appointed lord? lieutenant of the county of 
Banil in 1870, and ecclesiastical commis- 
sioner in 1885. In SUHOX ho succeeded bin 
father an chairman of the county bench and 
WAS chairman of the West Sussex county 
council. Ho joined the Royal Agricultural 
Society in 1838, six months after its estab- 
lishment, wan member of tho council from 
1852 to 1857, and from 1866 to his death, 
was elected trustee in 1869 ? and was 
president both in 1868, when tho show was 
hold at Leicester, and in 1883, when it was 
held at York. At tho general meeting of 
that year King Edward VII, then Pnnce 
of Wales, addressed him as 'the farmers' 
Mend,' a title acknowledged by the duke 
to bo the proudest lie could bear. In 
1804, when the show was held at Cam- 
bridge, he received the degree of lion. 
LL.1X, having become hon. D.C.L. of 
Oxford in 1870. The duke was elected 
vice-president of tho Bmithfield Club in 
I860, and was president in 1800 and 1875. 
Ho inherited and improved the famous flock 
of Southdown sheep at Goodwood and tho 
herd of shorthorns at Gordon castle. He 
was a generous landlord ; many of the 
crofters and small farmers on Speyside 
held on a merely nominal rent, and he 
built a concrete stone harbour for Port 
Gordon in 1878 at the cost of 16,0001 

Richmond was elect-eel member of tho 
Jockey Club m 1S39, but took no active 
part in racing. Though the importance of 
the Goodwood meeting declined, owing to 
tho rise of richer organisations elsewhere, 
he maintained its hospitality* Tho Tsar 
Alexander II and tho Tsarina were hie 
guests in 1873 ; tho Grown Prince and Prin- 
cess of Germany (afterwards the Emperor 
and Empress Frederick), Kip$ Edward VII, 
and Queen Alexandra visited him on 
many occasions. At his Scottish hunting 
seat, Glenfiddich Lodge, ho shot grouse and 
stalked, and was a skilled salmon-fisher 
in the Gordon castl waters (The Tmes> 
29 Sept* 1003, where a charge of undue 
exercise of proprietorial rights is refuted by 



Henry Ffennell). He revived the old hunt 
at Oharlton, but eventually sold the hounds. 

Tho duke married on 28 Nov. 1843 Frances 
Harriett, daughter of Algernon Frederick 
Greville, Bath king-at-anns and private sec- 
retary to the Duke of Wellington ; she died 
on 8 March 1887. Of hia four sona, the 
eldest, Charles Henry (6, 27 Dee. 1845), is 
tho seventh and present duke. Of his two 
daughters, Caroline was his constant com- 
panion in later life ; Florence died in 1896. 

The duke's portrait, painted in 1886 by 
Sir George Reid, was presented to him by 
his Scotch tenantry, and is now at Gordon 
caBtle. Another portrait by Sir Francis 
Grant, P.R.A., presented by the Sussex 
tenantry, is at Goodwood. A cartoon 
portrait appeared in 'Vanity Fair ' in 1870, 

[Article by Sir Ernest Clarke in Journal 
Royal Agricultural See,, vol. Ixiv. 1908 ; The 
Times, 28 Sept. 1003 ; Paul, Modern England, 
1005, lil untl iv.] L 0. 8, 

QOKE, ALBERT AUGUSTUS (1840- 
1901), surgeon -general, born at Limerick 
in 1840, was eldest son of William Rmgrose 
Gore, M.1X, by his wife, Mary Jeners Wil- 
son. He was educated in London, Paris, 
and Dublin, taking honours in science and 
medicine at Queen's 'College, Cork, in 1858, 
graduating M.D. at the Queen's University, 
Ireland, and being admited L.B.C.8., Ire- 
land, in I860* Ho joined the army medical 
staff in 1801, and was appointed assistant 
Burgeon to the 16tlx lancers. When the 
regimental service was reduced he volun- 
teered for service in West Africa, and took 
part in the bombardment and destruction 
of the Timni town of Massougha, on the 
Sierra Leone river, on 10 Deo. 1861, the 
attack on Madoukia on 27 Dee,, and the 
storming and capture of the stockaded 
fetish town of Eohoa on 28 Deo. Ho was 
mentioned in general orders for hie services 
and for bravery in bringing in a wounded 
officer. In 1868 he was recommended for 
promotion on account of services rendered 
during an epidemic of yellow fever at Sierra 
Leone. He acted as sanitary officer to tho 
quartermaster-general's staff during tho 
Ashanti war in 1873, and was severely 
wounded in tho action of 3 Nov. near 
Dunquah, and again at Quarman on 
17 Nov. After six years' service at various 
base hospitals and as principal medical 
officer of the army of occupation m Egypt 
(1882) Gore was appointed principal 
medical officer north-west district, Mhow 
division, central India, and afterwards in 
a similar position to the forces in India, 
In this capacity he was responsible for the 
medical arrangements of the Chitral and 

K2 



Gore 



Gore 



North-West Frontier campAigtw of 
and I8D7. His retired from tho army in 
181)8, was miido (IB. in 181W, ami wan 
granted it distinguished ervio potiHion. 

Ho diod at Im nmlvtiWi Dodiugion 
Lodge, Whitchurch, Shropuhiro, on 10 Maruh 
1801. llo married in J8WJ fosU^ca. 
daughter of John Whil<s by whom iw hwl 
two HOIIH and two dutighttJFH, 

CJoro wan author of: I* *A Mwliral 
HiHtory of our Wo-st Afriwn C 
Jg7(L 2, *Tho Htory of our iSorvk^ 
tho Crown,' 187& 

[Brit. JHwi.i Journal, HKH, I 7Uj 
formation from Dr. W. K. C.3oni, hin ,' 



n 



OOEE f (IK 
<j'h<mri8t f boot at BUvukfrwrn, Brlntol* on 
n Jan. 1826, wan nun of Ot*orgo <'.Jtn% 11 
cooixsr in a mndl way of buHiw*n in that 
city* Hi* \vo i'<Utatwl at a ninatl private 
Htthool, from wliioh In* ww* rinovt*d at 
twi!v to U^onw* an vrrand tioy. At 
twwntwn ha \viw< afiftrt'nl kt^d U a f*j'r 
following th tril for four y**aw itnti 

tiHg hin wninty ^tiuatitjn in 
turH, In I8r*l h tuigmttl i 
, which \van tii'nwf*rth i ii*.i* 

H iiwt found I'mpUiym^nt at 
huin w tiinvk<Hi|wr at tho Ht-ho workn, 
an a pratitiUoiu*p In m<*ifaal galvanmn ; 
luj Ktutequtnitly booa*n*j n chtnit i<* a 
phcmphoruit faotory* afUjrwanln (187<^8<^ 
wm wotimsr in jphyni? and olwmitry in 
King Edward'H SumtIt ft4 finally* m.m 
1SSO onwattb, was hfjud of th Iiwtiit4i 
of Boicmtitio l^^^aroli, Ka**y Riw, Bir- 
mingham, which Uoro oijndtiUtl HvaU.tly 
and wham ho r**id<nl for U ri?maijJir of 



Goro jKJHHiWHl nn intuitiun for H.JW 
and pasttod triumphantly from <m 
of phywoal Inquiry ^ to tinotlu*r. Ifo 

1.8fi3 fljtiti. iftSfi !titi tnil}li,Hji(H! ill iiiti * 

phioal Mtagadne.,* l^tamawutioal Journal 
1 Journal of the Chiaaioal Saaiaty,* mti ttim 
whero thirty papr .embodying Mtmrah< 
in eheinlfttry and al^tro-metallurgy* Tlwwns 
dealing | with the' propertiesi ^ of 
deposited antimony w^re publiihmt 
* BuloBOpliical Tranwwtioiw of tho 
Society.* Other toapottant .wmmwhai ru- 
lated to tho properties of liquid oarbonio. 
Mid and hydrofiuorie ao!d lit 1865 ho ww 
eleoted F.K.8, (with tho support, among 
otliora, ol Faraday, Tyndall, and Joule) 
on tho ground of peing t\m diwoo'varer of 
amorphous imtimony itxid olcotrotytio 
soimcfc, ami for rogeuroheft in 
chemistry, 



liitn a high 



iitu in Jltnningham, 



n*lv*H of IK*VV itt'il*tla wliit'h hi 1 

for improving lit** nriof I'li's'triijtlsiliiig, 
wiirt nuiUor of IhR't* vuluaWo 



{1877? fifli Hlit. !H!*I); *T!w Art "of 



Ivilii tSi'i'iiiratifiii iyid l!*:*litiiii^ of 31 
K ' To 'vvaiior fi*hl of HIM.^V 



* (IHH2) 



* 



of 
in* .Soir- 



to 






li IJiHVf'rjiiiy of I'Minhttr^h inwin 
him lion, LL.l.), in 187*7, niwl i IHtU Iw \viw 
jfcHfiiri a <?ivil lint i^uwioii >f IIH*/* Of 
frugal haliiU*, apjum'ntly <i 



i'Mt'*.'* His *iin| at ' 
,1 .>*'i.*. HHJS, mui wiw Jniririi tlnri* ut 

i^r, Hr 



1841* 



jiti*iiHt'r rtiifl lnwt innm* utw* HMII 






HM'J7 ' Hy liin will .in* Hitv-*;|.4Hl flint IIIH 

nltMtiUJ Jm 






of 
U 
original 



j*|i't in * 
*t.*Vi < r./ In 



of 



daughter* Mrit, Aiii'o Atigt^ia fiMit* Fynh, 
WIIH mtit^l Itt Iflll ii (?ivi! liwt K c tiHit.in of 



% vul, iKK^tiv. A. ; Hoy* 

N ri'Kifclijrss vol. Ui. i 
hn I'lfHW, S4 llw, MKJH f\vil!| ; Htrtuitt 
I'fwt, 24 Due, HiCIH s M oi \\w ti 






lory, JHII2,.] 

CIOH8, JOHN BIXAKJ> (tH4ft--HJlO) 
fiMirMftoHii<ui{ writer* i**ni at Aililono iu 
01* I Juiiu 'lH4i5, wi** wwn 4 J**hn 

ralidwiaon of ^ 
mltu.'at**! jirlvntdy h*> 
rinity tk&lvfp, i>u$>lin f whiWJuM 
hin *iigifH:wrIng tliftlrmm with itigh 
ticm in 1UOU.' ' Iliwi yirnw litter, 
iti tho oj-wui toitt}>titiUtnt l 

. .gvwriu*M.*Ht wnrk 
and *workad UK iiw^iaitt 

of iiiti Hirhitui 

ho l'gan 

of the utam, whioh had for Hint n^i*lt th 
in 1877 of a nitwit book twtltlwl 
C)bjcit for HnwU Tt 
lom rwtirud from ' thtj liuUiut 



(** , 

/--v ** /"' + 
jrOl SU 



133 



Gorst 



1879 with a pension. Thenceforth he lived 
first at Balliwodaro, co. Sligo, with his father 
until the lattcr's death, and afterwards in 
Dublin. Ho devoted himself to ol.Morvatio.rw 
of the stars, principally with a binocular, 
for ho never had a largo telescope, and, 
to writing on afltronomy. Variable atars 
were chiefly the Rtibjeot of his observations* 
In 1884 ho presented to the "Royal Irish 
Academy a * Catalogue of Known* Variable 
Stars ' (enlarged and revised edit 1888), A 
similar compilation by him, giving a list of 
the then computed orbits of binary stars, 
waff published by the Irish Academy in 1890. 
At the samo time Gore wrote much on 
astronomy for general reading. In Homo 
of his popular books he discussed with 
much judgment the theories of structure 
of the uriivorm 'Planetary and, Stellar 
Studies* appeared in 1BBS; *Tho Sconory 
of the Heavens ' in 1890 (2nd edit. 1803) ; 
* Astronomical Lessons ' in 1890 ; * Star 
Groups' in 1891; *An Astronomical 
Glossary' in 1893 ; ' The Visible Universe ' 
in 1893 ; ' Tho Worlds of Space ' in 1894 ; 
and Tli Stellar Heavens * in 1903, In 
Studios in Astronomy ' (1904) and in 
4 Astronomical Essays* (1907) ho collected 
articles and essays that had appeared in 
magazines . His 1 atost work, ' Astronomical 
Facts and Fallacies,' came out in 1909. 
Gore published many papers in the monthly 
notices of; tho Royal Astronomical Society. 
Ho was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Astronomical Society on 8 March 1878, was 
a member of council of tho Royal Dublin 
Society, and. a member of the Royal Irish 
Academy. Ho was at one time a loading 
member of the Liverpool Astronomical 
Society, and wan chosen a vice-president 
of tho British Astronomical Association on 
itB foundation, and director of the variable 
ntar section. Ho died unmarried in Dublin 
from the oiTootH of a street accident on 
18 July 1010. 

[Who's Who, 1010 ; Monthly Notices, Roy, 
Ask SGO., Feb. 1911.] H, 1\ H. 

GORST, SIB [JOHN] ELDON (1861- 
1911), consul-general in Egypt, bom at 
Auckland, Now Zealand, on "25 Juno 1861, 
waa eldest son of the Right Hem, Sir John 
Eldon Gorst, who had gone out to New 
Zealand in I860, by his wile Mary Elizabeth, 
daughter of the ROY. Lorenzo Moore of 
Christehurch. For a time ho assumed the 
additional Christian name of Lowndos to 
distinguish him from his father. Educated 
at Eton, he wont to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1880, graduating B,A, in 1883 as 
21st wrangler, and proceeding M.A, in 1903, 



Ho wan called to tho bar at tho Inner 
Temple in 1885, and in the same year was 
appointed, after a competitive examina- 
tion, an attache" in tho diplomatic service. 
In September 1886 ho was sent as an attacli6 
to tho British agency at Cairo, and thus 
began his connection with Egypt. In 
May 1887 ho was granted an allowance for 
knowledge of Arabic, and in October was 
promoted to bo a third secretary in tho 
diplomatic service ; on I April 1892 ho 
became a second secretary, and in May 
1901 a secretary of legation, Meanwhile 
he had taken service -tinder tho Egyptian 
government, and had in November 1890 
been appointed controller of direct revenues, 
serving in that capacity under Alfred (after- 
wards Viscount) Milnor. In 1892 ho suc- 
ceeded Milnor as undor-sooretary of state 
for finance, and in 1894 ho was" appointed 
to a newly created post, that of adviser 
to the ministry of the interior. This ap- 
pointment waB created with tho object of 
decentralising the polio, and combining 
an increase in tho number of Egyptian 
as compared with European officers with 
efficient European control at headquarters, 
viz;, at tho ministry of tho interior (UROMBB, 
Modern Egypt, 1908, ii. 488), The selection 
of Gorst for the now appointment was 
evidence of tho confidence which was felt 
in his ability and his tact,, and was justified 
by tho results (of. OOLVIK, The. MaMng of 
Modwn Effl/pt, 1906, p. 339). In 1898 ho 
succeeded Sir El win Palmer [q. v. Suppl. II] 
as financial advisor, Tho holder of tho 
office is in effect * the most important 
British official in Egypt ' (OEOMWB, Modern 
Egypt, ii, 286 ; MHOTB, England in 
Egypt, 3rd edit,, 1893, p* 105), and Gorst, 
who was mad (XB. in 1900 and ILO.B. 
in 1902, filled it until 1904 with uniform 
success. After assisting at Paris in the 
negotiation of tho Anglo-French agreement) 
which settled outstanding questions with 
regard to Egypt, Gorat was transferred in 
May 1004 to tho foreign office in London 
as an assistant undor-socrotary of state. 
Three years later, in 1907, ho succeeded 
Lord Oromer as agent and consul-, 
general in Egypt, ranking as minister 
plenipotentiary in tho diplomatic service, 
He arrived at Uairo in April 1007, and Lord 
Cromer left on 4 May- In tho House of 
Commons, on 11 April 1907, the foreign * 
secretary, Sir Edward Groy, stated that 
the appointment had been made after 
consultation with Lord Oromer, who 
had full confidence in Gorstfs ability to 
continue Ms work. Gorst was, in Lord 
Cromer's opinion, ' endowed with a singular 



Gorst 



34 



Gosehen 



degree of taot and intelligence* (Mwlwn 
Egy$i ii. 202), Ho had proved himndf a 
broad- minded administrator, hard-working* 
with groat aptitude for finance and a good 
knowledge of tho Arabic lurtguago* <*ornt 



an 



firwt 
JirHt 



* i 



himself defined tho aim o! British 
in Kgypt m * not mewly to givw Egypt t 
blcjamg of good administration, hut to j 
train tho Egyptian* to take a gradual I,v i 
increasing Hlwro in th*'ir own govrrnmt'fU. ' j 
(Rftporltt mi fflffypt and the timhtn iu 111 JO* 

qu&lifieatiwirt \\wi knowlr<lg of tho verna- 
cular, sympathy with tho fueling*, tho way, , 
and tho thought of the {Kwpl, ami tmm j 
with thek |>rejudicst.*t f and tiwjt, |KHV<T of j 
olTttoomoiit, and tmlimiUHl fmtiom&j (Ifatwrte \ 
for 1900, (3d, 5121, April I'OIO, p, fitt). i 
Gotwt ntt.!rod on IIIH diUicult *ltiM at 
a very difficult tima Tht.n y(ar Jl'H>7 wan | 
markod by flnanoial doprmHioti duo to *. unti _w'rmrj 
ovortnuling ami ox()H8ivtJ cmlit aiul liy mi** ; . n juid iivo d 
ol tho wornt Nik* floods <: rwoonl. .? 
yoar, lt>08 he r^p(rf4M! prognwH in 
the rtsasonabln iwpiratiwnH of th*^ 
pdfjpla* hut xiotwi lltat l*3gyjitii 
mwl boon affeUni hy tho uttn*at in 



i Egypt, hy 



a n.CVM.O. in Illl I on t 
of King C.!i.v:rg^ V iwul ln*lri 
f th Mwijidir* (I8U7) ami tlw 
(grand wrd<n) .*f t.-hn onJur of 
tKKI), Jin was a kiirn 

1!KII 



. HIM.! 

'riu'.H, I a Jul HU 
hn'rt WI.IMJ 
in K^ytt, 
C.V*lvm, * 



Oflinn 
tfM*, 

Hir 






OOSC'HKN, r;.JK 
8t.'fM.TN'iM..{M,s'in^ 

in 1.0 A tig. IH3I at IUH fiiflu?r % K 



ill f|ji fitttiily (if 

*^ if Wiltiam ll^nry 
Itwliug fiim'hatit i.f tin? ("lily of 

t*r of 



Sir W 

fif'ih iM.ii!,iii.^iMinr fit JltTiin in I1M)H* 
Tlit* ft*f JUT wnwHoii oH.*H>rgJim?liii I iti 

of 



of thw t*xtrtH' nat-ionfitist |>arty ituwiM it: 

necHary m ifHii) to rovivo tho prtmM law i at I^uti/Jg* lit*"* trtfimnf^ frii'tul i*f Htihilli.% 

oertaifii indtyiduH ^ IA 8urvoi.tlniu*o do la : , golfloititg^ f Ci^rtiMtM Jit.^.mtttn. * {* 
Police' ; in; .Fobruary r 11)10 thu Kgyptint} | OIWCHKN, /#i/r <#/ Tiww i*j thw 

M* ^Ub.il U ui'ik .*-* r.>iu*_ Ik ij'4 * a i " ^'.'i .UM J ^i -n : t U . Idt k i t_* l*i*i.il'iki* ^]Ldli.til kiatJlflL^ .JF li 1 u.* ,u* Jj .t . j. j, ft J' H t ' *' ft tii.j * i-rf J M i ^ . . ^, ' , 



primo }niuititor Boutron aH:m wtw mur- 
aorod. ' In h.m report for Wit), tto 
whioh ho wnto, (Jornt rootm'hHl tho 
tivo fiiihmi of roprommt^tivo i 
in Egypt in tho fonn of tho 
oounoil and gonwnil aHMouihly, and ho 
tho nowwHity t.f aantiun in 

princsiplon of 
mont. 
LIko Lord Durham in lu 

on Oanada; Hko l-*>rd Dullt^rin in 



hi iHH ywing. WJiltum 

_ l*> l^mutM}, tvl.n*ri*. w 
frk'iit] il**nry Frultliiig from 
hw ftuuiritni llt*i Iliijtitciitl ilrm i.if 
A i.iutn 






n 



Unto tiirtMigittuii an 
lifi> f^ intiufgtt I'm 
iit4<ruitm) tuui Itw Iiwt4* for 



Mi ' report on 'Egypt j and |ik IUH wti 

' 



immediate prodaxwuor, !/>rd OVomur, 
innkkod on the wisdom of 
municipal and loool nolf-govomraont, m& 
one of tho chief meaiur0i paimd during 
h! tenure of office wai a IAW for enlarging 
the power* of tlio provincial oounoibi wfiiol 
came into foiroo on I Jan. 1010, HIM 
administrative policy wan nubjootod to 
criticism by politioian of both tho advanced 
and tlio roaoMonary noliools* -but he 
was uniformly supported hy tho Brlttah 
government He diod 'promaturoly, after 
a painful illness, on 12 July 1011, at hk 
Mher's houeo, 'The Manor Hotia ( Oastla 
Comb, Wiltshire, and wan buried in the 
family va-tdt at Oatic Combe* Ho 



dttily 
at Jl'liusklitmt-h, Tfuiw* hin fathr wnt him 



for tlmw vo,m to 

Din^n, During thi |;.*rlil 
vitit4.! Kngltttui 
hoiidayii with hw l.*t*riitiai 
fathor, who 

<utmr v 

in him quaHlian whiiih wowlti tmmm* 
in pubUo lite in Kngluittl, 'Ftir thw.wwl it 
dmimblo ihat "' youitg 



mix more than tm hml ywt dmm with 
itoh boy; .ttiid It' wait with tho viuw of 
malcing'an -Bnglfahittttn of him ilmt IIP 
ww ioint iu August 1845 U* Rimby inUiring 
tho houi of Boniuny Prltw q , v, j, 



Aftor Im first y(w f Quiohon gwsw to 



Goschen 



'35 



Goschen 



his surroundings and to bo popular with 
liis schoolfellows Ho rone to be head of 
the school, and in that capacity lie made 
IUH first reported npeech, on tho occasion 
of tho resignation of tho hoadmoBtor, A. 0, 
Tait (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury). 
Amangst the boys ho had boon already 
recognised as tho beat debater in the school, 
especially in reply. Though his nm in tho 
school had been rapid, it was not till 
Juno 1848 that he achieved positive dis- 
tinction by winning the prize for the 
English essay ; and shortly afterwards the 
English prixo poem for tho year* In 1840 
he won tho Queen 1 ** modal for tho English 
historical essay j and in 1850, tho prize 
for tho Latin essay* * Marcus Tallinn 
Cicero.' In tho autumn of 1850, after a 
couple of months of travel on tho continent, 
GoHohon entered Oxford as a commoner of 
Oriel, Ho failed to win scholarships at 
University and .Trinity, but in 1802 his 
college* awarded lam an exhibition. 
Though in tho technical Oxford sense his 
* scholarship * was not considered pro- 
eminent, ho obtained a double first in 
classical honours, with the general reputa- 
tion in 1853 of haying been 'the best 
first in.'. At the Union he won great fame 
by his speeches on political and literary 
subjects ; and, in Ms lost year wan president 
of that society. In tho previous year ho 
had founded tho e Essay Club,' of which 
tho original members wore Arthur Butler, 
first headmaster of Haileybury, Charles 
Stuart Parker of University, 1 L N* Oxonham, 
the Hon. George Brodriclc, W, H. Fromantle 
of Balliol, and Charlew Henry Pearnon 
(of. Memorials of Qfutrlw Henry Pearxon, 
1900). Having graduated B.A. in 185iJ, 
Gortohon entered actively ink) the business 
of Ids father 1 !* firm, by whom in October 
1854 ho was nent to superintend affaire in 
Now Granada, now part of the United 
States of Colombia, After two years in 
South America he returned homo, and on 
22 Sept, 1857 married Lucy, daughter 
of John Dalloy, a marriage which greatly 
conduced to the happiness of MB future 
life. Ho now energetically devoted Jam- 
self to ..'business in London, rapidly making 
a reputation with commercial men, amongst 
whom he was known as tho 'Fortunate 
Youth.' When only twenty-seven he was 
made a director of the Bank of England. 
In 1861 he achieved wider fame by publish- 
ing his c Theory of the Foreign Exchanges ' 
(5th edit. 1864), a treatise which won tho 
attention of financial authorities and business 
men all over tho world, and which has been 
translated into the principal languages of 



Kuropo, In 1863, a vacancy having 
occurred in the representation nf the City 
of London, Goschon was returned unoppose'd 
m a supporter of Lord PalmerBton'rt govern- 
ment. Bis views wore those of a ntrong 
liberal, OH liberalism won understood in 
those days ; and ho pledged MmHolf: to tho 
ballot, abolition of church rates, and the 
removal of religious diHabilitieB, On tho 
latter subject, the abolition of tetw in 
tho universities, ho took a loading position 
in the House of Commons), fiercely contend- 
ing with Lord Robert Cecil (afterwards Lord 
Salisbury) [q. v. SvippL 11 j, who struggled 
hard to maintain tho old close connection 
between the univorHitioH and tho Church of 
England. At the opening of thu HOHMIOU of 
1804 GoHohen achieved a marked HUCCDBB in 
Beeonding tho address to the npeecjh from 
tho throne. But tho painw which ho took 
.to distinguish MB powtion in tho liberal 
party, especially OH regard H foreign policy, 
from that taken tip by lliahard Oobden and 
John Bright, called forth* not unnaturally, 
vigorous remonstrance from the former (Life., 
i,71)* Before parliament was dissolved ( Ju ly 
1805), Goschen's knowledge of commercial 
matters, his brilliant speech on the address, 
and Im ability in fighting tho battle against 
tests, had given him a good standing in 
tho Houso of Commons ; and when tho now 
parliament met, Lord Russell, who had 
Hueeeeded Lord Palrnorston OB prime 
minister, invited him to join his niimntry 
OH vice-president of tlie board of trade 
(November 1865) ; and two months later 
to ante IHH cabinet tis ohancollot of' tlie 
Duchy of Ijanoawtur (.January I860), On 
tho name day Lord Hartington (afterwards 
Dukes of DevonMhire) [q. v/Buppl, III with 
whom in after years Goschen was to be elonely 
associated, entered the cabinet for the first 
time, 

QoBohon now retired finally from buBi- 
noH and from the firm of Fruiilmg & 
(joschen, a-nd henceforward devoted him* 
self wholly to a political career. In the 
ahort-livod ministry of Lord Russell, and 
on tho front bonon of opposition during 
tho Borby-DiHraoli government wluoh suo- 
cooded it, Gosohon took an active part with 
Gladstone and other loading liberals in 
tho reform struggles of the day. At 
tho dissolution of 1868, standing as a 
strenuous advocate of Irish disestablish- 
ment, he was returned again for the City, 
this time at the head of the poll j and on 
Gladstone's forming his first adminis- 
tration, .Gosohen entered his cabinet aa 
president of the poor law board- There he 
showed great zeal as a reformer of local 



Goschcn *tf> Goschen 



government (m his remarkable Rvpurt nf 
the Mdcct GommiltM of 1870), and in Huh 



mam * plank ' of the party ( platform * 
prove?! in be a hirniii^-jwiint. in bin earee 

' 



tm mlm (Jommilm of l7()), and m mib- provm to oe a njrmn^ftoint in )UH earner, 
stittiting methodical admmintration for tho At tho genend eleHjojj m April 1880 
clmotio Hyntem, or want, of Hyntem, whieh I (Joweheru who had retired from the repn*. 
had grown up, On the healftl of It (,/ K. i negation of the City r*f b>mio), wiw 
ChilderB brenkiug down, (.'Jowihtm %viw I returned for Hi{"Hrt* The electorate rojiu- 
appoinUd in March '187.1, to nueeeed him i.w ! cliaUsti Lurd 1!eaetitHfteI|, juI Cilm'tHU.m^ 
first lord of the admiralty, a depstrtment ; at the head of a, Jnr^e ituijorify again be 
which at that time* \VM Hiibji-^tiHi fo mu<;h I emite finme mmiMler- (JnHeiten felt it 
public censure. Here MM a<1ininiH(ration int.Mimbi.'nt upcn hiitu to hold nloof front 
proved cxt.raorfliimrily Hiuwusful in jVHtor- the new adi'iufiiHirnliitit. liliultone ftlTereil 
in$ fhfi ^eiieml (Hinlidt*iH'e and in winning him the viee rmnlty *<C loditt, \vliieh ho 
tins fnfchiiHMHtw lulmiration of the naval decline*!.. He eonw^ifed, hmvever. in m* 



this rntliiiHMHtfo lulinfration of tlwi naval fhn^linHl, U.n cMtiw^iffHl, fmwnvr, Jo 

Horviwn In 187-1 th<*. luuviilingrionH of in May IHHO r>n a KjK'r*iit! mid U'uipumr 

UoHchcm and ('"Jartlwt?!! to rti<jo thi^ ininnion <*. fkwHfnnlmopli* UM rttuhju^iulrl 

t!HtinuitH for 1874-5 Iwlow what t!uy to tfw Hulinti, \vilh(yi i<ifi.4ui.iu.*ntr ; ri*lfn 



... 

the IKH^H of thft country rt* ing, with ih** approval of }UM r 

'I*?iuMit In IUH Heat in th^ .liwiu ol ^otn 



wan an imporinnt 

ing (th^lHtot*'H Htidd^ti dinnoln- \ objwi of . 

tion (JaiHiary 1874), Thin rtrwilUtl in ! coin pi ttjc I'ltHw, by WMM of 
the* advent t^o jxnvtT for nix ymrn of (f l*!Mro|K.% to r?trry ou 
Dinmttli, and Atseortlingly ( : *ojtlu'n, who of tht* f n*aly of llrrlin 
wan again i'*H*k s di*d for tl<? C'iiy, fonnd : MoHl.t'iw*gn* tuui Arinnuiittt "iuw! 
himw?If for titt^ tot timf^ in tha 1'Coimo of - ; wtaf.tliHhwl a Mirong *Mwwiv 
CoiiunonH OIH* of a minority, whldi 011 ht*t'WH..* Turkey 'W1 OriM^i*. fit> 
CfhulHtoniVH withdrawal WUH Iwl by Lord rtwoimttti at 'l**^lh tho difli^tilfim Jut 
Hartiagtron. Until IHHt) tht* infrn^t of <'n(*!*iiut**ri*d* and IMM dom'ribi*d hiw tntcr- 
tht^ publi*! and parliaiiH'jtt. wiw H'tuinly vkWH with 1*r.ifn ..Hi^tHitrrk at flwlm, an*! 
octui plod with forngn itilnii^ and Uwih'h th<* n'goimtittrw at </MtHrf.iiiO[iIt* with 
m a lending JMWI!MT of thi> liberal '' the rejw^etitativew of the great fwnvers 
party wan in aontinual aoiiHtiltaiion with (Lift* af .hwl tkt^hnt, v*4, L ehap, vii,)i 
l^ml Martlitgton tut<t Ijtmi Cimnvilio cm : !lw mMoti IH!<*! for n. year, and in itwmi 
the* mjrknm condition of tliitigH In ^aHtom ; IHftt h wiw ftgnin luidk m l^ontlrti, mwiv* 
Europo, Bin grai p^ition iwi u financier : ing the tn>ngmtuliitin]t>t of (il^lMtfitt^ Jtntt 
and a man of hunanoHs, iwrtii hi more than ' Clmnviihi UJIMII thfi Hiim?<^fiti itiUHiiftplmih 
ordinary ftoqimlntunoo with foreign jwititioB. i t.m*nt of a ui**t diilttiiitt tjt*fc. 
tuvtl U.xl t* liw being duweti by the wound I I In the pr4it teal mfniittoi* at b^me he found 
of foreign bondfioldem, with the approval ; ntuoh tlmt to di!ik| 4 f rhe llgitt ovi^r the 
of tho fonign ofliw, and at th invitnthm i Irih Ituwl bill wtw virtually nt n i-ml, A 
of the vioeroy of Kgypt to proeee4 to that i fimu* strungle wiw raM^g IH^WWII 
country, wliieh wiw in n. ntato bcmierhig ; goveriiment awl the fnilowr* f 1*n 
on bankrupky, to inveHt%ata and report* I nJ <4Cim4i*.* flt it right at miehaftme 
upon the linancial position. With ' M, j dowliathettoylri toHtmigtheiM.hee*wit 
Jttjibtirt, ropwjwmlittg th0 !%*iieh Lionel. ! n^aitutt the forei^ of dlmwler, In Juno 
holdcra, Goiohim prowwdml to Cairn, thwr i JH2 hw ilettlinwl i Uafhuwh'it invitation 
jomt- efforts roiulttng In tlio promulgatitm | to join hk iiabinei im wwtiiry of 
01 tho Khoclwiai cloormi of 16 Nov. "J 870, i for "war. In November 




its hoight, In 1877, when Lord Hartlngton 
accepted on behalf of tho liboral party this 
pol icy proHsad upon parliament by Bir (torgo 
Irevolyon, of eqiuilUnff . tho county .arid 
borough fntnohisey Ooaohaifs Mtrong ioiuo 
of duty oompolM him to protot againut 
what ho beliovod muut laud to the oomplota 
monopolising of political powor by a 
siMlo clans of tho community* Thin 
difference -with his political friends* m to a 



tion for tha nmrnmlul ' jjerfornmittit! of 
dutioM of tha ohaiir. In truth fhwuiwn wiu 
toooming mom nnd nu*rt tlimfaiwlk^i with 



the {xjRition of thu libentl jmrty, in whkh 
he feared tiitrnipid gn>wth of tlw iiiliutarneo 
of the ' advaneod Mttatinn M by Mr, 
Chamberlain and Sir Ohnrkw Wllke, Ho 
ot himself to *tnwgtht'n ill 
agaitmt radtoal influMteoii, aficl to 
for the praont ami future that dm weight 



Goschen 



'37 



Goschen 



within the party tthould bo given to 
moderate liberalism. But though din* 
approving much in OlwMmw'H conduct 
of affairs foreign policy, Ireland, Kgypt, 
South Africa -.Ho wan by no incann dis- 
posed to place unlimitod confidence in tho 
conservatives lender, I<x>rd Salisbury. Tho 
ambition and influence of Lord Randolph 
Churchill in GoHchcii's oyoa still further 
weakened tho claims of party conservatism 
to the public confidence. He had, moreover, 
boon disappointed that bin own stand 
agairwt a democratic franohiBo hud found 
no conservative Bupport, In January 
1885 Gosohon withdrew from tho Reform 
and Devonshire Clubs j and Inn |xjocho 
to groat mooting^ in the country gave 
further evidence of the independent" stand- 
point ho had now aswuinod- By moderate 
men of all parties those BpobohoB wero 
welcomed ana admired. 

Tho last session of the parliament oloctod 
in 1BBO was momentous* In February 1885 
came the news of the fall of Khartoum. A 
motion of censure on tho Gladstone govern- 
ment was defeated only by fourteen votes, 
and Goschen voted in the minority* In 
June a combination between conservatives 
and Pamellites defeated the government 
on a clause of the budget. Goschon voted 
with tho government. Lord (Salisbury at 
once became prime minwtor, and Lord. 
Randolph Churchill loader of tho HMIHO of 
Commons. 

The city of Ripon, which Gosohon repro- 
Hontod, was to Jose its separate roprowoiita- 
tion under tho Reform Act of 1885, and an 
influential committee in Edinburgh invitod 
GoBohcm to beoomo a candidate for ono of 
tho divibionft of that city at tho coming 
general election. During tho following 
autumn Goschon's speeches in Scotland and 
elsewhere made a great impression on the 
public (Qtw&fmtfa Political Speeche*, Erlin- 
burgh, 1886)* Thoir high tono, their clear 
reasoning, tho independent and clisinterostod 
character of tho speaker, and the absence 
of claptrap or appeal to unworthy motives, 
wore a refreshing contrast to much of tho 
platform oratory of the day* At the 
same time the late ministers* wore freely 
disclosing thoir individual views to 
the public* Mr. .Chamberlain was tho 
spokesman of .extreme radicalism, and 
found in Gosohen his chief antagonist. 
Lord Hartington, whoso allegiance to tho 
liberal party had never wavered, spoke 
out as essentially a leader of moderate 
liberals, whilst Gladstone by studied 
indefiniteness endeavoured to keep all 
sections of liberals united under his 



rdla.* Parndl throw the whole 
voting power of Irinh national ialw on to 
the Hide of the conHorvativoH. And though 
little* wa Bald about it at tho general 
oluotion, GoHclum clearly Haw that 
ParmsirH poliay of homo rult% and Glad* 
Htcwo'H lino with -roferonco to it, wo-ro tho 
qut*Bti0n of tho futtms. In vain ho nought 
(July 1885) from Gladstone Botno explana- 
tion of his views (lAfo of Lord Gowheb, 
vol. i. chap, ix,)* 

In November 1885 Gowehfm, supported 
by mcxloratn lihoralH and conHc^rvative, 
won an cany triumph in Kant Edinburgh 
over an advana(l radical enndidat^, 
Tho ofTect, liow<?V(*r, of tho general election 
tw a whole wan to jnakc it impoHHibl for 
oithor of the great par Men to hold power 
without* tho iiBMititaneo of tJio Irinh 
flationalit*i. I(nco a remarkable develop- 
ment of tins party pom tion oetwmxl, Tho 
majority of the liberal piwty coaleHCfnl 
with Panwll and his folbwerH ; and Gltwl* 
stone wa placed in power to o&rry out 
the poliay of homo rulo- OoBohen threw 
himself into the struggle. for tho union with 
conspicuous ability and ssoal With Lord 
Hartington ho formed and inspired the 
liberal unionist party, and brought about 
that alliance with Lord Salisbury which 
was oBSontial if tho union wan to bo savod. 
At tho groat mooting at tho Opera MOUHO 
on 14 April 1880 t tho llrnt outward wgn of 
thin now allianco, Go8chon*H H])oc.ih wan tho 
ono that nioHt dooply stirrwl t/ho ontluiHitwm 
of IIIH audionoc\ In tlio llauno of Oomrnonw 
and all ovor tho country he did battlo for 
his cauHo with a fi<ry impotuonity which 
lutliorto had hardly torn' recognised aB 
part of liii chartictor. His hopo that Lord 
Hartington should bo tho contra and 
loader of a strong body of moderate opinion 
waa now realised* But the division in tho 
liberal party waa not BO mtioh betwoon 
those who wore known an whigw and radicals, 
as between unioniftts and 'homo ruUwrw; 
and thus many of tho strongest radicals, 
such as Mr, Gh*amborlain and *Tohn Bright), 
ware amongst Lord HartingUm's most 
vigorous Hupportom The union triumphed 
in tho Houfio of Commons, whoro Qladstono'H 
homo rulo bill was dofoatod on 7 Juno 1880, 
and when tho unionists scoured a majority 
at the goneral election in July, Lord 
Baliwbxiry formed a conservative adminis- 
tration. In Bast Edinburgh, however, 
Gosohon was defeated by the home rule 
candidate, Dn Wallace; but he did not 
relax his eforts putdd the House of 
Commons in the unionist caused 0& Lord 
Randolph Churchill's sudden resignation 



Goschen 



Goschcn 



(20 Bee- 1886) of the ehanwllowihip of tho ] of Commotm 



,} ; hut the 



in Lord Balwhury'n government, j dayn of the unhmiHt. miruHfry were 
ami the lead of tho Houw* of Commons ! alwuly numkwJ* ami tlw general flwUtm 
Gosohon, with tho approval of Lord Hart- | uf tho following hmo plaml UliwlHtono 
ington, accepted tho of Tor mmle to him ! onaa mom in powriy Over tho home 
by Lord SaliHhury to c-nU^r his ealnneti an i ruk* bill of JH03 the nl<1 oonfnnwMy of 
Lord Kamlolph'tt Huauwsor, W. It, Smith I 1HH(I \vw* rr.vivi.tl iu all it* hitu*rntw4, 'ami 
[q, y.] at ilio name time umkHdung to (ioHdien wan again in tb^ front rank of 
lend tho Hoiiw,s of fJommoiiH, j theeomhafnn^, In o|ijnHitioii, in* formally 

b<')BGlien*H acwHHion totlio mmNrytit tiiin ; joini'4 tin* mnrn'rvalivn itarty, Iwmtm a 
criHiH wiwof the greutwt importance in J<f<cp niomln'r of tho CVtrlton C?Iuh, anil rc*i:'at^i 
Ing tho uttiouit government f*n itHft-et. II** ; with tnnliminwhiHl |H\V*T t.hi* riforln mi had 
met, mwsrthdeHHiOiuHnorc |H-ri>vtal reverw, ; mmfa IUIK.* y^nrn bdon* 1*-* n 
in Iiia failuro to win !w?k from the lilwrn! of tho union. Thin tirm*, 
iiotnis ruiorn the Exduwigiutivinkmof Liver 



jx>d (26 Jan, 1887). A fortnight. late Iw 



by a majority of 4IKH) for St, 
fy Hanover Sqwwv, a wat which tin 
retained till ho went to iho Honwi of Lorda, 
Henceforward, IIH autemlwT of the SaliM 
government, Hharhig tho rwfwmttit 
of MH colleagw**, UoMtflu'tJ w 
playcKl a km individual twrt than wto 
torn in tht* publio i*yt% uitjn^h ho tonk. a 
pmrninont nhart.1 in tiio 
iiiHido and owtoido fttM^ia 
owerful hrniiii ruh? allianw hftvv*.'*' 
und InHh nafiortulintH. I'MI^ wta 
yearn In HUj(:**ii,n ho l.trou^ht forwar 
the l)dgt>t iiu^iltn^ with muflh nkill 
growing ex.|Hmd}turt.t oC 



of 



bv f.ho mnttitrv ni thn 



wn,H {M^-M'pfiHi hy ilm 
; hut only fit lir n'jn'li b 



of 



jriit*ti by JVit'ti HariingUm, Mr, 

Tiaii!, urirl oi},tr l ' 

CJoHi'ht'ii to hi n 
f*> tip* wfmimlr 



wlH*r* 



wir* 



. 
m>untry whilub (KiitHttng with truth that 



ni till MM autMiitii of 

nf fitl : for though tls** r 



iti 



of lltn w 



at titG aj timw ho wtw 

its debt, H.IH moMt innrnrmtihio 

mont whilst ohtmoallor of t.li<* 

wn hlH mso(8ftil miriverHlon of thu national 

dubt in M'afah 188B frwit it II jjer 

to a 2| and ultimately a S2 



ttt;tittM.i with Vit 

..Arthur* ')'*a*ht#'ttt 



l*ort 



i.i.*riitiirt 



nil 



Tho graat oiurag and ahility 

" 



?h' Ml that a v*>ry j; 

tt'itH liio li*^l WHtwrity for I hi* 
t \vorW iw ivrll an fir our ovvit 



of 



to i tion f aiul ihi* v 






of l 

r4ins froin 
0ItHitittf.il 



carry through thin operation m.u.w*l tht* 

ireaogtutum of |.Iitbai ojt|jo!t*^tfH| inohiding 

(jlw Intone, not I^MM than of hin oun 

During th 'Baring winm* in N< 

1890 Ui oouroga lirtd flrmruws iw 

minltor- ware ' 'again <:lwnojmimti TJu* 

ituftticm ww Hftvod ; whllnt iui at^4uf^ly 

r<rfued to yjotd to prtwrnifo to omfrfoy 

tho fundB or crodit of the nt&tct to hwitwwi j YlXXi, to th t 9 *,, 

tip tho Holvoncy of a t>rivato irwtitutlon j imvat Mtrvi0f, Im 

(/*/ voL iL 'chap, vlii* and note in ] wan miHirf tc tho 

Appendix III, by LOBJ> Wi*iy), In 

the isamo year a good doal of ungkipu* 

larity MI to <3oBcln* haro rul ting '.from 

the * licensing claumm J (ultimately ' aban 

dotted) which it wiu propoiaod to Intro- 

4 t 1 'Jl H? A .1 *' L U 1 '' HJ i r,, J. ,, 



of our naval 

Hint I hi* **oji*mit<fit growl 1 
naval t^iitttatt^ \vw ^twrally a.|*jtnv*Ml, 
.*f Ihiwi- flv** v*'a'rM loltl tij*oti l\ln 
fit* <|i'*aih of Mr*, <*.wohi+ii in tlm 

vy trial j ml Uw 
ilW(rinifM-Hi hitn 
lii.^fo.ri. Hio ajiprt^Mfhiit^ 
ngiy on 12 i.Ht. 
.*f thw |'*y 
iuui iit 



duoo into tho looal taxation bill, far pro 



viding out of 
compemation fund to 
tton In tho number pi p 
At the and of 1801 Mr- Arthur Satfour 
to tho leodoxfthlp of tho Hotwe 



of 



Ufa 



at 



Iim 



III Ktrnt. 'Wltli mom ln 
found in tlm jut- f*:*r 
ant! frliiiuiii,. for ii 



hi* 

_ t ami for atl4*iidiiig t*i th 
of bin taitiitar In IIHlS h |ub 
tha Ufa mtd timt* of hi* grand- 
fftthor, . on wbioh. ho hm! lung' 
otigagod 5 and in 1905 a volume of 



Goschen 



139 



Goschen 



and AddroHMfls on Economic 
This lottt conHittted of ooniribuiionn to tho 
* Edinburgh Review ' and of oddrcKHoa read 
to various bodies and iiitwtion at 
different limes, and of valuable common to 
by the author on the further light that the 
lapao of years had thrown upon the* nubjeote 
treated* On tho death of JUtfd Balfabury, 
CloHohon was ohonon chancellor <>! Oxford 
University (31 Got* 1903), and devoted him- 
self with energy to tho interests of tho uni- 
versity. Ho tiad been made lion, 1XCXL of 
Oxford in 1881, andhon. LL.I). of Abmlwm 
and Cambridge in 1888, and of Edinburgh 
in 1890. 

tloschon'w political life was by no means 
over, When in 100.1 Mr, Uhatnlx/rlain's lineal 
policy was announced, canning ruptunun tho 
ministry and tho unionist party, (kwohett 
again came to tho front m ono of the foremowt 
champions of free trade* Ho had, a& ho &aid, 
worked out thews financial and oottunqroi&i 
problems for himaelf ; and accordingly ho 
joined, tho Duke of Devonshire and other f roc- 
trade unioniHts in a vigorous effort to defeat 
a policy certain, in ms opinion* to bring 
disaster on the nation. In the House of 
Lords and in tha country, till the 'general 
election of January 1905 had made free 
trade safe, ho throw himself into the con- 
flict with much of hl old energy and firo ; 
and in the now parliament ho once more 
solemnly warned conservative Btatenmen 
against tho danger of identifying their 
party with the iiwcal policy of Mr. Chamber- 
lain,* During tho remainder of tho Be^mon, 
he took part, occasionally in the proceedings 
of tho House of J/mlw, nhowing none of the 
infirmitioH of ago excepting that hi eye- 
aight, never gotxl, had do'toriorated. On 
7 Peh, 1907 ha died suddenly in Ms homo 
at Beaoox, and wa& buried at Film well.' 
OoBehen left two HOINJ and four daughters, 
His elder wm, George Joaohim, succeeded 
to tho viwooufttoy. 

GoBohen showed throughout the whole 
of hm career a -remarkable oonsiatonoy 
of character as a statesman, notwith- 
standing tho fact that part of IUB official 
life, was passed under 'Gladstone's, part 
tinder Lorn Balisbury's loiulorship. Alwaya 
moderate in Ms opinions, which were 
the outcome of honest) and deep in- 
vestigation, he disliked the exaggerations 
of party protagoaiate, and was m vehement 
in support of moderation as were tho 
extremists on ither side in fighting for 
victory* At the head of great departments, 
his industry, Ms grasp of principles, his 
mastery of details, and his detorrmnation 
to secure efficiency were conspicuous* 




But in Ihti proHnuro of ^lininiHtralive work 
ho niiucnUx'rc-Ml that hin ri*poiiHiliilit.i*s m 
cabinet ttiini.Ht#r w<*re nut liiniUsi to liiw own 
doi)o<rtin^nt and in all matUsra t* 
policy* mptwially an ii^gardB foreign 
of wfiich lici hiul exceptional ki)owl<Klg% }m 
oounMi^R carritxl great weight. Hm ot>urag 
and ind^pondmoo won him in a high 
degree tho mj**et and oonfkUmco of Hi 
ootintrytnon ; and Qucnsn Viotorii^ plamjcl 
much roiianoo on Im judgment' and hi 
pfttriotiKin. Nature hm! not cndowod him 
with tho (j\ialilk*H that mak an orator 
of the iirt rank. IliH voioo \vm not gmxli 
nor hiB gcwttWH antt bearing gnw^fttl Yet 
ho frtwxl again and again on publia plat- 
forttiH that ho fmHHOHHad tho prw-^r not wily 
01 intotJHlinp and Ituwling mtw*8 mindM b\h 
also of ntirrihg thtsir oniluiHiaHtn. tt> a v<try 
high pitoh. H'o nov<?r Hpoko down to IUB 
auttionoc^ or appeakd to prt^judiow, but 
exwtod hiniMolf ' t Iad thm tt> think and 
tt> fool m lie IiimBdlf thought and ML Hit* 
apeeohcB vary frequently eontainod ftome 
turn of oxprcHttion or pltraHo wliieh oiutght 
the public 0ar and for tho time WOH in 
i mouth. In 1885, *Ho womld not 
a blank ohaquo to Lord H&llabury** 
Ms groat fight against IrJh .nationaHmtty 

* Wo would never Hftrronder to orimo or time** 
In tho fiHoal controversy, * Ho wrnild be no 
party to ft gam bits with the food of tho j^eoplci.* 

(i(>H(shtm tliroughout hi life <lid inutsh UHO- 
i'ul public work ovtlwitto tho rogiou of active 
polititm, Ha hatl beeomi) an neelmdHtunU 
eonwniHHiomsi" hi 18B& mm il .- iintiatiou m 
IB71) OoHchen was a vigoroun HUpjH>rU*r of 
the movement for the extrmHUirutf univerdity 
tiMvohiwg in Loiulprt* and f<.r many yearn 
h<s gave groat tmwi&nm to the movement. 
With him tho lot of office never meant 
the cognation of employment, In his 
private, life hta '.poruonal qualities antl 
ympathetio nature won far him a largo 
circle of real Momli, whilst in Booloty at 
large a strong sonao of humour, hit* wide 
general knowledge of men and books, Im 
power of convocation and of prompting-, 
good talk in others, mmlp him highly 
valued* In his own ho'twe in the oouhtry 
and in London, whoro he delighted to 
gather round him f rionda and &oquamtflftQ&&, 
lie carried tho intenaeneea of interest 
charaoteritttio of his working hours into 
the amusements of the day. It was not 
for the purposes of bread winning alon 
that he set a Mgh value on education, 

* Livelihood is not a We/ h said to the 
Liverpool Institute (29 NOT* 1877, on 
Imagination), * Education must, deal with 
yotu? Uys m weU as qualify you for your 



Gosselin 



(iossdin 



livelihood***' Ho knew from hfo own c 
enoo how much education luwi <kmn for his 
life out-Hide thon regkmBof biiHiwsHH ami poli 
tico where his chief 'twricH had bwn 



A portrait in oiln by .Rudolf Lohmann 



(1880) is in th 



of tho 



viscount ami in now at Huaeox Hrath ; a 
flocowl, by Mr, Hugh A* T. CSla/cbrook, in 
at) Plaxtol, Kent, in tho POHHIWWW of iii 



, A narf onn portrait of (tonalum 
hy ' Ape ' apjMmni in * Vanity Fair * in 
1800. 



itaiional Iwnmu for ihalr |nirjosr\ |f 

>loy(*fl a oor of tbo rcr(*|. 
thci iu<f*niafi<>ai ^ouf^rftu'D for 
of th<* Afriniu 



which ml at 



wlH in IKBP JIIK! 



yrur nwl r 
Acf. of S ul 1H!M) In 



n 



<-jf y 



^ W;IM in IHtKJ tnmlo tVB* 



in thai i-nr hw wiw 



f.<'H n.i f 

iv?H of ftivat Britain, < f n.nany, aiul 
to li*.niHM niifl fist; flat* dnfii*t**to 
il on iin|HtrtH in lln mntvpttii 
*tf tlm OHJU an* I J.o HI^IKS! iho 

arrivt'tl at, in 



Svoh. Wll,w.m j .illfromwiviH...i.w B .l WIW " '".'"'""" '"! <"<< ' ho 

i ...... .... . I* . I ft it t i ftjiirwtyont wtiiHi WIIM jifnvHl at in 

Lif^offi lw *' ftl A .i' jril * H! * 2 }w ' WIW 

H)I.! f and Morl^/n Life of CSliMMums H'l ; ! pn*>.< * *- wiwUry if Mijliwy at 
liunHiinrH I^lmtt'H; Annual K<^i4*r ; Tinurri | .Miwfrid., wnu trunHftMT*^^ 1< .Hrrlin iti I ho 
ri*[tt:rtH of HjXH!hcH/| A. It. li -.M *.?lln\viiigy*ai*, until '..l*Hi'iw in IHI'III, rw(iving 

atv t!w liiiii^f tw*t th> liiuii*r rank ol 



rt*[tt:r 
OO&SKLIN, HIE MARTIN LB MAK- 

auNT H:A:D,SLBY (iH47--UK 

matM, born at WaHirli.1, w.wr 
on 2 Nov* 18-17* AVIIH ^rarJott of 



|w*i> t!n> liinior rank ol 

In 1HII7 lit* wan 



with 



c*oi 



* 



from Hriiinh .h*ti^ to 
Tltoitiag t^ Marnfiant (.r}HHoiitt [tj, v.j uiul ) iwd irt Huit nwl tin* f*!Io^ 



f 



of Mart in 
J*riory nnd 
n*, by hin vvifn 

of Admiral 8rr li*hit 



o 



f ti 



n* 



f 



rar 

f 



HIM! 



at Ktuij (k>ilf^g(A unil at- (.Ihri^t (.Jh.r>h 

Oxfort! ho isn^nnt the* dijdmutttitt *.rvim* , 

in IH6H, ami after working In fho fimtign | on 1 4- , 

oiftoo wan rip|K>int<:H.I attiuik^ at I jnlwin ! of 
in I860. Ito wtu* traitHftm;Hi Jo 

in 1B?2, wltfsit* !H* r^inHtn^i till 



to |* 

nf fti** two 
jr of tln> 
. arrival at l 

1 in aniiV*ntiHit ^^n***.! nl- 
JHltH, IM**.| |irovi*l*^.i a 
u-hirJi hwl ^ra 



, 



l.torlin 
in 11! 

i^ ( ! f*:ir 



at 



in !B74* During t-!n 

in IH7H hn wiw utfusJi 

miHHion of th jtritinh 

Lord Btntmfi<?ltl itntl 

Ho wiw fmimft*rm1 fmin Ht, 

to Homo in 1870, 

P^rburg in thw foi 

Boriiu In 1882* In 

to' -bo scxsrotary of 

amx>i.ntod ta.BruiwGlH, wiM*rti h 

1892, taking chargo ol ' tho 

intorvalB during tha alwonon o ttw 

a.d boing omnbyod on oocnuionK tm 

Horvioo. Jn Novomtor 18W ho waii up 

pointed flctorptary to the duko.of Norfolk 

upooial miiviion to Fopo l*o XIII ou th 

oooatAion of tJw 'nontiifff jubllm** In. 2 HBO 

and IS0C) ho and Mr. (afterward* Hir Alfml) 

Baioman of th.o boars! of tratlo Hwrvcnl 

joint Britinh dwlogntoa in tha 

hokl at BniHMolw to arrmiga for 

gublioation of euitomn , tarilh, and in 

July, of the kttoryaiu?;he'u!god tha 

trmtton for the eHUbliHkmont.of an 



At f:h>* rlow* nf ihtwi n 

K.lI.Jit.U, Front Jtity 



irMt jt*! wjw *!** 



to 



j hHtt till 
St* j fn*w tlit* 
1 Thi* rrfAt 

j ilitriri^ II 
bwt Kt 
W*'U 

in 



of 



i..ri on art Kiti. 

l* of a tit* ; 4 or -t'lir mn*itt^f>li 

of (.Jwit llrilitiii with J:*ori*g!il 

nf ful 



Uy hif 

mnl jw ,C'.!,.C^ Irt WH, 

In 



ntuiut^r. l.fn win* an ^ M.HH>tnt : *liih*si 

i* il^iitiiiiti o 

ti 

jij.jit*ofort*i 

urtwt*. 



Churcih of l'iwi**0 in 1H7H, lit* nmrriw! in 
1880 K&ih*ffitt$ FniiMH^, tlAUKhUtr of tlm 
't4*rti Udrnni mid toft out* wm* Alwvn 
Kotwrt liniihm*!* t$.%|)tiUn .in tho 
i mid lhra daughtern* 



Gott 



I 4 I 




[TheTimuH, 27 Fob. 1905 ; Ctofiar Browning 
moirn, Iflli ; Foreign Office liint, IIH>0 



Mem 
p 



_JT, JOHN { 1830-1 90), bwhop o* | 
Truro, born on 25 Dec. 1830, won third mm j 
of William Gott of Wythor Orango, l^KK j 
by Margaret, daughter o William Ewarfc 
of Moaa'toy Hill* "IJhrwpooL His grand* 
father wan Benjamin Gott of Armlcy 
HouHe, who introduced tho factory y, 
into the woolhm trade of Ltiodit* ant! 



tributod greatly to tho |>roHp<*rity of th 
town. Educated first at WinchMtr l *~ 



matriculated at Brammcmo Col!f*g*% Oxford, 
on 7 Juno 1840, and graduated II A, in 1853, ! 
proceeding M.A* in 1864, B.l>, ami D.D. in | 
1873. After a year at Wolh Theological Col- j 
lgo and eomo tima ajxwt- in tmv*?!, .h> wan ' 
ordainud doaoon in 1B57 atul piiot in 1858. ! 
From 1857 to 1861 to ww mtrato of Qrwat 
Yarmouth, and from 1801 Ut IHIift had charge 
of St, Andrew'* Church. In 1803 th vioiir i 
of Leedn gavo him tho porpetual ouritey | 
of Bramloy Lood ; and in IS7*I on th j 
appointment of J* R, Woodford t<l- v] to 
tho so of Ely, Ctott WM ehamin by the 
crown hia successor m vioar of Leadi* This 
appointment gaire satisfaction from the 
intimate association of the Qott family 
with the oommorcial life of tho city, and 
was amply justified by Gott*8 work* H 
started a church extension movement, with 
the result that, during hin twolvo yuarn at 
Lcxjds, oight now churchoo wro ftonHocraUni 
and the building of four ottora hcgim ; h<* 
founded in 1 875 LowlHOlorgy school ; took a 
leading part in 1SBC) in tho OHtablihmant of 
Victoria Univoraity, of tho court of wliioh 
tho crown made him a mombtsr ; promoted 
tho univoraity oxtonaion movomont In tho 
Went Biding ; and waa tho generoa friend 
of all good works* In 1886 'Qott WM made 
dean of Worcoater* a post which ho filled till 
189L Ho extended tho uaofulaass of the 
cathedral as a diocesan ocmtre, and entered 
ftilly into the life of the dioacso* 

In 1891 Qott succeeded to tho mm of Truro 
on tho resignation of Qoorgi Howard Wil- 
kinson [q. v, Buppl* II'J* Co'nsecraUtd at St. 
PatiFs on 29 Sopt, 1801, ho saw in 103 tho 
completion of Truro Cathedral ; founded a 
bishop's clergy fund for the aid of clergy in 
time of ill-health or other necessity ; and 
diligently visited all .parts, of his diocese* 
A liigh churchman, but not n strong 
partisan, he signed in January 1901 tho 
bishops' latter inviting clergy to accept 
the positions defined in the Lamboth 
'Opinions.* He* died suddenly at hii 
reeiileixce, Trenython, near Par, on 21 July 
1906 and was buried at TywardreatL 



Ctott mftrrif^l in 185H IlJu-rirM. M 
of W* WhiiJtk^r M>ti!htnd 
Hull, EHM* ' nh** *.Iit^rJ it* l#,* 
on 111 April 1001!; ly hrr Jio HIM! fm< w*ii 
and thrtH>iitMiht4rH* A i^jinul i"*y W. W, 
OuhiHH MNwrxhibiUHl at tiw HMyitl At.m!*'iy 
in 1800. Aiiuthrr, jmintwl iit H.tf.Ki, in in 
Urn dining-hull tif JUwitt ^l^rgy w>hi.t.-L 

Apart Iram hin tshar^o dt.ltvnwHJ. iu IHJ.M> 
on *ldmhf of a I'arinh*- Hott wroU* only 
ono h<ok t * Tho Pariah JMiiit ml ll.it* Town ' 
which hul i* %vul^ rirc-iilation, Mi 

^ fin*.* lifimry,, whirh vvai* *lmw 
by Halo at Mi^nrM. tSuthity*M in Maron 
atwl J!y HHO It ifMthuIm! a ^i *.if 
four folitj wlitiotm if Shiil$<w|sf*}tr*% uf 
wiiw*h tt.se iifHt, lotii* iraiiMiii JH*H^ 22 
July 1810. 

[Yoriwlnrw I'Vmf, 211 .tnly tlHill i Vf*i;kiiir^ 
W<wk!y l*ttt, <J Mny MM I j't*imrIiiM, ill Ajrii 
and 2H ,tly 1WW; HpwiriU 27 .twly Hnm ; 
ThitTiiiim, il Huti au July IiM{ AIIM l'Vf*-n 
Aluitmt Oxtni<nHt*.} . A. It. 1*. 

C10UC1H, 8m HIK.JH HKNRV (mil- 
gonaral, bimi atUaltJWtlaou M Nov. 
wiw third mm in a fiwnlly of fwtr 
onit and four-daughttfm of (JtH>rgw Uc>'itgh 
dvll .Horvidw, of Hatlmmnti 



brother* Sir ('Jharii'H fohn Htanh*y 
Uouglu V.<X (6, IHJt'2), Htitl Btirvivi'H (11*12), 



hin gmmUumnh*.. Ali*r witii'at.liin privately 
ami" at HUlt\ylmry C^tllt*gn (JKfil- 
tho .Bi'Vigai army ou 4 Hwit, 

Huuitmattt on II Aug. 1 
mi 4 *,fjui iHIIL 
On Ilk arrival iu Ititila hi iwrmtiviHl th 

oii of a Mijioy.,woll but Iili 
woro d&rogiutiaa by the* auihoriilm 
liO'BiET, >W^*m Fmf^ i/* /mto* IMtlH, 
p, 4B), Ho Wtt at Iferui on tl.t tniilimak 
of tho Imlinn Mutiny,* atui w*rv*Hi ihrogh 
out tho ttiibw.Miumt wan t) 24 Ag, 1Hf>? 
he wm wout'ttliHi in attinu{ttig U> ^iaa 
omo mutintjtjrH nt Khurkowdim ( and w4 
roNOU^i by hlw oldtip broiiwp r OharltM who 
won in tiu'j datupaign tho Vi#U*Ha csm^* 
Ho Morvi^i m adjutant of Hinlnon 1 !* homo 
throughout tho wgt* of I,)t4hl f and wiii. nt 
tha action, of liohtiiak (IH Aug.) y wbott by 
a foignod retroat Hodn draw 
into tha opan and than ooniplu 
thorn. CJoiigh wan woundod-tbiid li 
waa ihot under him,. He ftooomp&nio 
column 'undor Colonel toatWl whioh 
degpatohod to the relief of Cawnpore, and 
oommanded'a wing .of -the regiment in tha 
actions at Bulaadikftkr .(87 Sept.), Aligarh 



Gough 



*42 Gough-Calthorpe 



(5 Cot), and Agra (10 Dei, 1857), \vhw 
executed adashing flank charge. On 12 Nov. 
1857, when in command of n party of Hod- 
son's i horse near Aiatnbagh, ho charged 
across* a swamp arul naptumt two gunn, 
which were defended by a vastly Hiwerior 
body of tho cnomy (Lotto Kotti'H, >Vv/*/- 
me Year* in India, p. 170). lii hom wiw 
wounded in two piacw and hfo turban tmf. 
through by wword thruntH vhtfot h* \rii in 
combat with thrw w*|KyH. Ito w;u IIH-H* 
titmod in >Sir Colin OintpfwirH <lrHpat.rh'.H 
of IS and IM> Nov. 1H57 (ttvMiunH fnm 
tifate Paper* in Military Drpttrtwtvt* IHf>7- H, 
li, 3!K) and for MM gallantry tin thin 
aowwfon h wan awarded tint Victoria 
crow*, Hko hiH ddar brother, C..!gh iitoo 

liimwif iit tlw n|H*rafif.wH 

H, wl:<n In? 



Kabul 



forf* rin 



nommiwia.i<iwiH mid UHM 



,fttM'wart.l 



cavalr 



roumi~ taitibnow on 25 l%b* 
, a brilliant sample to hw r 
b<'in# ordered to char!**.* l\ 
1U ?gag<?d in a nrrii'H of 
H Imt w*i a 



ball through th !* \vhil *?!ntrii*: 

two Ht'poyn with fixed bfiyftrirln, On ll'HH 
day (iotjgb \m\ two ltm*H killed uud<?r btui 
a nh-ot thrtiitgh Im Mwl aitd 
tlirongh bin wubfmrd. Aft*-r tho r 
of Lutikutiw on ^5 Miirt^h JHrm ht* r 
(,o thci hill,H k r.Htov**r fmiu bin w 
Uouh wan ininitiuuwl lit dc***fmtehm on 



of 

al tho 
t. itnd 

in If w variuim oj.'rafioim round Knliul in 

wnund^d). On Sir Fmk 

inarch 
*>f 

liv and took part its 
rf *ll Auguni at Pir Paintai 
' iii. 4JIH), lie 

in nmunand nf th*. tm<|m f>nai*d in 
cavrdry |irmut' aff^r tlm 

, 1HHO. Fnr IIJH 
i HX HI*H'H in dt 

f/r, 4 i'Vh,, HI Mmrh, 7 Nov. 
U; 4 May, II awl 31 .I)|.|% 
WHM uwi*rd*'*.i th<*. tnrda! with 



K.UJ. *m!J3 I'Vli* JH8I. 



tl.* rank o 

in IHH7 aitd nt Jirnf-^gi'tii'rul in'JKIJj 
**nm!fm:ud<*d flu 
fntimn rn 



tlm 



7 - 



JW01 aiu 



flu 



Mitv 
unil t.. 

ul til** 



fur 

and wan twioo thankini by tho 
gonoral of India, bmidi* itHidvhi 
of -rttajor imtl a modal with thm* 
(/^rmd. ^ca. J')oc. IH57, Hi tfctid 20 
Ifi8, and 16 Jan. IHftO), 

j.trt J 



2 May 



frnm UitMirniy in 
ht.* \\nti 
lulrr 

*Wrl,f lit. Iht* 

lird in Nt,T 



a 



* 



(bo 



1*1 IP* innrrtHl Anm*. ]VUu'gi*.rH daughter 
t.rf Kdwurd KtjwfinH^ 1'Jitl and M* wif(% 
ii*f:tr#iimit Kirpf^I j lir 
dtuiKh 1 



**! 



H 



I* 



|HO? lltH 



r 



, 



\\w <jji])tim.i t>f Maj^datti* b 

lit dt^iniU,tlit*H Hiiii m^'ivin^ i!i** 

'..II im 14 AJ|I iHttB I *f*ijt' 



* H, 



* 16' md m Juno !HW) 

iot'id in 

reoeivod tho brvot of. csokmd in 1H77. 
Uough* who irv<xi .thiaugbtiut th.o Afghittt 

war*" w* in 'ooiatsmnd oi tho oavi^ry of 
.the Euram field fowe In IS7-ll* At th 
f owing of iho Eolwar- Kotol ou .2 
IS7E TO wnu tho tet to 
purauedi with'hii owitlry tho llylwg 
along the Alikhd road* At 
, by dinmout&tad . 

he ^uoooodod' nowian 
difflciult iiatm*o of .tho- fpjuntt In dnvitig 
the triboMiuen ' to tho hlglitwt ritli^i f mm 
which they ware diriodgca by' tiw 
(7 Jan* 187S>) In Boptbmtor t lB7i on 
venowal of tto war after tho mowiaore of 

ho aorvod with tho. 



awl i)flkil Arm 
, i 4 untt Ml My .HHHl j 



tMt<4M front Kff*.f 

, II v*i!n, 

t^irtl ItMt^rf.fi, ir : 4ftv-iii$ V'*iiirn ift hidin, IMIth 
04 !Hi*Hj H, I*, UJivtir, Tti 'Hin-Mmi Algtmis 
Wur, 1H7H---HO, ' 

. J 
If.M.V. 



tin AnK l;* 

(.IOUCI II . AfcT 110111% 

ClilC:H, 
Tituui*$ 



tmrn 



. 

third mm in t!*t* ftynily of four mitm tttul 
uf Kt:nl**ri?k 



nry 



|hiit 



nlxiJi duke 



Mlf llfjiiii**/ 

*l#i|> i)|*l*.**. 



Gough-Calthorpe 

Edgbawton, whom* heir Hwtry, by hm 
second wife, .Barbara, Imwm of itrytiwid** 
Calthorpo of Klvotbain, wttK'mW in I7HH ; 
to the Klvctham wtattw. and taking thr* ; 

surname of CalthorfK^ wiw cwntwl Baron | 
Calthor|xs on 15 *luno 17IH! [w* 

BIB llKNEYJ. AwgUBittM Wa 

Harrow from 1845 to 1847 and 

at Marion College, Oxford, on 23 *Wi. 14H, I 

graduating B.A. in 1851 t and >rnawlmg .' 
M.A. in 1HT>5. In odult Jifo bw doyotwJ ; 
himself to nport, agnculUm'*- and ^Uu 
dutiH of a county magwfratt\ l:l livisl 
on famiiy j>rojMrt^ at l.'t'rry Hall, Staffoni* f 
shire, Horvtng 'UH high nh^rilf t*f thiit <ititinty 
in 1881. At this gw*ml i^tirui of iHHO h j 
stood with Major Fwi Btmiaby (>|. V.JIIH | 
constsrvativo aawlidato for tint undividiHi ! 
borough of Birmingham* ii^ar whth a part ; 
of tho'fanuly <->Mtati* lay, but W*IM ." 
P. H. Mtmt'/,, *J'ohn -Bright, mul Mr. 
(Jhamtoiain t^ing roturtuni. pit tho 
on 26 Juno I89IJ of hi ^idtwt bmth*r, 
Frederick, fifth biwn (lBS8tt-l8UH>, who -wiw 
unmarried (hi mxjoiul brother, Uoorgn, had 
diod unmarried in 1843),' ho MuoooodcHl U* 
the peorag as nixth baron* On the* family 
estate* at Elvetkum he started in 1.900. 
what has booomo n* noted hard of sihorthom 
cattle, and hin Bouthdown nhuop and 
Berkuhire pigB wore alwo famouw. Ht* 
showed gnuca'asity in devoting U> 
purpoHCH muoh of JJIH propi/rty 
Birtninghatn. M<s jniut< ovci 1 to iho t 
tion in '181)4 tho fnohoi<i <jf (Jalthorji l*nrk 
near that city, which MB i'ath^r had t)rriit*.*f.t 
in 1857, and took uutah int^ront m thw 
development of tho ww Birminghtun Uni- 
versity, In 1000 ho and hiw only mm* 
Walter (1B73---1UOO), prt^nttHi 27| ooroM 
of land, valued at 2()4)OiM* f fur tho 'iu of 
the univerwty building^ and in IHD7 ho 
gave another Hito f immediately adjaoont* of 
nearly 20 aerc% of tlm eitimatod-vaiuo-of 
1500(W, for a private rooreation ground 
for the students* He died altar a short 
illness at hw London reflida&de at droivenor 
Bguare on 22 July 1010* arid wa budtd 
at Elvetham, after cremation at Oolder 1 ^ 
Green- He was sueoeeded in the title by lib 
next brother* Lieut* -general Bir &om#rsK!t 
John Qough-Calthorpe (6* 23 Jaiu 1831}* 
He mamed on 22 J'ufy 1809 Maud Augunta 
Loiiisa^ youngest daughter of tho Hoa, 
Ootavius Dunoombe, seventh son of .Charles 
Dunoombe, first Loiil Feversham, by whom 
he had ono son, Walter (who proaeetaod 
him), and four daughters. 

[Tho TimeH, 23 and 28 July 1010 5 Harrow 
School Reg. ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Burkes 
Peerage.] K, , 



4 



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2* 



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i in IH33 



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>|i|Ktr|)lni*i 



nf Hi, 



llnll. 
v.l, wirll 

tint* <.)n 24 flun. 1857 m mm 



Inn Fidclf *>riini.tliy 11 lirm .( 
r Imt 



with 



.. o ti'r 
.t*d In hij 
tuui 1851* hi* t<ii*ri ill, lit** ii*li*.H-ilrt **f (tfi in 



tho 



ho 



|>'f* v, 8ii|*|*L J! I in th 
hm 4?MjhiiigH IWHI ii tin* 
hin father" it* printing ifc 



of 



It**- 



*il' 



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mtn ay 

thn 



.H*i% iui4 IM 



till tin* 






of 
(otti<Uit|f 



to 

ani on 



In ih 
by wi>rkini| for tiri 

own 



for whuiii hw 



wt^rt* 



i'&imtir* In IHHI hift*Ii 
ing 



o 



attu built a Mtutlti h-ir^.tly i^Uiiitlttl lattr in 
ttt tiio biw'fe of Kiitgnl4in 

wh.Hi 0tc?lii*'tg^ in* p 
Frtatk Hhort, Htmng* l*tntiU/ Rodin* 
olroyti, H^jan and H. ' Wi Mmlm^h . in 
foot fow otuhorM or trtmvt^i did itofc oudni 




printer of. 



in iCvtgliuul Jtiil 



in an 



; 
bud- weddy si thti 



now 



Gowcr 



144 



race 



Royal Collcgo of Art, and from 1882 to 
1801, wk;it ho WUB Buaemled by Sir 



L.K.U1 



Frank Bhort, wan entm>ly njHjKmMibh* for 
tho conduct of tho dam From 1.870 to 
1871) ho also ttHHiwtwl Jx^rtm in an otdung 
ehiHH held at the iSliub School On 7 I'Y'b, 
I81H), at a full nutting of the* uoundJ of tin* 
Royal {Society of PuinU'r-KtcIttTn, ho wan 
unanimously ditUd tho iirnl nutter prittfrr 
to tho Hoci^vy, 

In (lOtitding'H emit* tlw craft of phifr 
printing drprndni on HowHhing mojv 
than wow handicraft, Ht.t combined with at 



of workmanship n 



on 1 



and 
in l8fl->, and 'L.H.A, in 

At: firnf rrhiflinii at *VIarHli!i<^|, Jj<* 

in "IHfiO at Tiiornlury, whcri* lur 

f.'d till. IMH ilcaflu antl took a pro- 

part in <hi* lift* of ihr* town, lit* 

rfnrr f''r \Vi-Hl ttl^ut.'^Hfri'H'hir** from 
till HMW. anil hflrl |J W tnki* of 
t- oOrrr for fli* 1 Thomhury iw/iard of 
iuiH* \VUH rtmiriniin of fltn T!n>rnbyfv 

Inmrd, and st lut'iiilM-r of fh 
l* i.Jfi di*'tj >f n'crlfrn! liH'tt 



May HMl. 
jid Jt^fi. it 



, who WH'H in youth si ^mul 

runtMT, luhmfrit frt mi hm fftihtr 
nptih.uii 4 for rrirkri, aini \VJIH fht* Jirhf, 

at tin* 



by j *'!" tho family Jo 
rn. h 



7 



singular im<l<WHlimdiiig of {iu*h arliHt' 
aim* and HO playwl no HWU.H purt in tin* 
revival of exiling in tho nimttmHh wntury. 
l^>r hm artniHt'tiHni and iiiHlriU'tion h<* 
a f*w ('It'hijigH of hirt own ; their 
id wwiknwn of linn m <'onw*nl 
fly printing, 

dittd, Jilt<r fivt* yenm 1 coni-iuon ill* 
hoalth, on 5 Miirch .HHH), arid wiw buri<*d in j to 

ho married Mvlutm* .'Mario Ak*,\aiulrii.' 
Piedntit^ and had (hrw wonn itmi a 
daughter (iu*w Miu Pit-kftsnl), A pnrtmil I 
In (*il by Mr. Alfml Harll*?y, U.K.. Iwiun^n 
to hiB daughter ; tluw in ulna a dry^pMtni ai 

otdiing by 'Air, W. Htrnng^ A.ltA.,* nmi a. ? >f 

photo-imgmvi.rig by Mr. I'Cmrry Wuikvr from . hw jmMiiioti iw i..m.' of th* ti 
a photograph tktw by Bar Frank Short, I Kngluiul. lit* Ih-^f. irpr^no 
"Itaxiorick Uaulcllng, Mwtor i*rittr of .; *<** ^ 'l.*l*yrr iit .hA,y 
r iPlati^y by tho i^roiiuiit \vt'it*ir, iillil, ; oit tw*.*Ivi+ ot'i^wiuMH hrUvw 
on prtvnto itifMrmiitioit tmd tm mi.'itior* : and a!l.or an titi^rvn! of 
Itjft by IttHililiiig* Hut voluitm ^MiU-ftifiH 
th full tiMc^df a loutttro on th theory iai*l 
pnictitrft of IIIH mift Ut ( Iivj*r*id hy C*iiultfiitg to 
tho Art W(*rk(*rH' Uuild in 



\v.n iiiurriisl four 

, iiv* HHJIH ui.i fotir 



ow-n fur htn 

jinwui 2^ of \V<'wf, n 
' All Kn^ituxt fl^v*tj, 
Mi v *n'r(ar and itiftnaK^r of tltn AH 
M, )M.?itm*iivl*<fi^w1 liin p 
with tt hai ( W, t.3, i'i 



in itul I,HfH, 
f*mt 
o,rt$' of th* Il 



for 



n 



I In* 
iiiitl 



. EDWARI) FltEnKKlCK , 
LKV.K.SON- nHl.tt-U)7^ I'Snti LttvjBMiN. 1 *^ lv**t' ^ <'ittit<Hittry 

bat tlirotiiiJi tht* i; 



for tin* Iiw4- timo in i-HHU, Ho w 

only umiUt'itr iii*'tni^f of C/.Jt'oi^o |*arr*M 
lo AtiHtmHa ia !Hli:i hut Jw int't with 
In Atjgti^t JW.lif, {ilnytng iw a 



I.UH 



n r w ti*'r 

UJw JC*i ..,..,.- 

orkkatar t bom tit JPowm^tuI* m-ur 
on 28 Nov. lS4l f WOH thinl of II v 
ol Heqr ( MUta Clnuio (1808-187!) of 
Aihtou, 8om&rtt modioal. ttruatitiou^r ttnt 



IntihtgM athmi^ frntonly 
by IIIM iirotiit*r WilHtM in IHHII itnrl by Vyil.l 
J&lwt&nl WtUkor [o, v. Hpj-I. II] i 



in 



criokoting onthuftiat, who had 
1831 at Dowuond, liin inotbw WAN 

daughter of (Joorga Itooook, iftitiricU>r o 
a boardin iiobool at St. Mfehtw^Fi Mill 



BrwtoL Hta brothcro, Henry (1 803-1806), 

Alfred {& 1840), William Oilbort (fc 1848 ! 
and Coargo Vrudedok (1860*1880), who all 
atudiod moaioino, devoted thomiidv@i i 
odoket, the two- 'youngest obtaining world- 
wida roputatiorw for thoir all-raund play, 
After Vacation at Luwg AHhton, whow ho 
showed tho family aual.for oriokot, Urtuw 
studied modioiiia at the Bmtol Medical 



of JHM, and of 

during tho 



l IHCIJI, when 

ho iiimld during tho mniixnt JHIUO run*, 
\vh0u pluyirtg for twenty of tJ.u* 

ath, m'.rml 711 liainwi a train whiah 



wht'tt 



lit i 
of th< 



Club ut Hyaoithatn l1t*ltl, liath, IK 



12! 



thttUnittnl All Kitgknd Xlr 
}g i'vtnit. <ut mush 

tho AH KtigliMnl Umm 
' 



t.2S). 'Although aftw IBtlS ilrtioo'ti 
wiut oviihfiuiow(Hi Iw that of hto yo 

** fff 



Graham 



145 



* 

Graham 



brothers, William Gilbert and George Fred- 
erick, he long had a share in most of their 
triumphs in the matches between the 
Gentlemen and Players ; from 1867 to 
1874 the amateurs lost only a single match. 
The three Graces played for England against 
the Australians (6-8 Sept. 1880), an incident 
unparalleled in international cricket history. 
In August of the same year, at Clifton, 
Grace scored 65 and 43 (of 191 and 97 
respectively) for Gloucestershire v. the 
Australians. The brilliant play of the 
Graces raised Gloucestershire to a first- 
class county in 1869, and champion county 
in 1876 and 1877. Grace was secretary of 
the Gloucestershire club from 1871 until 
1909. 

Quick of eye and limb, Grace was a 
rapid scorer and forcible hitter. Of un- 
orthodox stylo, lie was one of the first to 
employ the c pull ' stroke, hitting well- 
pitched off-balls to the on-boundary with 
consummate ease. His nerve, judgment, 
and speed made him ' the best point ' ever 
known, taking the ball almost oil the 
bat (DAFT, Kings of Cricket, p, 107). 
Grace ceased to play in county cricket 
in 1896, but played almost until liis death 
for the Thombury team, which he man- 
aged and captained for 35 years. In 1910, 
at the age of seventy, he played for them 
in sonic forty matches, meeting with much 
success as a lob bowler. During his cricket- 
ing career ho scored over 76,000 runs and 
took over 12,000 wickets ; lie had an in- 
exhaustible supply of cricketing recollec- 
tions, which ho would relate with much 
vivacity. Ho was a bold rider to hounds. 

j W. (1. Grace* H Cricketing Bominisconeos, 
1899 ; Daft, Kingn of Cricket, pp. 106-7 (with 
portrait, p, 13) ; K. 8. Ranjitwinhji's Jubilee 
Book of Cricket, 1897, pp. 878-80-; Hay- 
garth' H Bcorea and Biographies, vlL 114r-5 ; 
WiHdon'H Cricketers' Almanack, 1911, p. 201 
(for Thornbury performances) ; 1912 (for 
memoir) ; Lancot, 27 May 1911.] W. B..O. 

GRAHAM, HENRY OBEY (1842- 
), writer on Scottish history, bom in the 
manse of North Berwick, on 3 Oct. 1842, 
was youngest of eleven children of Eobert 
Balfour Graham, D.D,, minuter of the 
established church of North Berwick, by 
his wife Christina, daughter of Archibald 
Lawrie, D. IX, minister of Loutlon, At an 
early ago he showed a great love of re&d- 
ing and spent most of his pocket-money 
cm books. On the death of his father in 
1855, his mother took him and her young- 
est daughter to Edinburgh, 'where,, two 
years afterwards, he entered the university. 

VOL, LXVIIL SOT. IT. 



Although showing no absorbing interest 
in the work of the classes and acquir- 
ing no university distinctions, he was 
a prominent and clever speaker in the 
debating societies. After being licensed 
as a probationer of the Church of Scotland 
in 1865, he was assistant at Bonhill, 
Dumbartonshire, until he was appointed 
in March 1868 to the charge of Nen- 
thorn, Berwickshire. Here he made 
the acquaintance of Alexander Russel 
[q. v.], editor of 'the ' (Scotsman, 'who was 
accustomed to come to Nenthorn in 
summer; and he became a frequent con- 
tributor to the * Scotsman ' of reviews 
and leading articles. Of non- theological 
tendencies and widely tolerant in his 
opinions, he was, after the death of Dr. 
Eobert Leo [q. v.], of Old Greyfriars church, 
Edinburgh, asked to become a candidate 
for the vacancy, but declined. In 1884 ho 
was translated to Hyndland parish church, 
Glasgow, where he remained till his death 
on 7 May 1906. In 1878 he married Alice, 
daughter of Thomas Carlyle of ShawhiU, 
advocate, and left a son, who died in Egypt, 
and a daughter. 

Graham's principal work is * Social Life of 
Scotland in the Eighteenth Century ' (1899, 
2vols. ; 3rd edit. 1 906), .graphically descrip- 
tive as well as learned. His ' e Scottish Men of 
Letters of the Eighteenth Century * (1901 ; 
2nd edit. 1908) is also very readable, For 
Black wood's series of * Foreign Classics s he 
wrote a monograph on * Rousseau ' (1882) j 
and his * Literary and Historical Essays ' 
(published posthumously in 1908) include 
* Society in France before the Revolution ' 
(lectures at the Royal Institution, Fob, 1901) 
and a paper on * RUSBO! of the t Scotsman." ' 

[Scotsman, and Glasgow Herald, 8 May 1900; 
Graham's Essays, 1008, prei] T , F, H. 

GRAHAM, THOMAS ALEXANDER 

FERGUSON (1840-1906), artist, born at 
Kirkwall on 27 Get. 1840, was only eon of 
Alexander Spears Graham, writer to the 
signet and crown chamberlain of Orkney 
(like his father before him), by his wife 
Eliza Stirling. About 1850, ome time 
after their father's death, Thomas and an 
only sister went to Edinburgh to live with 
their grandmother* 

Th boy's artistic instincts asserted 
themselves early. When little more than 
fourteen he was on the recommendation 
of th painter James Drummond [q, v.] 
enrolled (9 Jan* 1855) a student of the 
Trustees Academy. He proved an apt 
pupil in the talented group of McTaggart, 
Orohardson, Pettie, Chalmers, and the 



Graham 



46 



Gruhum 



rest* who gathered remind the WM^nuy | .i^uniMir^n on 

appointed manter, Mobert Scott Lander ' wlwmn winning inanne.rH and brilliant, e< 

[q, >,], Although he was the youn^ent of vemUiorm! powers made him a #r< 

tho cotoritt* (iruiiaw'K talent mul pwnonsd favourite with bi friew'K waMejteejttiona,. 

charm gave him a prominent pi aw* itvit* ; handwmu*. 1'*seeJIent f*rtritM of him by 

H began to exhibit, at the Royal Scottish I hitrwelf and by Ordmrdwrn and 1\*ltie be 

Academy in IH59, but in IBM he joined hi j long to bin winter, am! he wervet 

fritmdH OreJmrdHon and Pet tie, in i/iudon. j for fhene two arlintH olt Hevernl 

With Mr. 0, 15. lohriHti>, another Kdiu | nofahly in * 1'be Fimt C^loitri * by tb^ former 

burgh-truinrd ariiint, lint three Hbiu*r*d a . : and ii* ' The Jaeolnlei* * }i\ 

hoano _ii. Kiten.y fiquani. Stttwii.iPnlly in* : , , vi Vll ,,. m f,, rmlll , . ,!, 

oct?npiej wtiHUoH nt (HoueeHler iutiMl atui iijjhiinfiou 

^''""^V Str<'*?t, HettH^tf for good in IHHCi at i UHJ? Sr, 



f- of 



90 FdlowH .'Komi, Houth UampHtwid. 

John MIWJ Whir tor, Oraham H|H'iit 
tim abroad than any iif bin imimitim, 
A rarl UH l#fl<l iw wwt to t.Vtrw wit It 

fc and P*4Ut*, ant I f\vo yearn 



; Sir W. 
V Sruitmh l-'ainlrrw, 1HH7 ; J, L* 

'* 



AM, VVI 1,1 J AM (!H:m..-.HM1), 

ier and jKiltttwd eetittomiHt, bnruui 

a , - i - ft ' k" * ? * * "'I 4 t ' ' 

!H; paid, with l%Hie and lieorge Paul C.*hal- NunHj'ldrti. Mown, in !^lli xva^a^ 

ruei'H, the lirnt of noveral vlMiln to Brittany, : win of Alejtanderrfraimin, fanner and 

whiehmtpjilied rtjuny piecing mid congenial ' dealer, hy hi^ wife^M.aria. 1'rattfMrd, u di- 
jjeetH, In IHffl l* vviw itt V*.?iu*. where : Cendant of a- .SwHinh preMbylerinn lautily 

whirb ejutie to 1reta.ntl in t*hwti.'H .11" 

*lied iii or while bin w.ni U"sw vtrry yniitij^ Hjjtf 
it fell to the mother* it, \v ; t:fjtirt:i! of 
and iteJfiKHit.u% t bring nj* the 

nnd a dnngiHT----'antid tttruiy 

I M fi*tindation 



1HH5 h paid a 
tlu'ii little ^xp 
jH'wi.raU*d. to 
{now in tin* 



(.*> 



l 



wan 



*e ilullery) and 
.Fifenhire Jisbin^; vilirtgen, t-l* little neajHirf H }wrd*hij*H, Wilbani 

C HtHfibuiff w(*rt.i pt*rbn{m bin ftwoudt** . iHituitUk, art*! being 

; in fi.vritl'teii'ialieH ittit 

1 fiicitiirw t'ftKiiKingty ^H^n^ *w ii f.eai'h<' 

*tiv* ': i*t Hfiuugiter, where he- rcii'mitt'ei) fill 
insight ^ A Young Jlobomiatt * (iHtH), in ; entered Trinity f'i*l)rgi% Mubiin in |i ( y 

c^lightfti! ^xiimpln ol liin wi;rk ui ibut j At Trinity CV!itgf ('jrabairt won. di^* 
tmtt Luter hiH handling hroiulenwl and ! tineti^tj in utittbHttatif"H iilsiiownjihy* and 
bis fwling for light and movement hu! 
ami in pieUm-H "Himh n 'The C.!!IWB of the ! of 

C or 



two 



f*r 



n 

wbloli bi^ w*m in !Hfl5 giivti Ititn 

wirii' frm* 

A. in IHU7, 

<i 



t f j*| , ( i V 1 * j t i 

4 no hifi^ti hi' attauusi itnteit rh^ 
beauty of design* g*M*tfci. fharni t/f 
pitobud and opH!emHnt' otiluur, and it fliu* , 
>onn0' of ittmimpium And, If IMWIT in | 
tone and mt:r nomhm in fioloiir* * The j 
l^iBt of tbo Iktt * and i* few otbor drjuvtatitj : 
plotum* tf tho m ares hi th*Jr dlfferaiii 
motxi* cH^uaily Huonc^tiful, Hln art* bnw j Uin iiM**?e^ wjmval4HN"irenaol*ttl btm 

over, wiw to t)iuiitlvtt iyad rufintHl . U> ! glvivyp hi m^lmtl wo ,....,.,.,.-..,_. 

command wide aitotiUan, iund- owing tu | lime to th *lu<ly of {ibtIuM|iby, Hiid in 

imoortftin oxooutant Th. only diMtinotim 
confontsd upon him wsi honorary member 
ship of tho Hoyal Sootthih Aatuit?my, wbiob 

IL . ^it^^l,.^^! *. i firiw * _Ai. ...._.. F 



ha rocalvetl in 1883. Latterly to gavo 
h of hb time to portraiture* In which 
iBnont-glfU had little oope. Hto moHt 
cwifttl pioturoH rank with- the bent 

aohievementis of hm Mohm>t 
. Ho /'died unmarrfod whilo on a vinit to 



an 



flrabatn who hud 



A. in 



n 



. 

private iwwtury U* Mitabdi H^nry, 
fj. v, BappL Ill, but it^igfiml the 
in 1874 and wttlod in JUondon. In 
hti WAIM H.p|X)intiK} Icwturor on iimthcwmtio* 



Graham 



147 



Grant 



at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and he 
engaged at the same time in literary 
and tutorial work; but the best part 
of his time for some years was given to 
the preparation of the most important 
of his books, ' The Creed of Science/ 
which appeared in 1881. This is a work 
of great freshness and power, discussing 
how far the new scientific doctrines 
of the conservation of energy, evolution, 
and natural selection necessitated a re- 
vision of the accepted theories in 
philosophy, theology, and ethics. It was 
well received, running to a second edition 
in 1884, and it evoked the admiration 
of Darwin, Gladstone, and Archbishop 
Trench. In bigoted circles Graham's argu- 
ment was foolishly credited with atheistic 
tendencies. This wholly unfounded sus- 
picion caused the Irish chief secretary, 
Sir Michael Hicks Beach, to withdraw an 
offer which he made to Graham of an 
assistant commissionorship of intermediate 
education in Oct. 1886. In London Graham 
was soon a welcome figure in. the best 
intellectual society. His many friends 
there included men of the eminence of 
Carlylo, Lecky, and Froude. Carlyle wrote 
of finding in him ' a force of insight and a 
loyalty to what is true, which greatly dis- 
tinguish him from common, even from 
highly educated and what are called 
ingenious and clever men.' One of his 
strong points was his conversational gift. 
Professor Maha/ily wrote of him at the 
time of his death, ' His highest genius 
was undoubtedly for intellectual recreation. 
In this he bad few equals' (AtJienceum, 
25 Nov. 1911). 

Meanwhile his increasing reputation had 
led to his election in 1882 to the chair 
of jurisprudence and political economy 
in Queen's College, Belfast. This post he 
held till 1909, when ill-health compelled 
his retirement, At Belfast he enjoyed the 
enthusiastic regard of a long succession 
of pupils. He was professor of law 
for ten years before he joined the legal 
profession. In 1892 he was called to the 
bar at the Inner Temple without any 
intention of practising. His duties at 
Belfast allowecf him still to reside most of 
the year in London, and in his leisure ho 
produced a succession of works on political 
or economic subjects. ' Social Problems ' 
came out in 1886, * Socialism New and Old 9 
in 1890, * English Political Philosophy from 
Hobbes to Main ' in 1899, and ( Proo Trade 
and the Empire ' in 1904* He also road a 
paper on trusts to the British Association 
at Belfast in 1902, and was a frequent 



contributor to the ' Nineteenth Century,' 
* Contemporary Review/ and Economic 
Journal.' He was for many years examiner 
in political economy and also in philosophy 
for the Indian civil service and the Royal 
University of Ireland, and in English 
for the Irish intermediate education 
department. 

He received the honorary degree of 
Litt.D. from Trinity College, Dublin, in 
1905. His health began to fail in 1907, 
and he died unmarried in a nursing home 
in Dublin on 19 Nov. 1911, being buried in 
Mount Jerome cemetery there. 

[Graham's Autobiographical MS. notes; 
Irish Times, 20 Nov. 1911 ; personal know- 
ledge.] J. K. 

GRANT, GEORGE MONRO (1835- 
1902), principal of Queen's University,, 
Kingston, Canada, born on 22 Dec. 1835 at 
Albion Mines, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 
was third child of James Grant, who, spring- 
ing from along lino of Scottish farmers, emi- 
grated from Banifshire in 1826, and married 
five years later Mary Monro of Inverness. 

Owing to the accident of losing his right 
hand at the age of seven, the boy was 
brought up to be a scholar. At Pictou 
Academy he gained in 1853 a bursary 
tenable at either Glasgow or Edinburgh 
University. He chose Glasgow, and seven 
years later, on the completion of a distin- 
guished course, he received his testamur 
in theology, and was ordained (Dec. 1860) 
by the preHbytory of Glasgow as a mission- 
ary for Nova Scotia. He declined an 
invitation from Norman Macleod [q. v.] 
to remain in Glasgow as his assistant. 

After occupying various mission-fields 
in his native province and in Prince Edward 
Island, he accepted a call in 1863 to the 
pulpit of St. Matthew's Church, tho leading 
Church of Scotland church in Halifax. 
Grant, who saw the need of a native 
trained ministry for the established 
presbytorian church in Nova Scotia, 
struggled without success to establish a 
theological hall at Halifax, by way of 
supplement to Dalhousio College, which 
largely through his efforts was reorganised 
as a non-sectarian institution in 1863. 
Meanwhile he directed his efforts to the 
union of the presbytorian church throughout 
Canada. The federation of the provinces 
in 1867, which Grant eagerly supported, 
gave an impulse to the spirit of union, and 
15 Juno 1875 saw the first General Assembly 
of the united church. 

In 1877 Grant, .who had for some years 
identified himself with educational reform, 



Grant 



48 



rant 



became principal of QiKsen 1 University 
Kingston, 'Ontario, a prcMbytman founda- 
tion. He received the honorary dogm* of 
D.D. from Glasgow Umvernity in iho 
same year* Quon* UniverHity WNH at 
the time in iinanciai cliilkwHwH, and 
ho undertook two HtronuouH tmmfjaigiiH 
in 1878 and 1887 to obtain inc'runm! 
endowment from private HOIWWH. Tlw 
immtxiiato financial Hituafkm Hivvwi, CJmtit 

ad&c|imto recognition and aid from the 
provincial iogiKlatum; but ho ww jfiuifltl 

by a prejudice agairmt Ht&to-ftwitsd denomin- 
ational. oollegtiH, which wiw oncwmtgiHi by 
the claim of ' tho UniverHity ! Toronto to 

he the only property cuntittttml provinoial 
universily. 'In' 1887 Qumi'H Onivewif^ 
rejeated ' ftnleration with Tort.>nl.4>. llwt 
Grant'* |x>Htical inihienm* Hfemiily jKrew, 
and. ho Ht*ourtHl lor hi unw*rwty in IHiKI 
a tatc-embwml Hohool of nttneH, whieh 
BubMoquently !>eeaiue tlw Imnliy of 
T>fiustksal fwicmtia in tlte aniverHit-y. Jn 

*,..... i j . 'H . a J 1 11 * 

to wtiver the I.H.* 



Longuo, Ont^rin, in JH80* To r 
liUTutuw Uratst aoii|rH)ul*'rl inn* hook of 
iniportttno% * RdigirmH of ih World* 
{Edinburgh .1804; 2ji <HJii, rcviHrnl and 
(nilargi*ii, 1895) Thin ha IMHIH I'mnniated 
into iiiuny KuroiiMi lAiiguu^'H uncl iuu> 



Mhowtxi hi conri^o and i 

at th<" ^1**M< of Inn lift* in hin 
ainni nf tin* f^uijfiTitritit* imft-Vi whioh 
l at. fh* i^it^ai j>r**!tibiti(tn <*f flw liquor 

ft, To r*'Htir* IMH hcfUlh* wititih wan 



' Urant iiiiwin 11 i<-uir nf ibo world in 
1.HHH* In !HH!' b. ww elei^t* 
of the ^eiienil nn*emhly of tbt* 

M iui l^'Jiiiie 1.4.1^1 > of 
f iit !H!1 In 



faculty of 
JPWH \ipon f 
lio diw! two yiam 
of HHKJ nWi'mn! 
not fl 




In HKM> he foretni 
i luwefttbly* but 
', and the itMHwubiy 
lm |H-ticVt whieh wiw 
till June 1111! 
ittlhumofi in 

to *an invitation (w.hiah win* 
from Bir Oliver Mowat [q. v* Httppl. I.I.J in 
1SB0 to vmtyn hi winaipaWhijt ami luianpi 
the portfolio of fHluciition in hin- ttabint*t. 
Grant held that the txiuoation iuiminitm- 
tion in tin* pr<vino*> whmiM IK* wholly 
with<irawn from jwHtiflH 

Grant a|irid ait intimati!) knrjwltHl^e 
of-tho oottntry, having twioo traveriWMi the 
continent. In 1H72 ho <wiftonipanHi Mr. 
(afterwanlfi Hir) Hiintifoni Fffwhjg on bw 
preliminAry iiwrvny of a route* for tho 
Canadian Paaiflo 'Railway, ati in .I8H& 
again with Mr. Floniing. ho itxamincHi a 
routa through the tnountainM. Tim flmt 
jotirnay C.I mitt re^iorded In M.looan to 
Qowrr (1B7U), and tin* 

m arts morgod in "four 

1880, ami in * IHoturtMiqtia &nadA v f a 
publioation whioh ho 'edited in 188i; , 
To the. prow i.nci to. '-period ioati- Grant 
ItMuently 'oommiuiioateci Wi views- -on 



m .tha * Queen* University Quarterly* 
were widely read * He powerfully supported 
the new imperialfeni* md urged on Canada 
te imperial respondbiUties*. Ha beoame 
m^Amisi of wie Imporial Fodoration 

PN ' ^ 



t nf 

, Kingston, jfmni 
IH1I4 U) IHiWI. In IfMn im wim cmwtod 
UM*i* lit, <lii*i at K.i**^t4.)n it 1.0 Muy 
iiH*5J H* wa IrtirinJ in f^^iriMjui < 
irt Mw naM* i<*w, 
On 7 May I.H07 Ctntnt mrri**d 

tlau|j(ht<r of William I^awmm uf 
* N'ova ^?rtia, lii** only 
Wi.!imm J^^WMon iirant. 
try in Cjti^'M'M Univ^rwity, 
A }K>rirSitt of *,*rant by llolirrt 

atiMtt !lali 
ii iit b 

!Arthy (tHUl) * in tit*.* ifbmry ituti 
rtww th : *rv 

try W. !*, f* 



| 
* 



OHANT, Hill .HOIVRHT 



* u 
Hir 



J*. K, 



Malatmr ff'ill, 
wtw 



IH37 



o 



* v,]. fib 
(*/. iHHii), only 
DiwM Duvidmm til Ountnty 
JS.li, who marri*d an lr nm 

William l%itiy M*l* 
flftlt ' 



of 



his -nidor brothor Cltarioti 



for 
in ilia royn! ariiliory- and the wiyal 

" by th.ct C*rIitM:*iit'i war, and 
gM&ettad seoond Uatiliiimnt in the roy&f 
m 28/Oott IB54, blooming tot 
irmn^ on IS Deo, of the sami yar* 



w*w 



to. E 



Grant 



149 



Grant 



1857 he was transferred to the Jamaica 
command in the West Indies, and at the 
end of 1858 he served on the staff as fort 
adjutant at Belise in British Honduras. 
He passed first in the examination for the 
Statt College, just established; but after 
a few months there (Jan.-May 1859) he 
was aide-de-camp to Lieut. -general Sir 
William Fenwick Williams [q. vj, the 
commander of the forces in North America 
for six years. On 8 Aug. 1860 he was 
promoted second captain. He was at 
home for the final examination at the Staff 
College, in which he again easily passed 
first, despite his absence from the classes, 
and from January to Juno 1861 he was 
attached to the cavalry and artillery at 
Aldershot. 

Finally returning from Canada in Juno 
1865, Grant did duty at Chatham, Dover, 
and Portsmouth, and was promoted first 
captain on 10 July 1867 and major on 
5 July 1872, From 1 Jan, 1871 to 
1877 ho was deputy assistant adjutant- 
general for royal engineers at the war 
office, and from 1877 was in command of the 
royal engineers troops, consisting of the 
pontoon, telegraph, equipment and depot 
units at Aldershot. He was promoted 
lieut. -colonel on 1 July 1878, In May 
1880 he was appointed commanding royal 
engineer of the Plymouth subdistrict, and 
on 31 Dec. 1881 commanding royal engineer 
of the Woolwich district. Ho was promoted 
colonel in the army on 1 July 1882, and 
a year later was placed on half pay. Ho 
remained unemployed until 5 May 1884, 
when he was given the R.E. command in 
Scotland, with" the rank of colonel on tkf 
staff. 

On 20 March 1885 ho left Edinburgh 
suddenly for Egypt to join Lord Wplseley, 
who had telegraphed for his services, as 
colonel on the staff and commanding 
royal engineer with the Nile expeditionary 
force. He served with the headquarters staff 
and afterwards in command of the Abu 
Fatmeh district during the evacuation, 
but he was taken seriously ill with fever 
and was invalided home in August, For 
his services lie was mentioned in despatches 
of 1& June 1885 (Lond Gazette, 25 Aug. 
1885). Not anticipating so speedy a ter- 
mination to the campaign, the authorities 
had filled up his appointment in Scotland 
and he had to wait nearly a year on half pay, 

On 1 July 1886 Grant was appointed 
deputy adjutant-genera! for royal engineers 
at the war office. On 25 May 1889 he was 
created C.B., military division, and en 
23 Oct. made a temporary major-general 



Before he had quite completed his five 
years as deputy adjutant - general Grant 
was appointed to the important post of 
inspector-general of fortifications (18 April 
1891), with the temporary rank of lieut. - 
general, dated 29 April 1891. He succeeded 
to the establishment of major-generals on 
9 May 1891, and became lieut. -general 
on 4 June 1897. As inspector-general of 
fortifications Grant was an ex-officio 
member of the joint naval and military 
committee on defence, and president of the 
colonial defence committee , During his term 
of office important works of defence and 
of barrack construction were carried out, 
under the loan for defences and military 
works loan. His services were so highly 
valued that they were retained for two 
years beyond the usual term. He was 
promoted K.C.B. on 20 May 1896. On 
leaving the war office (17 April 1898) 
Grant's work was highly commended by 
the secretaries of state for war and the 
colonies, and he was awarded a distinguished 
service pension of 100?. a year. He was 
given the G.C.B. on 26 June 1902, and 
retired from the service on 28 March 1903. 
His health was failing, and he died on 
8 Jan. 1904 at his residence, 14 Granville 
Place, Portman Square, London, and was 
buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

Always cool and self-contained, Grant was 
gifted with a sure judgment and a retentive 
memory. A portrait in oils by G. Lutyens, 
painted in 1897, hangs in the B.E. officers' 
moss at Aldershot, and a replica is in Lady 
Grant's possession. She has also a portrait in 
oik of Sir Robert Grant by Henty, painted in 
1887. He married in London, on 24 Nov. 
1875, Victoria Alexandria, daughter of John 
Gotes of Woodcote Hall, Shropshire, and 
widow of T. Owen of Condover Hall in the 
same county. There were three children of 
the marriage, a daughter who died young, 
and twin sons, both in the army, of whom 
the younger, Robert JosceKrio, was killed at 
Spion Kop on 24 Jan. 1900, 

STB CHAELBS GEAKT (1836*1905), elder 
brother of Sir Robert Grant, was born in 
1836, and educated at Harrow, Trinity Col- 
lego, Cambridge, and at Hailoybury. He 
entered the Bengal civil service in 1858, was 
appointed a commissioner of the central 
provinces in 1870, and acting chiei com- 
missioner in 1879, when he became an 
additional member of the governor- 
general's council In 1880 he was acting 
secretary to the government of India for 
the home, revenue, and agricultural depart- 
ments, and in 1881 was appointed foreign 
secretary to the government of India* He 



rant 



Grant 



was created O.SJ. in 1881, and in 1885 ol diHtinctioii in thHr own kngmipp, \vm 
K.C.S.L on rfltimmcmt. Ho dwd Biuldonly Hingukrly wic!*< nwi .mmmk, mid inn ttwt- 



in London on 1.0 April 1903. Hn married ; i . nu*nt of it- adwly fw*. fmm politic 
(1) in 1872 Elton {tL 1885), daughter of ! nm-bity, Thiw Mjtiwhi'H, which W< 




wan miml to tho rank ; iind,T'Mwfrv t*f Nfntu for tndm* and 
of an wri'M daughter in IHlfll Hir Chnrlw ; R'f nint'tl th* nj|i*r unt.il f hi* iniinnfry finally 
Ciranlr rdiii'd 'the * Central ProviwwH ; iv^wd in '1 87*1. In 1 hat yi-ar ho paid a 
' (2nd edit, 187(0* ^ nsi ' v ^' t( *** ^dia, In 1HKO ho joined 

fWar (>ffl<*. HwnntH! Itnywl 'KtiKiw'^ :''"* HH-nml <ilmlHliiK minihtry _ iw 
;'TIinTiw<*,i:rA|iftihK)BniH>ftiKii*w^ for Uio mintm-H. IH-IUW; 
10 Jan. 11KJ4-; JUtyal KnginiwrH .Joitraiilrt, ! fi momto'r of tin* privy mutttnl tm H A 
I'Vhnmry 11)04, ] "" Tt 11. V, i It * p.rMl..tl..tlt _i.imt n^itli^r t 

; nor fho indnntnl p*4i*\y of ih** 

GRANT I)tI^TSniMOUNTSTiJAUTUlHritt|jt flu* i-M, Uv**Ivo it.thH wiw Miip. 
KLH!'1N8TOKK (l82lJ-..HHm), nUtmimn ! J.HH^! by Onnit Uwff with nnri^'rvwl 

'IKK1 hi*. 
Vr nf tln> 

t4l 



and anilior, i'Idt v r wm tf lnm<*8 Grant 

[q v.] by hi wif ilnn** CJaihwints datigiitt'r ' j^*f*}ifAHl withoni 
of Hir \Vh.iU*law Ainnlit* f>|. v.'j* waw Itoni at : ^iv*rmr*n4'ii|'t of 
Erbri, A^trtkniii.rs on 121 FuK 18UO. HM : au ^tul hm iw 
WHB i'itiujattuj Ht Kdinljnrgh Ariuit-iny, iho : : np.it'H**nlnf.iMn *>f hm 



yoar^ 



in ih 



i),v.for<l 

iH-trary 
lf*.'r 



bin rt 

at Oxford wort* If<*nry Htuifh, [ wiw\ if r*r 

, l*<*If.Uvin ; f 



t* 



WUH 



htm 



a 

and 



lf(* Kmihmt<*ti IIA, in IKfU'l with itihatittMirniiv*. 1 *iutii'* find tin* tuitiu^*H in 
itt Uw ilnal ' diwmtml Ncthi.toL j witl^h front t-wn* lo liuio Ji* ri>rnl<H.l and 
tA. in 18IK1 On Iwving J mimnttniUHi on t!w t^ourHM 4 jmhlin iiffiym 
Mottlcni in London and rtmd .fr.tr i -wt*r*< tutuM* alikt* i.*f *tHitlwil.y *ind of wiylt*. 

bar, and in liM t,HmKl with, homntrw. Hit* imm ftltt).li^|*j, v, ). * 

*rw*yilK j lndia l rf^nnitnl*'r!ni.Hjn 

Mr, tltiHtioo} Su^;junj, who' Juti*r iM'wtmo j ho wr**f4% * f l*til. \v 
<HI of hm itioMt int.iinaf.ti Mi'iitiH f<r lifts | ^t..*vt,rn**r Jit h.^ff, hohinri MO ithlo itiul 
in i\m Ll'^fl irxutninution of l^>ndaii Uni j nji*t4* n n^iml, 1 nmni 'IMi i^ft .Madnm in 
rNif,y, in tha miino y*rtr {17 Nov.) hn KovimiiKT 1HHO, untl itfl^r nm.-kmg HotttOHttiy 

^'^tl in t:h Mprtrtg of 
*tn invwt4*fiittWimlHr 



wfiH calif d to th*t bar by tho !nn*r iit Hyria rtUt'tritml to K 
Titnpla, nnd. whilt* a [tiipi! in th* nhHiiif^rH j "IHH7. In Murrh ho w 
of William V^ut.riH (uftwvmrdH l^irtl) Fi^Itl with thoU,C*.H,i Hi* 



Uml) 

\i\*v 8u|.pli /ilj joimnl llm Mitlluttd rin^nl, 
nnd obtaifiml hin firnt hriuf IHWIIUH** ho wan 
thi> only Damon pn*nt<t who 



hml 



0*1*1 



>* 



On ^* 
nmdo n* lltrt. 



n 



Omiit Bull 
t'rtl Iif 



itiim in Kin abwuw, ml lu* hiwl 



nor any 



* Ha 

iwtoif* ttr the ( Baturdft.y Rtiviw,* itntl 
liH'ituml.at the- Working- Man'i* OoHa||t% of 
which Frodcrlok I^nkm Mnurl wo**' Hint ijjh for viuiotit fHHifinit, A. wiiiowr, . 

, i . ( ,., f , .., itntl ft ttiHii of 

In Uooomixir -1867 "Qront .Buff WUH I atmoiit dainty rviimmifmt ii*th [*hyi*tolly 
returned -a -tho liboral membor for iho mid momHy t h tit)Vi.tUi iiiinwlf * * 

furwAtti -t< 



thu ttHiuiwt4> tihyrii^l 

itiitnh for vbl^ttt wnflwl, A 



in Bur^rw, and hold thk at with* 
out intcirmteftion tintil lia -wail n|j|K>!tiltd 
f M'atlmi in 1881. In I860 and 



to nutburHbi|- ftnd u^ tlio 



. 

in.oaoh HU Sequent year ho .tu'UlitHimxl to 



hif$ 



an 



if mulrtl' 



on' foreigit' policy, and- ho oamo tcj 

'on thin topio with rooognbiod authority 



His knowWgo of tin* nubjcwt, lamlv derlv<nl 



.intimate oonvomatum witli reignera 



'of titt notiml 
wan probably 



trt whitih 
m 



rirtnurkfihlt) .&M tlutt of any 0110. of hin 
m'iitom|'H>mHifi> lit* wi*n In the* habit of 
cir CM>mwot jclitig \v ith iilm* H t o vury 



of any eminonoo m mmiiil Ufa in Mtf 



aiul with many similar 
He wa-a mcimbar of 



abroiuL 



-ovary 



Grant Duff 



15* 



Grantham 



social club of the highest class. In February 
1858, the month that he first took his 
seat in parliament, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the ' Cosmopolitan ' and of the 
Athenceum. In 1889 he joined ' The Club, 5 
and for some years before his death was 
its treasurer * the only permanent official, 
and the guardian of its records.' He also 
belonged to the Literary Society (from 1872) 
and Grillion's (from 1889), and was in 1866 
the founder of the Breakfast Club, and the 
most assiduous attendant at its meetings. 

Grant Duff published numerous articles, 
essays, and memoirs, a volume of original 
verse (printed privately), and an anthology of 
the Victorian poets. All of them show learn- 
ing, cultivation, and style; but the prin- 
cipal literary work he left behind him is his 
c Notes from a Diary.' He began a diary in 
1851, and from 1873 kept it with the inten- 
tion that the bulk of it should be published. 
He published the first two vohimes 
(1851-72) in 1897; further sots of two 
volumes each followed in 1898, 1899, 1900, 
1901, 1904, and 1905. The fourteen volumes 
bring the record down to 23 Jan, 1901, when 
Grant Buff kissed hands as a privy coun- 
cillor on the accession of King Edward VII. 
He declares in his preface to the first 
two volumes that his object has been to 
make it ' the lightest of light reading,' and 
the most * good-natured. ' of books. Tho 
4 Notes ' contain practically no politics, but 
arc a purely personal record of the people ho 
met, and the things they said. The remit 
is a collection of excellent stories and 
memorable sayingB, which form a valuable 
contribution to social history. 

Grant Dull travelled much. Ho visited 
at different times Ooburg, Dresden, Russia, 
(Spain, Darmstadt (during the war of 1870), 
Athene, the Troad, India (seven years 
before Ids appointment to Madras), Syria 
(where ho spent a winter at Haifa in a house 
lent to him by Laurence Oli pliant), and 
Bucharest. In all these places he fre- 
quented the society of rulers, ambassadors, 
authors, and other remarkable people). 
Ho received from M. Ollivier a full 
and confidential account of the political 
vents immediately preceding tho Franco- 
Prussian war. He met Garibaldi in tho 
height of his fame, and was for many 
years on terms of friendship with the 
Empress Frederick of Germany, From 
1866 to 1872 he filled for two consecutive 
terms the office of lord rector of Aberdeen 
University. From 1889 to 1893 he was 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
and from 1892 to 1899 was president of 
the Royal Historical Society. H was 



elected F.R.S. in 1901, and was nominated 
a Grown trustee of the British Museum in 
1903. 

In person Grant Duff was slight, delicately 
made, and habitually gentle in speech and 
manner, though he would upon occasion 
express himself with great animation. He 
suffered through life from indifferent health, 
and in particular from astigmatic vision, 
to such an extent that it was extremely 
difficult for him to read or write for 
himself. 

He was the tenant for considerable 
periods of Hampden House, Berkshire, York 
House, Twickenham, and Knebworth House. 
Finally he bought Lexden Park, near 
Colchester, and in each of these houses 
he practised a wide hospitality. He died 
at his London house on Chelsea Embank- 
ment on 12 Jan. 1906, and was buried at 
Elgin cathedral. 

Grant Duff married on 13 April 1859 
Anna Julia, only daughter of Edward 
Webster of North Lodge, Ealing. By 
her he had four sons and foxir daughters. 
His elder sons, Arthur and Evelyn, are 
respectively minister at Dresden and 
consul-general, with the rank of minister, 
at Buda-Pest Grant Duffs portrait in 
crayons by Henry T. Wells, drawn for 
reproduction for Grillion's Club, is in tho 
possession of Lady Grant Duff at Earl 
Sob am Grange, Framlingham. 

Grant Duff published, besides * Notes 
from a Diary ' ; 1. c Studios of European 
Politics,' 1866. % A Political Survey,' 
1868. 3, ' Elgin Speeches,' Edinburgh,, 
1871. 4. * Notes on. an Indian Journey,' 
1876. 6. * Miscellanies, Political and 
Literary,' 1878. 6. ' Memoir of Sir Henry 
Maine,' 1892. 7. 'Ernest Ben an, 7 1893-8. 

8. 'Memoir of Lord De Tabley/ 1890. 

9. ' A Victorian Anthology,' 1902. 10 e Out 
of the Past: some Biographical Essays,' 
2 vols. 1903. 11, * Gems' from a Victorian 
Anthology,' 1904, 

[Notes from a 'Diary; BanfMriro Herald, 
16 Jan, 1900 ; Tho Timon, 1 Jan. 1906 ; 
Burke' Lain loci Gentry ; private information ; 
personal knowledge.] II. S. 

GR ANTE AM, SIR WILLIAM (1835- 
1911), judg;e, bornatLowoB on 23 Got 1835, 
was Bocond son of George Grantham of 
Barcombo Place, Susflex, by MB wife Sarah, 
daughter of William Verrali of Southerner 
Manor, Lewes. He was educated at King's 
College School, London, and was entered 
a student of tho Inner Temple on 30 April 
1860. A pupil in tho chambers of James 
(afterwards Lord) Hannen [q, Y. Suppl. I], 



Grant ham 



ho obtained in January 1853 the 
given by UK* ctoundl of I*gal i'dikm 
and was called to the bar on tlw 2(Hli of 
tlio name month. OhooHinK tlw nrwth- 
dreuit, a good local amwHtfion in 
idtHl him at th start, und hw 
mamipr, cmmhmwl with aoumgi<* 
port madly, nnd #mit iwiHfry oon 
Bttcuwrl him a wtrudy prnd k*. 1C** ohf tutirrl 
tins jvjwJatiott of* hnii)4 *a v*<ry uwful 
junior in an atst.ion on a iHdltirrVnm>wit> 
in a rmmm^'dowii WHO, in a *'rw|witKii 
oa,Mi\ and rM|wwlIy in diHfmU'H in which a 
combined knovvh'dgo of law nrl howilwh 
WIH diwir ahln. 1 Ho taok nitk <m IB !*Yb. 
IS77, iiiul WJ*H nuufa A bwwlwr of bin Inn on 
30 April !ft80,m*rviii# t!w* oiliest* of t 
in 1904. 



idftl^ iiii}ioiriltiirnl, and (lifn* wTf funny 
flii'tin HIWIH iiii-n nt*i.'v 



. In * 

nniun of Sir John fJoixt, 
'inl, wan |*nnl<d n 
.wl of thHl of (*mMlhmii. 
On tho tit.Mit'h In* ^hnwHl hiwwif ind^, 
flH ml jmliiMfftliirig, uml hr* .H*VIT 

jr I'lwir hin iinl ' on Hrcijif, || ( . 
Hhrrwjf in hi* juii^utrnr of t'hur.ttti\ 

vurit.'tl n^.r*nii!nl nf ^<,'ii'rnl luiow* 

IUH! hii* 



It** hn<l a t?oitfj*'ii'tif 



o 



( 



H. nti jiin*M, 
* of hnv fo 
/W..M nut! 



mint! 



ill** 

8. Hnl- ho 
tt* 



of WOTHI-* of 

ifil I lit* hr 



*-.f 



AH a liwltr Oantimm a 

_ on drtmit. hut in London I for iry,., rs ,. ,., .-.. , .,.,..., 

A Failed to ma-lcu any wiUMjiiwuwM mark. 1 hi* wan u very MiiMtfMwi !> 

'IH; IL ^oftHfrvativf* of thr ittont ortho ittn-hiltty to rH'miu frf*i JH 
dox Hohool, giflfi! with an <^t*t^f!t'ijt filnf hi 1 * 'nhiff-r dirtn ' Imui^hf . lunt 
form tititinn^r and roiwifltM-ahJ** rht'toHfa! ! af *!. fiiHt or uiioihrr ttii'li 



*o. 
of 



h 



la t!* <!onv*.'i'Mior* in lory 

tlto working- in of f.>nd* 

mimiit'H, Ai thr j*UM'ral 

SVbnwry IH74 ho wnn iT'tt 

witli *Iaiu<*H Wati?y for E 

it I&rgo majority, whfch li 

inortuiiMxi in April 18HO, 'Aftvr ll 

tribution of mmte' In 1SS5 

to ecmtcwt thp Iiorongh tf 'Cwiycii, cnrv 

out of HiH old aottxtiUuitwy, ari 

thft KtAt wan rt^awlcHi hy thn Inwl 

yativcH IIN a forlorn !IO|M\ hti < 

hiH Hlwm! tipponout, Mr, i)ftj litdfour, 

by Mvr 10110 voU% Thi-n* WHH no iuni 

n<Kn>mpIiHht?<.l or MiHHHwifu! .t!ru?tioH'r in 

tho Mowth of Kt^taiul* unit bin wrvwuv* 

w*wi witloly' tn m|Htwt HH a oialform 

njKinkor, By thu dmth of hin rf(itr briitiit^r 

uourgo in- 18BO -Ito hud ixwMmu watirti r*f 



Hi Olif* filMO ot 

of t:hf< 
of i fhuiriiti'ti of 

thi* fiar, llit* "tlMrhmn 

a . , ( 

a^J't ^ ^' ' 4 * 

ot { jnM^**fi liirt JUVP of lit. 
or j dwivti to th* tii^ttity *4 thh I 
M IJti 1 rloM*.* oi iiin nn."i'r h** 



riof 



.* oi 
fh** 
f.Ki 

of 



on 



to try 



^. ul jutig 



unlit, HIM 



him 



ut 



at 



mbo and lottl of thn mtinor of 
Oamoia Court, a-|XNiitbm witloli tiiiv^ him 

' *J 1 4 A ! j. m, I ., MU *.-. I ,....-. I.. . i . 



yW' J * IT "- : mw W ,* W i _y l" k * ** f * 

Ko booamo deputy -chairman' and' "nvmi- 

fctially chairman- of tho Ewt Bui qoartor 

' ' 



In parUamcnt . he 'wan a ' fairly 

frequent sieakor* with a apodal mliilon to 



>. ^. ' " ..... "" ..-'.- -w'^%*if *#ft*JV,*HM| 

the militant 'npirlta on t&o -oomervative 
benehoH. In' January 1880 r before ha luul 
ttie importunity of taking MM aeat cm to n. 
eleotton for Oroydon, he wan made a Judite 
of the- Quoen'R Bench DiTWon/in 



to Bk Honry Lopen [q. v, SuppL I], 



, 
bOgbted. II was Lord HaMbury'i flwt 



at Uwtt YttrmotMh, nil of \vhl<'h 

itoftmTvati VM IJ|<MIH fo tin* 
miurh tUKMiUtiifnrf jr*u, Hi* H Jul 



into tlw 



of tlm 



lit YntYtttMitli W 

of (JmitmottM hy Mr, Hwifi 
fc M,I*. for 



to tiot 



lh wtlgitm ii*tijily but 

to ravivti this 



At ti 
ir Himry C^ 

tho !u*w <l<H*Uiuii * to 
in n wmm< whif?h mt 

titan thi 
th 



of liit* cJ**f*iti% 

inter (7 Iw*. 11)11), l*y an in 
^h to thognuid jury 'at J*ivwr* 
pact!, which brought- ui'Min Ititti in the* UOIIMO 



of Gutninonfi fn*m Mr, AMijuith, Uu* iid 

' 



neveitwt rebwto which 'ban 



Gray 



Green 



ever been dealt to an English judge by 
a minister of the crown. Yet Grantham 
was perfectly sincere in Ms belief that in the 
discharge of his office he was uninfluenced by 
political partiality, nor was Mr. Arthur Bal- 
f our exceeding tho truth when ho declared in 
the course of the 1906 debate that e a more 
transparently natural candid man than Mr. 
Justice Grantham never exercised judicial 
functions,' 

A fine model of the English country 
gentleman j a liberal landlord, always ready to 
champion the cause of his poorer neighbours 
against local boards and the red tape of 
oiEeialdom^Grantham waa devoted to all 
out-of-door sports ; he was a notable critic 
of horseflesh, was ono of tho founders 
of the Pegasus Club, and used to act as 
judge at the bar point to point races. 
An enthusiastic volunteer, he would some- 
times appear at the * Inns of Court ' dinners 
in tho scarlet coat, which had descended 
to him from an ancestor, of the old Blooms- 
bury Association or ' Devil's Own.' In 
the long vacation of 1010 he paid a visit 
to Canada, and won all hearts by his 
picturesque personality and outspoken 
opinions, Though lie had sat 'on the bench 
for upwards of a quarter of a century, and 
had been for some years the senior puisne, 
his physical powers showed no sign of 
decay when he succumbed to a sharp 
attack of pneumonia, dying at his house 
in Eaton Hquaro on 30 Nov. 191 L He was, 
buried at Bareombo, 

He married on lf> Feb. 1805 Emma, 
eldest daughter of Biohard Wilson of 'Chid- 
dingley, Sussex, who survived him ; there 
was issue of the marriage two sons and five 
daughters. A portrait of Grantham by A. 
Btuart-Wortley is at Barcombe ; an earlier 
oil painting by Bernard Lucas is in the 
possession of his younger son, Mr, F. W* 
Grantham. 

[Tho Titnofl, 1 Dec, 1911 ; Burke* s Landed 
Gentry ; Boater" s Men at tho liar ; Hansard, 
4th series, clx, 370, 5th series, xxii. 360; 
personal knowledge.] L B, A. 

GRAY, BENJAMIN KIRKMAN (1862- 
1907), economist, BQIX of Benjamin Gray, 
congregational minister, by his wife 'Emma 
Jane Kirkman, was born on 11 Aug. 1862 
at Blandford, Dorset* He was educated 
privately by his father, and road omni- 
vorously on his own account In 1876 
he entered a London warehouse, but found 
the work distasteful. His father vetoed, 
in 1882, a plan which h had formed of 
emigrating, and from 1883 to 1886 he 
taught in private schools, at the same time 



eagerly pursuing his own studies. Of sensi- 
tive and self-centred temperament, he 
interested himself early in social questions. 

In September 1886 Gray entered New 
College, London, to prepare for the congre- 
gational ministry. He paid much attention 
to economics and won the Eicardo economic 
scholarship at University College. In 1892 
he went to Leeds to work under the Bev, 
E. Westrppe at Belgraye (congregational) 
Chapel. But congregational orthodoxy dis- 
satisfied him, and in 1894 he joined the 
Unitarians. He served as Unitarian minis- 
ter at Warwick from that year till 1897* 
From 1898 to 1902 ho was in London, 
engaged in social work at the Bell Street 
Miasion, Edgwaro Road, and studying at first 
hand the economic problem of philanthropy, 
His views took a strong socialistic bent, 
and he joined the Independent Labour 
Party, But a breakdown in health soon 
compelled his retirement from active work. 
Removing to Hampstead he devoted him- 
self to research into the history of philan- 
thropic movements in England. In 1905 
he lectured at the London School of Econo- 
mics on the philanthropy of the eighteenth 
century. He died of angina pectoris on 
23 June 1907, at Letchworth, whither he 
had been drawn by his interest in the 
social experiment of the newly established 
Garden City. His ashes were buried there 
after cremation. In 1898 Gray married 
Miss Eleanor Stone, who edited his literary 
remains. 

e The History of English Philanthropy 
from the Dissolution of the Monasteries to 
the First Census ' (1905) and c Philanthropy 
and tho State ' (published posthumously, 
1910) arc substantial embodiments of much 
original research and thought. Gray traces 
through the social history of tho nineteenth 
century a uniform tendency, whereby the 
effort of tho individual is replaced by 
that of tho State. In spite of his strong 
socialist convictions ho writes with scholarly 
restraint and fairness, and throws light on 
tangled conditions of contemporary lifo. 

[A Modern Humanist : miscellaneous papers 
by B. Karkman Gray, with a memoir by H. B. 
Binns and Clementina Black, 1010.] 

a s. w, 

GEEEN, SAMUEL GOSNBLL (1822- 
1905), baptist minister, and bibliophile, born 
at Falmouth on 20 Doc, 1822, was eldest son 
of the family of five mm and four daughters 
of Samuel Green, baptist minister, of Fal- 
mouth and afterwards of Thrapston andLon- 
don, by his wife Eliza, daughter of Benjamin 
Lepard, of cultured- Huguenot descent, 
From 1824 to 1834 Green was with his 



Green 



family at Thtapnton; and when they 
moved to Wai worth in 18IJ4 ho wan Bent 
to a private school at CamberwelU whoro 
hi literary tastas woro cmcouragwl. After 
leaving school, and until tho ago of nineteen, 
he worked in tlio printing-oife < li>hn 
Haddon in Finsbury, and then acted an 
tutor in private whools at (lambddge 
and HafTron \Valden. 

In 1840 ho entered Stepney (Jo 
(now Rf'&en t'n Park College) to pn< 
for the baptist, minwtry, "and ^nulu 
B,A* in the Umverwty of l/m<lun in 
Alter ministerial jHWtH at High Wyeombti 
in 1844 and at Taunton in 1H47, he bewune, 
in 1851, cUutiical am! mathematical tutor 
at Horton (now Rawdon) CMlego, Brad* 
ford, and ww from 18CKJ to 1H70 president 
there. Ho imp5HHml hin HtudentH I.JH a 
Hcholar ot : broad Hympaihu^ a^nd a Ht"* 
lating teacher (iWs 1 . MttPt/BV in 6'<rrt/<f 
of IfawlQto Callcfftt 1004 ; IiKV *f/ 
HTtTAitT in Watford Obmwr, Hept. HM.K _ 

AH a prfMU^iier (n*en proved a upeeii 
fa-vounto wiili ehilrlnni. Long eonnecile 
with tho Sunday ftehoo! ffnton, whew 
Hiiarwlet! hl father *IH editor of tiie ntonf lily 
4 Note* on b*HMonM/ hn wast i^eeted in I HIM 
a vi<H^pn*Mjdeiit of tho union, Ilk uddrwMfH 
and Icjcturi'M to ehiltlren <ni the Bible and 
hi** contributiottH to tlni * Union M^a/int* * 
were aftowardn sepamtely pti(4iHhixl mtder 
varloun titl<m. He aim) wroto for ohildn-n 
* Tho Writttm Worf ' (ISmo, W7I), a book 
of morft; 4 11w AnoHtlfl I'iN't^r 1 (1 873; **rti 
edit, 18HIJ), and ' Tho Kin;dmiM of turn**! 
awl ,'Judah* ( vk 187^?). AH the fiwt 
Ridley lecturer at Regent^ l*ark Uollege in 
1SB3/ (keen tleliv!r(*fl the nulmtamte of hi 
e?c<H*llent/(5!in8!i!Ui MiniHtry to the Y 
In 1870 (keen muno t-o bindon to 
editor, and in IHH1 an nlittmttl neei 



4 Cireen 

that tiaoful work up to riate, In a 

edition of the WnjLslinh IMbie (lB77),dewgned 

by Joseph (Hurnc*y { 1 80-1 1 87U) |.q. v.J, ( Jreen, 

with T')r. (k*)rgo Andrew Ja*M.)b, hwwiinaHtcr 

of CJhrwt'H H'tiHpital (1H;>:i OH), w*w renpon^ 

ibl for UitH New TeHtament. For th 

tleli^ioitH TrLK't Society^ wrlm of * Pen and 

IVneil iSketohea ^ be \vtote wholly or in 

! part * IMe.tnreM from Knglnnd* (1870 and 

| IKK!)), * Knmtu*' (1H7H), * Hibln Lamfa ' 

! ( JH7ti), 4 Germany * ( 1 8W>), * Stuitland * ( 18H3 ; 

! new edit, tKK),'d 'lliily' (18H5) 



Union at l"nrt,Hm*nrfh in 181)5, and ticUvi.'r<H. 

iw*i miiiroHHfH, whioh wor 
il-n mid a |a|wr 



H (IH01 iHHH||q, v/j 
print ni f**r privat*^ ci 
itMinth(il*i^y. MJvnuw of 
(Jhtimh Utiivormr (lHte), nnd wan tt 
inan of tho iM'iiioriui ciMuinii^^ of 
1 .Hafttirtt liytwnat/ 

An rt|*pm?iiMivr and widely read eriti*? 
of wtmiar literal-Mn.** l*o wiw thn 
ttf *Iuhu Hyiand^*M uidmv, r*f Slri'llo 
'lirHt't'r, in viirioii^ literary iu*d 
l Hthi>*itM.< fnim thn ii> of her him- 
V di*itti in 1KHM, He nud JH third mm. 
Arndd (.!rre itw*iHt*M.l 'Mtu Hylfuuin in 



forth. hk main norgir wttni <t*vtt<.4 to 
literary work* in which townrriij tbo *nt! of 
hi long life ht wa iydi*<i by bin cld<.?r on 
l*rof, 8. W .<;jtr<M*n, llli nnwt iin-p<.rt-int 
work ww hJH *Handi>nok.to this ilrammar 
of the (Iraok Ttwtammt, 1 publbihod In 1870 
(revfaotl edition* in 1880 V Ig85, 1802,. and 
1004), wlitoh ww followed In 1804 by a 
primer which had ate) a wUto circulation, 
A oompanion volumes m tho H^brww ! tho 
Old Tcjsttwntmt apipaiml In liH)l- In 
180B ho ijuWwhcni hirt Angtw laotura on 
*Th(i Chrwtiivn Cnxnl and' tho Ormid of 
Ohwtmtlotn * ; in 1IK)3 *A Httndkmk of 
OhuwiU HiHtury, 1 a oompiutt and acnnpw- 
hfnive manual; in 1904ft iw&wl (Klitbn 
of Dr. 'Angun'B Miihl Httntii>ok ' (i>ow 
and poithuirtoui oclitiun HW) f Imwgiug 



. n 

.In fiHNI irio*j rewivwl the honorary 
degree of iMX I'roiii the t'lniver<iiy of 8t. 
wri, UeiainwtJ hi** vitality t^i lite 
> he died itt Stniilliiuii ott l/*JSept, liM)5 f 
\vax htjrii5.i in Nonv-omf eeiii*.*(er- lie 

in <.i*?.*ihi'r iH^irt, at- 
IterkHhire , I'iiimNM h i.em1ej% t .*ldwl 
of Jtttt-* ti.l!iir ; nhedtH'l on &*$ 
having iwun* ihreii HOIW and ne 
11 JH t-hinl **., >, Arirolit iireen, bur 
2.1 An. IH*W, rliiH.1 ou ft* H**j>t, JW)7. . 

A jmwwtiiti*w j-f trait, in oil** t>y H. A* 
Olivier, HtilMirltte*.! for in J1W by HtmlmitM 
of Hiuvdtm >'M'1 t*lh*.*r fririidn, wiw Ipusdml 
liy CJnH** liHIie eolSr^e, at, I!M. tutnuat meeting 
in tfiine I.Ut.15, 

(he work* mention^.! inui othe 



s !, * ttelinlotw Himlratttuw 
I,' 1H4A." *2. f Tin* Work 

fjf - 4"4"i V J 56 * 

lreji.t jirUlutti their 

Condition* &ti M * IHfill,' IK *<'?Jerii 
and Natkmat Momtity * . 

IHati. 4, 'VVJiat d I 



!, 5, * The l^MiUftiH of David awl 

Km,' IHIItl, , *Tlu* HUiry ( the 

Religit.ni** 'JVaot 8oekty/ 



Greenaway 



155 



Greenaway 



[Memoir by Ro v. James Stuart in tho Watford 
Observer, Sept. 1905, reprinted and extended 
in tho Baptist Handbook, 1900 ; Christian 
World, 21 Sept, 1905 ; Athonooum, 23 Sept. 
1905, p. 403 ; personal information kindly 
supplied by Professor S. W. Green,] C. W. 

GREENAWAY, CATHERINE or 
KATE (1846-1901), artist, was bom at 
Cavendish Street, Hoxton, on 17 March 1846, 
being tho second daughter of John Greena- 
way, a draughtsman and engraver on wood, 
long connected with the earlier days of the 
* Illustrated London News' and Punch.' 
Her mother's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Jones, Early residence at a farmhouse at 
Eolloston, a Nottinghamshire village, served 
to nourish and confirm her inborn love of 
art ; and she early developed that taste 
for childhood and cherry blossoms which 
became, as it were, her fitting pictorial 
environment. As a girl she studied draw- 
ing in various places, eventually joining 
the art school at South Kensington, where 
the headmaster, Richard Burchett [q. v-], 
thought highly of her abilities- One of 
her contemporaries was Elizabeth. Thomp- 
son (afterwards Lady Butler) ; another 
was Helen Paterson, afterwards Mrs. 
William Allingham, She later * took the 
life 5 at ! Heatnerley's, and studied under 
Alphonse Legros [q. v, SuppL II] in the Slade 
School at University College. In 1868, being 
then twenty-two, she exhibited at the Old 
'.Dudley Gallery a water-colour drawing 
entitled * Kilmony.' This was followed 
by other works, e.g. the * Spring Idyll ' 
(* Apple Blossom)' of 1870, in wlxieh year she 
also sent to Suffolk Street for tho first time 
' A Peeper * (children playing), which fore- 
shadowed her later HueceHscs in the domain 
of little people. In 1877 she sent to tho 
Royal Academy (and sold for twenty 
guineas) her first contribution, 'Musing 3 ; 
and in 1889 she was elected a lady member 
of the Institute of Painters in Water 
Colours, to which she frequently contri- 
buted portraits, studios, ancl designs. But 
long ere this date she had achieved a wide 
and well-earned reputation as an inimitable 
exponent of child-life, and an inventor of 
children's books of a Bpocilie and very 
original kind. Her country experiences 
had stored her imagination with quaint 
costumes and unhackneyed accessories, and 
her quiet habit of mind and fondness for the 
subject enabled her to create a particularly 
engaging gallery of small folk. She was alwo 
fortunate enough to find in William John 
Loftio [q. v. Suppl, II] and Henry Stacy 
Marks, R,A [q,Y, Suppl, I], Mends judicious 
enough to porauade her to cultivate her own 



bent of invention. After preluding for 
Messrs. Marcus Ward of Belfast and for 
others in valentines and Christmas cards, 
and drawing for minor magazines, she made 
a first success in 1879 with 'Under the 
Window/ the precursor of a long line of 
popular works, which brought her both 
fame and money, and a list of which is 
given hereafter. She was occasionally 
tempted from her predestined walk by 
demands for book illustrations (e.g. Bret 
Harte's * Queen of the Pirate Isle '), or by 
efforts on a larger and more ambitious 
scale ; but in the main she went her own 
way, and confined herself generally to the 
field in which, though she had many 
imitators, she had no formidable rivals, 
Now and then, as in e Under the Window ' 
and 'Marigold Garden,' she was her own 
rhymer ; but although she possessed a 
true poetic impulse, her executive power 
was hardly on a level with it. As an artist 
she had, however, not only popularity but 
many genuine admirers, who fully appre- 
ciated the individuality of her charm, 
Ruskin, of whom she was long a favoured 
correspondent, wrote enthusiastically of 
her work in * Prsaterita .' and elsewhere; 
and both in Germany and France she was 
highly estimated. Three exhibitions of her 
works took place at the Mne Arts Society 
during her lifetime, namely, in 1880, 1891, 
and 1898 ; and those wore followed in 
January 1902 by a fourth after her death. 
She died in her fifty-fifth year, on 6 Nov. 
1901, at No. 31) Frognal, Jlampstead, the 
house which had boon built lor her by 
Mr. Norman Shaw, and where she resided 
with her parents. She was cremated at 
Woking, and her remains were interred at 
Hampfltead cemetery. 

Much of Miss Greenaway'a preliminary 
work was done for tho old * People's 
MagasdnV * Little Folks,' ( GaRselFa Maga- 
laino,' and the pictorial issues of [Messrs. 
Marcus Ward and Co, She illuwtratod 
nine of Madame IVAulnoy's 'Fairy Tales ' 
(1871); Miss Kathleen Knox's 'Fairy 
Gifts' (1874); tho 'Quiver of Love' 
(with Walter Crane), a collection of valen- 
tines (1876); Mrs. Bonavia Hunt's 
1 Poor Nolly' (1878) j tho * Topo ' of Lady 
Colin Campbell (1878), tether -described. 
as * A Talo about BngliBh Children in 
Italy'; and the * Heir of Reddyffe' 
and Heartsease ' (1879), Of her first 
real success, ' Under the Window, Pictures 
and Rhymes for Children ' (1879), nearly 
70,000 copies were sold in England, in 
addition to 30,000 French and German 
Then came 'Kate Greenaway's 



Green idge 



156 



Green idge 



Birthday Book for Children ' (1880), with 
verses by Mm Sale Barker ; * Mother 
Goose; .or, the Old Nursory Bhymwi * 
(1881) ; *AI)ay in a Child's* Life, 1 with mtiaic 
by Mytos B, Foster, the organist of the 
Foundling Hospital '(1881); and * Llitla 
Ann and other Pooms,' by Jam* and Ann 
Taylor (1883), By the fimt threo and thn 
laHt of thewo (ivo bookn H)W in said to have 
inodo a dtnir proiit of 8CK.H)I. Nivxt camt* 
a * Painting Bonk of .Kate Urmiaway * 
(1884) ; tito'* t^angua^ of Mower* 1 (!HH4) ; 
*Mavor'H En^linh' Billing Book 1 (18S4); 
* Marigold (Janitm ' (1BBA) ; * Kato (iivmi- 
s Alphabet* (imtyt 4 Kate CJrwn- 



away' Almitn* (IH85){ *A Apphs l*w* 
(1886); 4 Tho Qtiwn of thu Pirate !!%' 
by Brat HorUs (188ft): "JPhfl KI Pifwr 
of Hamdin,' by Robert Browning (!88tt) 
Katxs Grtionawa'rt 4 Book of 



(1880); 'The Royal Pmgftw of King 
by Bfltttrico P. Omwwcll (1880) 



and tho * April Baby*H Book of Ttmw,' by 



tho author of * Kiimiwf h and !*.T 
Uartlon* (tho C>onnttMH von Aruhn) 
3 (two innwH to 



pr 



o 



<hi<ml a!i annual * Almanack.' f 
thin wfw <ltH(;ont intK'ti ; but a final number 
api.warcHi in 1HU7. 8h diwig*H 
l>(*atififyl bo4)k*p!at<w, that of 
lxiokor*'Lam(iHon j.q. v, Hupp!. I] 
fair ex&m pin; and' nh aim> IHutrttt<Hl"f<ir 
Etmkto to 1SB .(2nd <Ml!i 181*7) an *1 
b(K>k of nurftory rhymes for which ha Ititii a 



acimiratiorir-'Damo Wigglnw f 
and hw Jffovon Wonderful C^atH.*' 

(Tlio duof authority for Kata ( : lnM>na 
lifti in tho ttxiiatiDtlvo volume pultliHlwul In JIH.J5 
by M. II, Hputlmmm and fl 8, l^yiinl* Thin* 
amply illitHtmted by ripr<.lotio*w of tlmw- 
ingM and wtttcir-<oiourH and tmrtahtnl by 
co'l>iou t^iravtii from thti artittt*i* *.u>rrpHiKni 
with Hunk-lit, in ko wrlttiui with ntutih 

{tormina Mywjjwtljy l*'tr 
^ *imfi' and aohiv}iiHmt*, To 
volu'auit Kata 
lit <,b'bwr of 
.'(BUokV Britlah Artiits), 
8ni01mann pre^xcKl a ilmrt 
abo RuBkin f Few Ckvipm, und J*rwtorltii 



Mm 



fJrconidgo by hm wifo l^lixalwih < 

Kcllman, w<iw born on 22 l')ie 1.BB5 at 



a 



Akxikndr(* L*Art du Eire at da k .Carlcatuw*. 
1803 ; Eooolbotioni of Lady Dcwotby Nevtl!, 
.1906; and the B0 Libria' of th 
writor,- 1$K)8, m 93-104^ The ii 
tlvo aHiolo in iiio Century 'Myibino, vol. 
p IBS, by Mr. Oliver Ijoeto*&mpon &! 
with whom family Mm Qttetuway ww on 
terms of friendhi.p,] . . ' A, D* 



* 



(1805*1606), write on andont- hlitoi 
r t . saoond ion. of Nathaniol Heal 



in tlm 
1880+ 



Farm EHtat<\ Bftrlwulnj*. in 

HIM fathi*r' family luui hnm wttlwl 
l.Blf, Hi fathi'r, for many 
of BrKcjhtI parinln wan afl^rw 
of variotw hol and. 
a ta?.hrr. T 
of St. 
25th 



u.a11w*natical t-ri|HiH of 
diod in 1H5M), 

WJVH <*ilu.t*akni at liarnrnm 

, winning in 1HB4 llw 
and in 



(15 Oat-*) ttiaiiirulfiting lit Balltt 



ict'ti^ If* n,n i^Iiiltition in 
ycnr* ht WHH |.jli'i*d in tin* 
in t'lttwiml mwlvrstfwm in IHH0 
iwd in thi* final t'lrtwira-l H<?hi:il i.u 1HHH, 
^ti B,A. in Iho munf? yi*ar ( mid 
MA in lHi.il nttd iV.hill. in 1WII, 
lit 5 l.)fH% 






h*n* IN.* h<* 
in HIO& ud IN* rrlntnwl 



r n 



tutor 
tiiiti 



Mi* waw alnc* lt*i*t.uriT in 
Briwrtofi' C'itHt 
HJO/i. II M vii^Jil-^d bin 

in 



at 



ni Kf, 



n 



limit 
llr* diml nuddind at 



m<,htt)i 



n 



trf tut aflixiiiwii (if tl ht'iiri tm I ! ftliutih. 11HHI, 
ami WI.UK iHiH^i in ilIyw**1l o 



two Hoftit* On 2H Mim^t HW a vivil lii 
ttHlmt nf ?M* wiw firanUsi i hiN widow 
In mtiMi<lriititm m Im mwvum in tltt* 

of Itetiiin kw and }iintry/ hut 

i* J'uly 11HI7. 
ipitti of hix aarly ' 



ltf !r 



uiomry work ii* 



o<.)htribut(Ml numt*ruuM 
tuw" wiftian of 'HmithV J>ictittry of 
Antquittai ' ilWI ...... 4), .Hii flwt li>ok, * In 



. 
in Kottian Publict tutdl 

wai frttWMmi at Oxford In IH04, 
Thero fuitawad 'A IlantiUmk of 
OotiNU 
Fubllo 



ooduro of Olmuo'i Timn 1 (Oxfordi, IflOljl 



*^ * 



<j .a!no 

:>ry cil 
llrtt part (down'ict 



Greenwood 



157 



Greenwood 



of Justinian) of the 'Student's Gibbon' 
(1899). In 1903, in co-operation with Miss 
A. M. Clay, ho produced ' Sources for 
Roman History, B.C. 133-70' (Oxford) 
designed to prepare the way for a now 

* History of Home.' In 1904 ho contributed 
an historical introduction to the fourth 
edition of Poste's 'Gams.' In the same 
year appeared the first volume of 'A 
History of Rome during the Later Republic 
and Early Principata,' covering the years 
133 to 104 B*O. This work was designed 
to extend to the accession of Vespasian 
and to fill six volumes, but no second 
volume was issued. Much of Greenidge's 
most interesting work is to be found in 
scattered articles, more particularly in 
the * Classical Review,' His merit aa an 
historian lies in his accurate accumulation 
of detail, combined with critical insight 
and power of exposition, which were not 
unmixed with occasional paradox, 

A portrait in oils, subscribed for by the 
boys of the school, hangs in the hall of 
Harrison College, Barbados* 

[Oxford Magazine, vol. xxiv. nos, 18 and 
17 ; Journal of Oomp. Legislation, new series, 
vol vii, pt, i, p. 282 ; private information.] 

R. W L 

GREENWOOD, FREDERICK (1830- 
1909), journalist, born in London on 
25 March 1830, was eldest child in the 
family of eleven children -of James Caor 
Greenwood, a coach-builder in Kensington, 
by his wife Mary Fish. His brother, James 
Greenwood, made a reputation as a volumi- 
nous story writer and journalist, Charles 
Greenwood, (d. 1905), a popular sporting 
writer, boat known as 'Hotspur' of the 

* Daily Telegraph,' was no relation* Fred- 
erick, after being privately educated in 
Kensington, was apprenticed at about the 
ago of fifteen to a firm of publishers and 
printers, but his indentures were volun- 
tarily cancelled by tho head of the firm in 
a year, and ho was engaged as a reader. 
In 1851 Messrs* Clarke, Beaton <fe Co. 
consulted him as to tho fmblieation of tho 
first English reprint of * Undo Tom's 
Cabin* (Stater, 4= Dec. 1901), From tho 
ago of sixteen ho supported himself, and at 
twenty he married (1850), 

Greenwood was soon writing for papers 
and magazines. In 1858 ho contributed a 

* Life of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte ' 
to a general account of *Tho Napoleon 
Dynasty/ described as, written 'by tho 
Berkeley men and another,* It was 
ropublished under his own name with the 
title ' Life of Napoleon III, Emperor of the 
French,' in I860.; in a brief introduction 



Greenwood 'confesses to little knowledge 
of "politics" and leas care,' The book 
shows a real comprehension of politics, 
and gives promise of the writer's mature 
stylo and method, For a time his chief 
ambition was to make a reputation as a 
novelist and story writer. In 1854 ap- 
peared 'The Loves of an Apothecary.' 
Ho 'Tait's Magazine' he contributed a 
story, 'The Path of Roses/ republished with 
numerous illustrations in 1859, A three- 
volume novel, * Under a Cloud,' written in 
collaboration with Ms brother James, 
appeared first in 'The Welcome Guest' 
and then as a separate publication in 1860. 
He was a constant contributor to the 
* Illustrated Times,* a paper started by 
Henry Vizetolly [q. v.] in 1855, just before 
the repeal of the Stamp Act (of. VIZICTJCLLY'S 
Glances Back 1893). 

In September 1861 Greenwood became 
first editor of the * Queen,' at the outset a 
profusely illustrated paper, which gave a 
certain prominence to fashions but was 
largely literary and political In July 
1863 the * Queen ' was combined with 
the 'Lady's Newspaper,' and Greenwood's 
connection with it ceased, Meanwhile 
he had established close relations with 
George Smith, chief proprietor of the pub- 
lishing firm of Smith, Elder & Co. He 
contributed (Feb. 1860) * An Essay without 
an End ' to the second number of tho 
fi Cornhill Magassino,* which Smith in- 
augurated under Thackeray's editorship. 
Greenwood's strongest story, * Margaret 
DenziFs History/ which contains powerful 
drawing of character, appeared in tho 
magazine in 186.% and separately in Novem- 
ber 1864 (2 yols,). When Thackeray re- 
signed the editorship in 1862, Greenwood 
and George Henry Lewes [q. v.] directed 
the * Cornhill ' under George Smith's 
superintendence. Lewes withdrew in 1864-, 
and Greenwood was sole editor till 1868. 
But his bent was to journalism of the 
highest kind, A scheme for an independent 
daily paper, to be largely modelled both 
in form and tone on Canning's 'Anti- 
Jacobin,' had been for some time in his 
mind, and he had proposed it to Mr. Parker, 
owner and publisher ojE * Eraser's Magazine,' 
who declined immediate action. Greenwood 
did not contemplate acting as editor, and 
consulted Carlyle on the choice of one, 
Meanwhile George Smith was considering a 
like design, and when Greenwood brought 
his scheme to him in 1864, he at once re- 
solved to give it elf ect. Greenwood, to his 
surprise, was appointed editor. Smith's 
partner, Henry Samuel King, declined 



Greenwood 



Greenwood 



tho vontim* wan Swith'M 
pmtmal concent. A brilliant band of am- 
tributorH, mont of whom wure already in 



In April 1880 tho c Ml Mall niwotto t ' 
on (in Li'Hlio Hi4*plu!i"H pliraw') ; the* in<ml. 



ih<1 

thoroughgoing of Jingo 



'WBpaper^ wan 

personal relation* with Smith an a rmbUMlter, ppHentcd )>y it-K proprietor, (icorgc Smith, to 
wascollttctttti ThirpajuT was num^uho* Pall ni Hnnh^IftW v JVlr^llwiry Yiiten ThompHon, 
Mall Gazetted after tin* journal described in who avowed \m Intention to convert* tho 
y'H * Pcndentim, 1 The timt number paper into a mdkrnl political organ, (town- 
on 7 Feb. 1 8*35 [H<W SMITH, OMOIWK, ! wood mid all the mem hern of the ntaJT lefi 
, 1 ), The * Pali Mali J ntru^ied witii M the beginning of May the * Si. * 

<ia^*tfo* WHH nmnded by Btwie 

" . * 

(f the Jinn of Antony Oihiw & <>'.*,, in order 
to give Urceitwood the opportunity of c)ii 
IIIH advoeaey of ilw M ptliey of 
Pull Mall ! Iwo UIMIIH, HKNK\ 



difficulty into financial HVKIWHH, but ifN 
triumph wan wtuitvd. early in IHIKI* by Uu 
ublication in it of * A Night- m a Uuwwl 






Ward, by an AumU*ur Camml/ three 
written t*y JatiieHlJreenwood at the 
tion of his bruthirr. In fhtnruwMwFH word** 

to ut tho rojw of 



baloon/ After IMS (Jrwrnvowl, bwrnmu 



Ou'wi\vi..l 



\vilh tin;:* 



In 
for th> wwni* 

i an in t-h<* 



entirely ab^oitel in the, paper, 

AKctlitor ho acquired an exceptional per j 
Honal inliitenee. Able writers coveted under j 
hit* guidance a wide fit*l<i of intcrcHtH, nocial* i 
literary, and political .Bui tlm marked id 
chanu?t4f of tlie * Pall Mall ' wan 
by <*reemvood*H tmlividuuh'ty. (Sir) 
Stcpliin j"i|, v, SuppL II ]^ long ^ si 
irib'Ut-or, wtlli'd I he pnper Mite incitr 
tion of (Jnnuvood/ I tin drnijiiutncii \v 
CH|iecially ^rcnt <n the prjlitieal Hide. He j to 
hiMi nhared the liberal opinionH of bin 
genemtion, and be never becanu* a oon 
HirvaUv< i tbe j4,riol {mrt,y 



olL 11*^ iwvvt'H'ull 

of Fi^ypi in I8H2, ami wan I hit 

ffl |}|>oiicni of t-hu Irih 



to 



of th u'nitniHt piirty* 'Hut vitfiotjn 



wan 



of a 



in 



Th:o^nighly patriotic, Iw WJIH no blind 



follower -of any. imriy'lfatlt^r* A vigilan 

obierwr of forr^ign liifidm, and tb prt>foiiiil 
admirer of Bitmtaruki lie c*im< t 
(lltMlgitmt^M cIoineHtto and 
Tho foreign j>oliy of tbo 
gov*rnniMiii m 1874 -HO found in him 



wiviiih tlw 
for w 
.nl it 

to tho jir<.*H|'.rity of lh* M*all 
AfU*r ilto tinith -of ntm of tin* pm- 1 

*M Mov. IHH^I th 
hiw tHiuhin !limfy 



who wan not 



in 



in hurnumy with 



lik! want HkinfeiptF to Iitiy thn 
But Ifw iwiw fr0j*rlt.f : or rofuHiyl hin 
Jw. itai'i HO fur wij*>y<*c!, 

and C'lr<^nwi.>rt rotirnl mtiitl^nly and in 
within ilm ywr* In Jftniinry ' 



**arly inforinatiint of tho intention 
of th<. Kht,livw iHtuaii Pawha In m*H bin Hue*/ 
(Janal Bhcif(w f and of iJwi nerioiiH rink that 
thBy would .paim into th< poHH<mHion of a 
.-Franoh nyndlealo. H at on<io cjommuni- 
catod.ftmt witlitim fordgn m.ior**tftry f l^rd 
l)rby f who wa not. inolinod to move in tlm 
matte, and thm with- tlio. prime 



ardctrt aliampion, Thn kcen^ watlt h*.^ kepi j he foundmt in fmrmtit of tin early de^tgri llm 
on cvcntn iibroiul enabled him in 1870 to j * AntWayobiii* 1 at llri*t iw a fbrccpcnny 

*>kly j.a|;'r. liut 
wiu* iigairmt him 



then I'M* a (*i*j' 
of (hi* 



BoaoonHfioki* who aatea on hsi advioo. 
Thoro i no doubt that the- purchase of this 
sharo was ftrat auggeited Iby Oroenwood* 
although lim claim to that credit hau boon 
q'utmtiowed (lottors by Greenwood and 0th0r 
in The Timt^ -15 April, It May, *7'-Do; 
1905 ; IS, 26 jn, t 10 Fob, 1006), Through 
tho RuBso-Turkitfh wait*' .of 1876--S. ho 
.vehemently attaokod in tho *Fall Mail 
Gladitona*8 sontimontal oruad.e againni 
Turkojr tho maintenance of whoHO Integrity 
wm mj.his opinion a primary Knglian 
mterest* ' 



In tltttttmry 



a* 



to Vilbokwood'ft* n*l th< 
undJio tfiigtigwi mmw in H 
ture, jmbtkhlng *Tlio' I^ovorV 
in 1893 ami * imngimtUo n In 
in !8i4 ' A #vim of m|'iora wld^ 
in 'BlAokwoocl*!!* unuir thi g^n^rnl tiUo of 
the *'Lo0kar On* in IBilS ....... 9' oofytcni jwing 

to the support given- by tho itiitgt&ifto to 
the war in South Afrit** On that isw'bjwt 
Greenwood . ithamt ' tha vtoww of the ro- 



bin and. the radical unioni)iU 9 and hud a 
aoornful diiliko of tho South African 



Greenwood, who wa qulok to 



Greenwood 



159 



Greenwood 



literary merit, was the private adviser of 
many literary men who achieved eminence, 
George Meredith was among his friends, and 
drew him as Richard Kockney in ' Celt and 
Saxon ' (1910) (cf. W. T. STEAD in Review 
of Reviews, July 1910, p. 57). At a dinner 
given in his honour in London on 9 April 
1905, Mr. J. M. Barrio spoke warmly of 
his debt to Greenwood's early encourage- 
ment. His editorial skill and instinct were 
only equalled by the perfect sincerity of 
his opinions, and his absolute disinterested- 
ness. Greenwood died at his house in 
Sydenham on 14 Dec. 1909. 

' Greenwood's wife, Kathoriuo Darby, whom 
ho married in 1850, belonged to a landed 
family of Quaker connections in Hampshire. 
She died in 1900. Of Greenwood's five 
children, a son and two daughters survived 
him. His daughters wore granted a civil 
list pension of 100J. in 1910. 

[Information from the family ; personal 
knowledge; Leslie Stephen's Life of IPitz- 
jamos Stephen, 1895 ; Herbert -Paul's 
'History of Modern England, 1905, vols. in, 
and iv, ; Tinaley, Random Recollections, 
i. 303. Mainland's Life of Leslie Stephen 
(1905) and Hyndman's Becord of an Adven- 
turous Career (1911) give estimates of Green- 
wood as editor from contributors* points 
of view.] 

GREENWOOD, THOMAS (1851-1908), 
promoter of public libraries, son of William 
and Nanny Greenwood, was born at Wood- 
Icy, near Stookport, Cheshire, on May 
1851, and educated at the village school. 
Benefiting by membership of a mutual 
improvement society conducted by William 
XJrwick [q. y. Suppl. IL] then congre- 
gational minister of Hatherlow, Cheshire, 
ho made excellent use of the Manchester 
public library and similar institutions, 
After serving *as clerk in a 'local hat works 
he was for a short time a traveller with a 
Sheffield firm, and then for about three 
years assistant in a branch library at 
Sheffield. About 1871 ho removed to 
London to join the staff of the c Iron- 
monger*' In 1875 with W. Hosoason 
Smith he founded the firm of Smith, 
Greenwood & Co., afterwards Scott, Green- 
wood & Co< printers and publishers of 
trad journals and technical books. 
The firm at once founded the * Hatters' 
Gazette/ and the * Pottery Garotte/ an 
organ of the glass and china industries, 
and in 1879 the * Oil and Colour Trades 
Journal.' Greenwood himself was the chief 
editor of these journals. He superintended 
all the publications of the firm, which 
included many important technical works, 



His early acquaintance with public 
libraries and his personal gratitude to 
them convinced him of the need of increas- 
ing their number and improving their 
organisation. Thanks to his advocacy 
many rate-supported libraries were opened 
in London and elsewhere in commemora- 
tion of the jubilee of Queen Victoria. His 
manual on 'Public Libraries, their Organis- 
ation, Uses and Management/ appeared in 
1886 and at once took standard rank. 
The work reached a fifth edition in 
1894. 

A warm admirer of Edward Edwards 
(1812-1886) [q. v.] a pioneer of municipal 
public libraries, Greenwood collected his 
personal relics and part of his library, and 
these ho presented, with a handsome book- 
case, to the Manchester public library, of 
which Edwards was the first librarian. In 
1902 he wrote an interesting biography 
of Edwards, embodying the early history 
of the library movement, and he placed a 
granite monument over Edwards' s grave at 
Niton, Isle of Wight. 

Greenwood formed a large bibliographical 
library, illustrating all phases of biblio- 
graphical work and research, which he 
presented to the Manchester public library 
in 1906, making additions to ft afterwards, 
and leaving at his death sufficient money for 
its maintenance. ' The Thomas Greenwood 
Library for Librarians ' contains about 
12,000 volumes. He also founded a small 
library at Hathorlow in honour of MB old 
pastor William Or wick 

Formerly a follow of the Eoyal Geo- 
graphical Society, Greenwood travelled 
extensively, and in Japan in 1907 con- 
tracted an illness of which he died at Frith 
Knowl, Elstree, Hertfordshire, on 9 Nov. 
1908, His remains after cremation at 
Goldor's Green were interred at Hatherlow 
congregational church- Ho married Mari- 
anne, daughter of William Pettot, and had 
a son and two daughters, 

In addition to the works named he wrote : 
1. * A Tour in the United States and 
Canada/ 1883. 2. 'Eminent Naturalists/ 
1886. 3. * Grace Montroso, an unfashion- 
able novel/ 1886, 4 * Museums and Art 
Galleries/ 1888, 5. * Sunday School and 
Village Libraries/ 1892 ; 0. * Greenwood's 
Library Year Book/ 1897, 1900, 1901. 

[The? Times, and Manchester Guardian, 
11 Nov. 1908; Oil and Colour Trades 
Journal, -14 Nov. 1908 (with portrait) ; Who's 
Who, 1908 ; W. 13. A- Axon in Library 
Association Record, June 1907 (description of 
the library for librarians) ; personal know- 
ledge.] C.W. 8, 



Grego 



60 



GREGG, JOSEPH (1H4,V1W)8), writer 
on art* born on 23 8t?pt, 1841* at 2,1 Clmn- 

ville vSqtmits Clerkimw^ll, was <*Id(*r nan of 
Joseph Grego (1817-1881), a looking-glftHH 
ttianufaetiinir, by hi tvif 1/ouina Kmcliu 
Dawley* Kin gnu id father, Antonio CJivgo, 
a native of Oomo, wtt led in London before 
182! m a looking-glanM jwuuifiwtwvr, the 
firm becoming SUMII Urego & HOIIH In 



and Omrks & 



(Jreo in 



1845* After ed neat ion at private 
Grego wan for a t line with LtoydH, tin 
writem Inheriting tho wpirit of c 
from hH father, he cirlfUxl into thai purmiit* 
oom'bming It with dealing, art jonrnalmtn, 
and nuthurfthip* Ho Hpmatiwd rw writer 
and collector in th work of U ill ray, How* 
litmtaou, Morland, and Otiiktfhank., and wiw 
au iieknowledged authority on all of them, 
Ho WUM chieliy itHponHif)ln for [fit* wli- 
tionof JiuncH ailimy^ *Wi'kH* in 1H7I*. 
ait-hough tlio natiH* of Thotnim Wright 
(1H10-77) fq. v.J ak)wi apftearn In I ho 
titI<S"pagc t antl IH* <dif<*d * Howlnmltftw the* 
CariaiurlHt * 2 VO!H, 4l^i, IHKO). Ilotlt 



of 



tregory 

Ho invented a 



n 



often bwn 



of rcpro* 
folunr prints 
flint <-hi*y havo 
for oriiindH, Iff* 



a 



. 

* IHflll ..... 1.1H.J8. nnd a 
tT in flu* firm of 
t^ Clo. (of which wiwpan lit* wim a 



from lnn. KHKJ till hm thmlh) HIN:! of 
tht> * Graph w * f Vnjtany, 

If i- din} winutrrk'd on 21 .Ian. HKH a< ; gjj 
f'irunvilli* Hqnnr*** \vhw ho wan Imrn itnd 
\vhkili Ito otu!iipkd nil fnn lifts UJ 
.iotiff of prinfH, tlmwingH, imd 
on hin ri?uih (a 



2H April nrtfl t rlutto IltOH, Hint at !*!,* i 



thorrtiigh. fttt'tlioti of work, 
8tantiar<l hookn of I'eferettt'us Hr 
aoIlt^U'd nindi material for a lift* *if 
Morlatut. whicih he did not wwipH.e. 
lit 11)04 h ,, mtbltHhttc! * {''ruikHhuiikV 
Water Oubunv with an intrwluotioit 
mul reprodtMtioni tit colotim. In IB74 
Im oompUoci a voiutm* of' * Thiufkemyarm * 
(date! 1B75)' Imncti ip>n bt-H>kn' with 
marginal ami other Mketfih4* from, 
eray'n Halo ; owing ti tiopyrlght 
tho vnlumo wiw iium<.4<ituU*ty 
but WHH reinnne^i in IHOH (cJ 
May lIKtH), A fretjuent writer on art in 



iind the pn*HH, wul 



of 



of Parliamentary Kfeetbnw in tho Old 



torn thti Time of the. SiuitrtH . 
Vto'torift* (18H6 ; new etlit JHUjI), ami i**liui 
HvOronow 1 *! 



. 

trationa 4 inado up* -from- acmtonummry 
printi (1889) ; Vmm^ * Htatory of Daiiu- 
mg* to which ha -oontributod a 'nkoUsh of 
dancing in -.Enland (I808h .* Ptotoriwl 



Pickwioklatm s (Jlmrlai -Dtekoiui and 



on the 

who wa 



of -Wtdcafield,* inoluding Fotrt 

- ' 

' r^ady to land 

prints and drawing*, for-publio axbibition 
mmm^d umoh of hi$ time .to organJbung 
exhibitions, chiefly o! - * Englbb Humopiiti- 
in Art.* Ho v/m himmli fauite with lib 
pencil, doing much work iui t* donigner of 
oostames, and otoliing 



V Ajprit, JWH*, will ifi.% 

^ 

in jie aijti ink on a vim 
London, ithout 1HHO--J, 



lnrf mil frftnt a ]*hofo) ; .mfnrmniitm 



ov hin r*ttlv 

Mr, ' 
J>> ( Mr, 1L Thornier.) 



, 



W,' .It. 



o 



awl w!iti 
Imnt on I Ai*#. 1 810 at 

\VIIH n^i'ond MOM *f 
i^ury* of an t$Jd N 
J.* I'IIH wift* KraitM^t 

of 
in tht. 7Ktli 



lit 1*11 li.arttt.Hi in 1**Xv|.*t nnil m*fit)^i)tHi Ui 

from ilw t*rv*ri% r<*wjvjn^ In limi 
ii i^nntt of land in thn n*nv 
<itt timSwait Hivi*r (anw VV(*U*r 
whither h*^ \vi*t with hi wif 



antl family in l"uui.t JHSSO. 
Aft^r irit^ |.triviUij 



m*il In hm iit^w liwm 



n 

<'irt^try In 
' 



mit ploy intent' in thti 
cif Wwtorn Auim!iit. and. in 
WIM* nmoint(i 

tho ofc* tilt 



1854, In IH4II* having ofiUinui Iwtvo 

of titxionmti ho b.^fin e%|ilorlng work in 
tlw intc*rk*f nM-Iiu tHinUnvnt, Parting on 
7 Aitgtwifwtn i'iiiigmrlHjiritig, lUHHintputtimt 
by hi imtthwH Frwtcik Thtittiiui and I t(.*itry. 

Me* win* mum 

I * '"*IP* "'""f* ?iW5t' ,^w -..-^ "'|f " <nr*ti'ri-. -?**/ fn<m,vi 

which eompoHttd him Ui itirn tiorlfi^wcmi, 



however, in 
mi fitirnenms nidi Inko 



ho tiiimovomi jm 
of ount'at th heiuiwaleni of ilia rivtr Irwin, 
In Beptamtor 1B4B ho M ti party (notne* 

time* 'known M tho *tetia l kic]m!1tiotj ') 
tho northward, And ftuoooodod In 



Gregory 



161 



Gregory 



results of the expedition were to reveal 
the pastoral wealth of the Murchison and 
Champion Bay districts and the discovery 
of a lode of galena in the bed of the Murchi- 
son river. Later in the same year Gregory 
accompanied the governor, Capt. Charles 
Fitzgerald, K.N., on a visit to the mineral 
discovery, which proved to be of more 
importance than was at first supposed. 

In 1855-6 Gregory undertook an expedi- 
tion under the auspices of the Royal 
Geographical Society with the dual purpose 
of exploring the previously unknown in- 
terior of the northern territory of Australia 
and searching for traces of the lost explorer 
Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Leichhardtfq . v.]. 
Starting from the mouth of the Victoria 
river, the party ascended that river to its 
source, crossed the watershed to the 
southward-flowing Start creek, and then 
made its way to the gulf of Carpentaria 
and thence to the Dawson and across the 
northern peninsula to the east coast. The 
result was the shedding of much light on 
the rivers of this region, the discovery of 
the water parting formed by the Newcastle 
ranges, and the charting in sixteen months 
of 5000 miles of hitherto unknown wilds, 
but no certain traces of Leichhardt were 
found. For his achievements on this 
expedition Gregory was in 1857 awarded 
tho founder's modal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. 

In 1858 he undertook his last exploring 
expedition, when he was despatched by the 
New South Wales government to renew 
the search for Leichhardt. Ho started 
from Sydney on 12 Jan. and reached tho 
Barcoo in April. In latitude 24 25' and 
longitude 145 8, ho found a tree marked L 
and some stumps of others which had boon 
felled with an axe. In May he reached tho 
Thompson liver, and followed it till it ran 
out in plains of baked clay. He then 
puflhod down Cooper and Strzlocki Creek, 
and arrived at Adelaide after a seven 
months' exploration, which loft tho fata of 
Loiohhardt as much in doubt as ever. 

On his return from his last expedition 
he was employed in defining tho southern 
boundary of Queensland, and became 
surveyor-general for the new colony, a post 
which he hold from 23 Doc, 18f>9 to 11 
March 1875. Thenceforward until 1 Sept, 
1879 ho was geological surveyor of tho 
southern district of tho colony. On. 10 Nov. 
1882 ho was nominated a member of tho 
legislative council, but did not take his seat 
till] 26 Juno 1883. He played a prominent 
part in the debates, his intimate knowledge 
of the country and its resources and his 

VOL. LXVIII. SUP, n. 



fund of scientific and other information 
securing him an attentive hearing even 
from those who differed from him. It was 
his custom to sit always on the opposition 
benches, in order that he might be more 
free to criticise the various government 
measures. 

Gregory took an active interest in 
municipal affairs. He was one of the first 
members of the Toowong shire council, and 
when the shire was gazetted a town in 1902 
he was chosen first mayor. He was a 
trustee of the Queensland Museum from 
1876 to 1899, and from 1876 to 1883 sat on 
the commission to inquire into the condition 
of the aborigines. 

He took a keen interest in scientific 
work of all kinds, and in 1895 was president 
at Brisbane of the Australian Association 
for the Advancement of Science, devoting 
his opening address to a sketch of tho 
geological and geographical history of 
Australia. 

He was created C.M.G. on 27 Feb. 1875, 
and K.C.M.G. on 9 Nov. 1903. He died 
unmarried on 25 June 1905 at hia resi- 
dence, Rainworth, Brisbane, and was buriod 
in Toowong cemetery. 

Gregory, according to Sir Hugh Nelson, 
' contributed more to the exact physical, 
geological, and geographical knowledge of 
Australia than any other man, for his 
explorations have extended to wost, north, 
east, south, and contral Australia.' Ho 
was joint author of c Journals of Aus- 
tralian Exploration ' (Brisbane, 1884) with 
his brother, Francis Thomas Gregory 
(1821-1888), who was in the survey offico 
of Western Australia from 1842 to 1860; 
Francis accompanied his brother Augustus 
in his first exploring expedition in 1846, and 
lod two expeditions himself in 1858 and 
1861, being awarded tho gold modal of the 
Royal Geographical Society in 1863 ; going 
to Queensland in 1862, ho was nominated to 
th legislative council in 1874, atxd was for 
a short time postmastor-gonoral in th first 
Mcllwraith Ministry. 

[The Times, and Brisbane Courier, 26 Juno 
1905; West Australian, 27 Juno 1905; 
Geographical Journal, vol 26, 1905 ; Western 
Australian Year Book foi? 1902-4; MennollV 
Diet, of Auetralas. Biog,, 1892 ; Btirke's 
Colonial Gentry, 1891 ; Favcnce's History of 
Australian Exploration, 1888; Blain'a Cyclo- 
pedia of Australasia, 1881; Heaton's Aus- 
tralian Dictionary of Dates, 1879 ; Hewitt's 
History of Discovery in Australia, vol. ii. 
1860 ; Tenison Woods's History of the 
Discovery and Exploration of Australia, vol. 
ii. 1865.] 0. A, 



regory 



if'ii 



Gregory 



JT Oil N { 1H80 



painter, Iwrn In Sfmllmmftort <m ID 
April IH50* wiw rajwiwin *f )t:tlm G 



hk*f <*f tim auxiliar 
Sir John Fmnk.Hn*M iu*t .Art:ti ^ 
and wiulfIt.*Mt-t?hilfi (in a family of 

and livn 



in 



n\ 



H) of Kt I \vahi <'.*rt^ary, a 

, liy hin wif^ Mary Ann Tayltir. 



'M rivat* 



tin* 



On 

at 

in IIIH nativo 

^nf.a] Hh*a}UHhip <'Mipniiy in 
y hij* fat-h^r nutlfi; liut though uhvivyn 
.jly int^rtmt^l in .all kiiifinof nm 
haul wt tun ti'iini upon i.M?mg a, 

llit^ ii^r|tmititanr<.t ut St;mih"u*nptv*n 

of Hulxtft Ii^rfeoini*r (now iSir li.i-*rt von 



both Inn OJ!H awl hi 



HMO) anil 



ttlt* at lh 
**f l*arw 



, 



at tint 



Mmmii Jii!mw*4iH?4^11mij<j (IBM), Pro- 

rn inn! HOIIH? of 



on wood will Imvu a worn 



fawn I hati hia niln, In nil riiwltitmrt lies 
dtwrnwH Ain'l riw.ww tw a 
wiiMH, awl a twhuituil kill that wiw 
wpc-wlly rrwiirkubln it* hin wttt<*rtn>iourif< 
MM art- wlfomi in t-lu* cm! through a 



tht?r% IK* Hiarlfn a iihvckvMH wilJt him. in 

ISBI) l*r*^ory wont to ijontion* ami with 
llwkonwr jotniMl iho MoiiHi K^nhiftgii>n Art. 
BpfwoL SliHii{iif,*ntiy Iw^Mitiiliinl for a whort 
ittnw at f.h(i Hoyal A?*wltty ii^ wa noon 

t'HtuioyiM.i in tho f!fMon.itioiw of* thct Vkforia 
aruf AUwrt MuMritm. ami in IK7J* wtlh Iiw 
friHttitt ll^rkonKT uml Kflrt*rt Walker 
}>i.lh f (f v. StiHjil, If |, ingan working fur 
* l.iraphio,* whirh hml jtint hti*ii" rtfa 
by WiUiatii Lutton ^lumim l.i|, %\ Supjil, I'],. ; 
at Jirnt roiitribiitwi Mkt<tht<* front 
lint w.wm frwl 



of 



of bw umft. For irnwiv WWK hi 

* i * * * 

i*fi not i?iitiii*rrH.jM t W</TO 
U**\v ttrrn fliikhw! by 
>f MuiKrhtvtUir, at wl,iow 
... , ...... ,,wj*H>si*iI with ih.. rt wit 

iniwK'lioii ut. (thriHtit^ on &f il 



o 



* I'Jawn f anil * Botiit<*r*H 
principal oil pfcturt**) w-irn 
twlilly ; J.)rawtiiKrtHnt l.)ay ' (B.A, 

,' * Si, !,* 



* (now in 



1 (B,A, IHHI) 



tho front % Mr* Kycinoy I 1 , Jltill. Cln* 
'UtiHtralioiiH* wftiolt w^re wftu^iinttiM 
Uv Iwth 'htmrnilf ami I.lII, t!i- 



(It, A, 



tH tint (ft,A. tHiH));'am! 
>i!* of Ujt|ti.irttm}ly ' (H.A, 1H03), Mm 
hitf miittribtitirmiK io lh Roal !n*tituta 

mmplion of H 
* ' * 



. . . .. 

tha variety ami itgi.tuilty of hi of tho 
Ho ' 



,' * A 



for tho * Uraphto 
Urtgor Wiw nut a 



iir 



lit tlw 

,' *Th Fi*j|!t!v**; 'MAMtor 



at_ JinriiHgttm l!ouM : f 11 JM injirk tui u 

r wan firwt iniwlo by an ti)|'Htinti}i^* 

i* (now in th jHmwiwHiwn of Air* !o!m 

Hargoht, B.A.), originally Mhuwn At DMH* woigiit, lt^aiiiUiithiiiitwtknioc.Hn)mpton 
gallery in 1H7W, Mch of !I!H \ml Iloiimi, tjrmt Murlfiw, on 21 .Jtixio IttOtt, and 

._BUu'4 'A V tf 1 , 1 L-i A 1 2,Llh ' 



* a hivti fttiunnxir* xhowoti 
a^titiiar) for affai'rH *p* |imHt(l0nt of 
Urn Itttttituta attti w*w it <n>in4tttinilit.mn and' 
ppitto vlNit^ir At ilmwi.hfH)}Mtif Ui.t* AwuUtmy, 
in ^th wmnmtl of whittli ho oxt<riititi ntuoh 
weight. IttHtlmt ut hiu 



work apjwiutdl at .the exhiintioiiH of tb> | vrim huritid. in t'Jnmt Marlow alturahytmt. 

HoyallnHtituUiolPalntitnitfiWAtorCJuluunii, Ifo mtutlcKt In IH7<$ Mary* (iaiitehtar " 

" " f ' * - ' in 1871 

H!r 



of whioh ho w toicci 

and member to. 1874 Ho 

Jomeff Union m pmiidont In I8QS. Fro 
1882 hit. oontfibuUoiu to ihn 
wra mainly portmiti, inolttding 



. 

that of .DtinoMi 



.P., a 



of whioh !i In the Boottiih Nation^. Porlmlf 
tialleiy. AN.oarly m 1883 ho wan eleo< 
with Macbeth 'to the awiooiatoHhip, and . 
booaino aioademioian -in 1898, after the 
completion and exhibition of Mi * Boulter** 
Lock; 'Sunday Afternoon,' a work which 
hardly juatifiea th yeiwra of elahoraUon 
spent upon it, 

r*& art wan honoured- .abroad 



. 
Jtiyner, wbo Miirvivod hun without 



^ * f A 
0f Mr, !L W. 



at tho 



1 (tho p 



anil tht* * Auuvonlr 



of the Iiurtitut*' tire w>!f-|x)rtrait. Two 
other portraitu of hkuwdf, pain tad by hint 
in 1875 and 1883.* arw in thw$HiHiHi*lt.m of 
Mm* AlfrM Henry, .London, A txirtrait % 
John Paricer, R.W.&., beiongH to nb widow. 
Early In bbi eareer (Gregory wtin invited 
contribute .to portrait to the Uffiri 



. 
QaHeiy at Florence, but . nevw 



','] IX. B 



Gregory 



163 



Gregory 



GKEGORY,ROBERT(1819-1911), dean 
of St. Paul's, born at Nottingham on 9 Fob, 
1819, was the eldest son of Robert Gregory, 
merchant, of Nottingham by his wife Anne 
Sophia, daughter of Alderman Oldknow, 
grocer, Nottingham. His parents were 
methodists; both died in 1824. Educated 
privately, Gregory entered a Liverpool 
shipping-office in 1835. At the age of 
twenty-one, influenced by the c Tracts for 
the Times,' he resolved to be ordained. 
He was admitted a gentleman commoner of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 2 April 
1840 ; graduated B.A. in 1843, proceeding 
M.A. in 1846, and D.D. in 1891 ; was 'Denyer 
theological prizeman in 1850 ; and was 
ordained deacon in 1843, priest in 1844, 
by the bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 
Aiter serving the curacies of Bisley, Glou- 
cestershire (1843-7), Panton and Wragby, 
Lincolnshire (1847-51), and Lambeth parish 
church (1851-3), Gregory was from 1853 to 
1873 vicar of St. Mary-the-Less, Lambeth. 
A zealous incumbent, he improved the 
church, built schools, founded a school of 
art, and closely identified himself with church 
work in elementary education. In 18.67 he 
was select preacher at Oxford, and served 
on the royal commission on ritual. 

In 1868 Gregory was appointed canon of 
St. Paul's, but for five years still held his 
Lambeth living, In 1870 H, P. Liddon 
[q, v.] became canon, and in 1871 K. W. 
Church [q. v. Suppl. 1] was made dean. 
With them Gregory worked in fullest 
harmony for the attainment of Church's 
purpose, * to set St. Paul's in order, as 
the great English cathedral, before the 
eyes of the country ' (Life and Letters of 
Dean Church, p. 200). As treasurer of the 
cathedral ho negotiated with the ecclesias- 
tical commission the arrangement of the 
cathedral finances which helped to make 
reform possible. The changes made wore 
not universally welcomed, but Gregory 
was unmoved by criticism. Church de- 
scribed him as of cast iron ' (Life and 
Letters, p. 235). Four lectures contrasting 
the social conditions of England in 1688 
and 1871, delivered by Gregory in St. Paul's 
in Nov. 1871, drew on him the charge 
of misusing the cathedral. The advance 
in the cathedral ritual and the decoration 
of the fabric led to hostility, which reached 
its height in the litigation of 1888-9 over 
the reredos, during which Gregory zealously 
supported the policy of Frederick Temple 
[q. v. Suppl. II], bishop of London. 

For forty-three years Gregory was a 
member of the lower house of Canterbury 
convocation. He entered it as proctor 



for the archdeaconry of Surrey in 1868, and 
became proctor for the dean and chapter 
in 1874. His influence was immediately 
felt, more especially on educational questions 
and in defence of higher Anglican policy, 
W. C. Magee in 1881 wrote of him, as i the 
Cleon of the lower house ' (Life, ii. 154) ; 
and J. W. Burgon, in a published letter of 
the same year, said ' In the lower house of 
convocation you , . . obtain very much 
your own way. 7 On the delivery of the 
Purchas judgment, Gregory joined Liddon 
in telling John Jackson [q. v.], bishop of 
London (2 March 1871), that the judgment 
would not be obeyed by them [see PTTROHAS, 
JOHN]. In 1873 he was forward in defence 
of the Athanasian Creed ; in 1874 he 
presented to convocation a petition in 
favour of retaining the impugned ' orna- 
ments ' of the church j in 1880, during 
the burials bill controversy, he favoured 
the abandonment by churchmen of the 
graveside service, if nonconformists could 
also be silenced. In 1881 he supported 
the memorial for the toleration of ritual, 
and in convocation presented a gravamen 
and reformandum to the same effect. An 
ardent supporter of church schools and 
long treasurer of the National Society, 
Gregory was elected a member of the 
London school board in 1873, but did not 
seek re-election when his three years' term 
ended. He was also a member of the 
education commission in 1886, and of the 
City parochial charities commission in 1888. 

Appointed dean of St. Paul's on the 
death of Church in 1890, and installed 
on 5 Feb. 1891, Gregory continued Ma 
predecessor's policy, carried out in the 
face of some criticism the decoration of 
the cathedral with mosaics, and retained 
to advanced ag the closest interest in 
the cathedral work. He resigned on 1 May, 
died at the deanery on 2 Aug. 1911, and was 
buried in the crypt of St. Paul's. He com- 
bined a simple faith and clear convictions, 
firmly held and boldly defended, with 
much administrative ability and singular de- 
votion to the life and work of his cathedral. 
He was twice married : (1) in 1844 to Mary 
Francos, daughter of William Stewart of 
Dublin (d. 1851), by whom he had two 
sons who survived him ; and (2) in 1861 
'to Charlotte Anne, daughter of Admiral 
the Hon. Sir Robert Stopford, by whom he 
had four daughters, of whom three survived 
him. A portrait by Sir William Richmond, 
exhibited at the Bfoyal Academy in 1899, 
now hangs in the dining-room of the 
St. Paul's deanery, 

In addition to some sermons, Gregory 

M 2 



G re n fell 



164 



("iron fell 



: L * Are wn b:ili*r flum our , 
fctlwr*? 1 1K72, 1 'Th tVwitirm f Urn 
riwl ortlfml by tlm Hubrkw lit Mw ,, 
ommunion Srrviw inf*-*rfm*t! l.y thorn- ; 



Awount of it.H fliw awl IVo^n.wn in : 
I, 1 1H05. ' I 

' H 

,? 

|Tlit TUIM.% 3 owl 7 Auvr. MM! ; fmtr*imu. :, 
4 urn! I.I Aui?. ItMl ; Tlu* ,\tjf-tV4ir r nt|>li.y nf 
Uo ta.tr t fr*.^fry, f^'l, hy Wn. W, II, HttM-ifi, 
ttlliij Mw H*immh, n Tribuip 

Tw*'> 8*"nii : M}i:*j, wifli Md'isi**i.TH f! 
Anni. H*iltiit fr**tfory INVtffitrj 

u Hi*. l*iu;ht.^r SIIM of 
I'.H 1'hftr^tw. HHS; W, I*, /W,, 
t'hUlimorf* <''oiutv IMIiut*'*^* VM|, L Noitiujip.. 



rivor itilanfl, i.'Hfwtnlly 1ho Wtjri* and in 
187 H mrwit* im luw'-rtit of l-ht* Mon^o ma 
pibft moimt-ftin. On f> Tft, 1H7H I'm was 
in*irm*.tfMJ tx* iinr!rrt;ik^ f.om*i*r work with 
thw Hciv* T !'* < lf omh*.r up 4l ^ r . 



fjv* , * im*r up ih I^wer 

.Afi4*r !!i* <!iHt'tm*ri<'H in IH77 of Hir 
tlwiry MtrfrTj iSfmiJuy |>.L v. Snpji 
Mr, Hobcri ArihiM^lou of L*tHl hiwl o 
J(HW)/, |o th* HfiptiHi M.iHHJn 
fnr Hiirii wnrfc, A j*r^Iiininrtr 

**f ' 



fiVrml 




(.Vtinl*rr* nrriviil rti SHU Hniyfjr on 
H Aug. JH7H, Hf^niviMl thi.Tn try Mm King 
of Kwitfo, .Own ii*tJr*t V or NUtltia, t 
.trtf4i**fi r*n tt* tin* Makula 
flu-* rhW frt 



ry* hut at 



4f-H; 



A, 



IKJH, 



j M, (* f 





1HHL 



nf 



A, E, H, 

OKO1UJK (JK1U 11 
unit *r^j*lr*r**f of 



w.**}***ttU!l witii !,Vtiij}i^ nut.. otjtTH n 
tiitHMinii rtt4ii-jntH iti Mttwiko, Yivi, 
ilm mitt MiHi^fj^ii m 



.1*2,, 

rivi-. ( r itfif 
Iri^Hi, utttl 



Mill, 



, i*ar 

mm. trf il 



lh* f 



ln wife Jatmnft* 



, by 



mrntih of "l-!m ICwn 
tobo, .Ltikd*.*ia and 

lUl'ltMMUl of thtt 

m>w itiiwlo hid 



*,it'i Ui iltitt^ IHHI hi* 



rivw Ht*iiMii**r, with 



Konry. (Irtsntelli limi Imrtm 

a oommon utiawtor In Fiwk^w ('Irt4rilfa>itt 
Blat<Hi tit a hr&tuth of 



itwi a hnrtiwartt tntt inih^hitiory firtn ht 

Tiu. IOHM of uit tvyo in 

in. no way IrtifmirtHl ttk 

hu 



^ 
7 NOT* 1804* Inflttftnoed .by tfio Uyo of 

"npton [q, y, J and Alfrad Bnk0r 
(1S14-1BSO), tha . * Appatla of ilia- Cama* 
rooni* OranMJt In Samembar 1873, aniantd 
the Baptint Collages, Stokaa-Orofti Brintol* 
and on' 10 NOT* 174 the Baptiit Ktlwiion-< 
ary Sooiaty 'aeoaptad him for work in the 
Camorponn under Alfrod. Sakar. Tha. two 
arrivod tharo in January' 1875. 'Grflinfall*i 
mflimt work odnnlstad In following tha 
Yablang rivor. up to Abo and te disaovaring 
tha lowar oouna of thef Sannga rivar aa far 




QrenfaH, who movjul to Victoria, Caxuo* 
roons, ia lS77i continued to 



niili by Mi^w, Thomyroft, lit C'|}, 
Mr* Arthiti#t*m'rt in : *Ht, iwid uitdor 
MrM MiicHirviMtm, ttt IHHSi. U wiw 
to tJmw only i^Iitwrt lrH?li 
wh*.n itrrywift H twin * of aargo, aud to 
titk.n to pt"fc<w sit U'i 4.uif.nntidt4t. 

(Jn ? July f.HH'i iJi** JNiiww Htart^l *m 
firnt v'yfto of tlitnivorv titkiJi 

ui^ th Kwa, K.w 
On th t.Hu 
, JHHi) * h w 
ih Hwt to jintvt't thtt iniit^Hintti.tni 

th Hiiki or 



found h.imm>lf in 'omttiwt with 

ssiinlliak In Urn Ilimg^lri tt^ion 
the Itimbiri or Rubi river wp t*. 2 M 

' 



. , . THi {TJ-jm-Tiiiu) ftt 
, Falh on SW J)co, IBB4 ; arid folio wad 
Miibang! tor 200 milo* tip U> what haya 
ainoa bwn aattelj Umifall Falta, 4^ 40' M* 
' UA *by far tha mowt northerly point yafc 
4 .In tha exploration t>f iti0<7ongo 
' (Sir H. H.'-JoiiNMTOKi & &/ 



_ On tha third voynga of tho Puaa (i Awg* 

1885) ^ronfcl! VM aooompaniml by his wife, 



Grenfell 



165 



Grenfell 



his little daughter, von Francois, a German 
explorer, and eight native children from 
thej mission schools. This time hiSj object 
was to explore the affluents of the Congo 
from the east and the south the Lulongo, 
the Maringa, and the Busira or Juapa, on 
which he found dwarf tribes (the Batwa). 

His fourth journey (24 Feb. 1886), in 
company with Baron] von Nimptsch, of 
the Congo Free State, and Wissmann, the 
German explorer, took him up the main 
stream of the Kasai, thence up the Sankuru, 
the Luebo, and the Lulua (careful notes 
being taken of the Bakuba and Bakete 
tribes), and so back to the Congo and on 
to Stanley Falls. On the fifth voyage (30 
Sept. 1886) he passed up the Kwa and the 
Mfini to Lake Leopold II, and on the sixth 
(December 1886), with Holnian Bentley, he 
explored the Kwango up to the Kingunji 
rapids. In all these journeys ho made 
exact observations, which were published 
in 1886 by the Royal Geographical Society, 
and together with his chart of the Congo 
Basin gained for him the founder's medal 
of the society in 1887. 

During his furlough he was received 
by King Leopold at Brussels in July 
1887,, Hearing (9 Aug.) of the death of 
Comber, he returned at once to the Congo 
and was busily occupied on the Peace in 
supplying the needs of the mission stations. 
But in September 1890 the Congo Free 
State, in spite of protest, impounded the 
vessel for operations against the Arabs. 
Grenfell came home and after long negotia- 
tions the Peace was restored, an indemnity 
being declined. A second Bteamor, the 
Goodwill, also made by Messrs- Thorny- 
croft, was launched on the Upper Congo, 
December 1893. 

On 13 Aug. 1801, Grenfell, who had 
received the Belgian order of Leopold 
(chevalier), was invited to bo Belgian 
plenipotentiary for the settlement with 
Portugal of tho frontier of the Lunda, and 
was allowed by the Baptist Missionary 
Society to accept the ofler. On 17 Nov. 
1892 Grenfell and his wife reached Mweno 
Puto Kasongo, the headquarters on the 
Kwango of the brutal Kiamvo, with whom 
they had a peaceful interview. Below the 
Tungila he met Senhor Sarmento, the 
Portuguese plenipotentiary, and after in- 
specting the rivers of the Lunda district 
the party reached St Paul d Loanda 
(partly by railway) on 16 June 1893, the 
delimitation being agreed upon during 
July. He was made commander of the 
Belgian order of the Lion and received the 
order of Christ from the king of Portugal. 



From 1893 to 1900 Grenfell remained 
chiefly at Bolobo on the Congo, where a 
strong mission station was established. 
After a visit to England in 1900, he started 
for a systematic exploration of the Aruwimi 
river, and by November 1902 had reached 
Mawambi, about eighty miles from the 
western extreme of the Uganda protectorate. 
Between 1903 and 1906 he was busy with a 
new station at Yalemba, fifteen miles east 
of the confluence of the Aruwimi with the 
Congo. Meanwhile he found difficulty in 
obtaining building sites from the Congo 
Free State, which accorded them freely to 
Roman catholics, He grew convinced of 
the evil character of Belgian administra- 
tion, in which he had previously trusted. 
In 1903 King Leopold despatched at Gren- 
fell's entreaty a commission of inquiry, 
before which he gave evidence, but its 
report gave him little satisfaction. Gren- 
fell died after a- bad attack of blackwater 
fever at Basoko on 1 July 1906. Hie salary 
never exceeded 180Z. a year. Grenfell 
was twice married : (1) On 11 Feb. 
1876, at Heneage Street baptist chapel, 
Birmingham, to Mary Hawkes, who died, 
after a premature confinement, at Akwa town 
on the Cameroon river on 10 Jan. 1877; 
(2) in 1878, at Victoria, Cameroons, to 
Hose Patience Edgerley, a West Indian. 
His eldest daughter, Patience, who, after 
being educated in England and at Brussels, 
returned to the Congo as a teacher, died of 
lioematuric fever at Bolobo on 18 March 1899. 

A memorial tablet was unveiled in 
Heneage Street baptist chapel, Birming- 
ham, on 24 September 1907. 

Grenfell was an observant explorer (cf. 
BBNTLEY, Pioneering^ on the Congo, ii, 
127-128) and an efficient student of native 
languages. He promoted industrial training, 
and gavo every proof of missionary zeal, 

[The Times, 1 Aug. 1906 ; Sir Harry John- 
ston., George Gronfell and the Congo, 1908, 
2 VO!B. ; George Hawker, Life of George Gren- 
fell, 1909 (portraits); W. Holman Bentley, 
Life on i/lxe Congo (introduction by G. Gron- 
foll), 1887 ; Shirley J. Dickins, Grenfell of the 
Congo, 1910 ; Lord Mountmorrea, Tho Congo 
Independent State, 1906, pp. 110 11] 

E. H. P. 

GRENFELL, HUBERT HERBERT 

(1845-1906), expert in naval gunnery, 
born at Kugby on 12 June 1845, was son 
of Algernon Grenfell, a clerk, by his wife 
Maria Guerin Price. 

Joining the navy as a cadet on 13 Dec. 
1859, when fourteen, Grenfell passed out first 
from the Britannia, and gained as sub- 
lieutenant the Beaumont Testimonial in 



If**"* I 

,i I vl 



1 



** 

drey 



Ho fjuallfW iw gunnery lieutenant ' CIKKY, MttH. 'MA it I A (*!*! 

hi 1H57* ftiul W'Jtn ftp|>wi*le.<I Hrwt Ht,*utefmiti> win.w .inaiileii isanii* A*-M ^iniutK 
on H*M& .Kwflent on '*$% Mept, IH*HJ. I I.1K>0), iinmioier wf vvomen'erim^Uifm, bom 
While holding thin apjKtirtlment he worked | w\ 1 Slareh I Hill, WHH ytwtujrr driughtor 
out with Naval Kngiwer Newman what-. ! of Admiral William Henry Shirreff by l\m 
im* claimed to liavt? been I be firwt deMigtit* \ wf<* f.vlimhrth Atuie, daughter of the lion, 
,.* t...,i*,,**t:.4 4.**t.<...*i n H f tjf | 14 *rtvy naval | liivvkl Murray j Emily Shirreff }>i, v*| wo* 

ent^iij.*e*i in 'literary | her chirr wnltr* In youth Maria wan 

B i 1-1 .ftl 1 c, * . I .i i Mn jb- *-* M".J )jt tt.vi, * :t * ft ^ * * * * M '' *'1 k It -* 4 a.)-, f fr i 4 i 4 f * 4 tt 1 '* *ti j f t 1 t V * I i' I 'I 4 u '4 m 4 4. k ^ A. J j *1 i fc ^ ,, ,. .,..,. . . . 



f 



'* lie itlwt 
\vork of a leejinifa! 
to * I :i 2ntfiiieering * jtud 
Itn II! Ih **., 1H70 IP.* wu' 
on I Sln.v 



nav 
of K 



an acrotn 
H, until 



tl 






, 11** all*** 



tin 



abroml. aw 
., In Jatrr 
iy ilMiealll 
on ' winferfo Home. Hlteenrlytntrrewiedhi.: 

mo ' fwwition, ("hi 7 Jim, 1HI.I ?fhi* tnarned 
naval ; finifr e 

of 

ivhr* 'wn^M H wim* increJiant in 
l.ioiufort, dierl on 1.1 Mareh JHI.VI. TJiero 



oxi 2 



of gtifw j nnd nlnml 



fomlgn n&Yuw. Uruiitt WAM 
tlin firnt t.* j^iifp^t thfvum* of m 
tnarkixi Irt iar** plain . iiim^ for 



fw<iory rout {if ion *f 



o 



n 



y, .Mr** tJjvy I't' 



a 



No. livr^, lu.twever, wi*m Inwi. i 'Mr^firt'yeollabMrafHlwithh^rHiHti^^MiHH 
ntir.Hl with the rank of eapiain ; iSltiiTpft, in * .Pa^Hioti and I'nudpir* " (IB41} 
;s I8H7 ' t *uul in * Thotigbfit mi Heit^,?t}Unre * (18111% 

II wan nff.?r\viM'<iH"for ntany yearn ; bMtaHerli*rhimtiantlV(.|eatlHnlMtt4etini*n 
with fho e&gteriitieiita) w>rk of ; tral.edlteri.fclU.^jtioni'Ui \vuiHiit'iiiHi.iteatt<.!K 
, \Vi.iit\voriit ^ <?fi* Hi* tt'itH : When th*? llrfiMil, of the Sehr^olM .Inquiry 
f hi* Jirnt to *li.reet lh<* Atlnuraif-y^H attention I f*.MnrniH,HiMii of 187*'* re.vealni the 
to lh** 
IH1M on tit*.* i: 

* w4f41ltt!iihmiing ftiglit ^ightK for naval 

oitlniu.uie.* *l*he invinilkin wiw for ftftwn t1-ri>ghout f]iiwh.inti ..4 large <lay 

yirntn Atttwhcxi to nil imvy gunn itt tlw fcf girlw with I...m4ig'h< : iti** in 

IMtlih nnvvt -tuiti waii'iuhmt^a by wmw ti'u For tlmt m*n'.we nJu* fomiHl 

** * " * * * .1 *^ | **,*<** t k * *' -* '* ' * * 

iie IiiHfii$l'iliI l*ifiiii'li fiti* 'iliit ilitflu*!* 

tinn nf Wt>3ftten,* A jttemttitilf* tiomjmny 

wiw ereiikHl mwler the HtyJe tif * The (Urlw 1 
Publki iMy Hrjiool tVniijmtiy** wlileh prn- 



,.,,,., ,j t tliti juinntioa of A i|eHeo|jiii li^u^ \ t**^ *.- **i^f Mr.>p-M M . 
for day tiw*. He nlno workini 'mat thi* j fcJTowt Ui the }nir|H*m'n *if thi^ 
^'*!t(.'rit; mib<<|ently 4Jt>jjt^l lor j 1H7II Mm, tirey wiw organi 

ing fietil artillery, by^ whkh UIM } *f the union* w!*lt<h wim (itHwilved in IHtrf* 
^,,^^,,,, of Bungle t^twwtt thti 11 tie, of wight j t** liHMI tin* <,'*$ittjfM$.v wan i*ntiverii*(l intnH 
urn! ihfs axin -of tlu> kire wh.bh are rwjtdimt j lnwi f whMt now (ilUU) hnn thirty- thr0 
whan ' filing at 'a moving target win k K|HH:>II* tmtl ov*?r 7tHK* jittjuk 
uffeetai without nHwwig th Jim* <if Might, . lii order to nnnurti n Nt.tp|)!y t*f w- 
In A'pril 1B77' Oitttlall itiad iKifoii thti |Htit t.m*ihtr ftir tiu^ti new girln* KehmtiMi 
InffUtution of Navnl Araliitwtu^ art nbfo Mn, droy. fcnincM n truinittg m>U.tg<t for 
jmjper advcKmtiiig 'the. tdal of . C3rUMt*n*jit wtimen tt^uihom In wnioittlary wholH of 
ehufod wit*irnn- armour In Knglnnd, and whtoh again n)m aottnl 
in I^S7hopiiblifth<^ < (^fiiion t iOhiU(xlOat. Ing iKfomtary* Th0 wiim* wan oi^neci m 
Iron Armour -(traniilated from tbe Ctorman 
of Juliuit von gphuto), E helped fe fora* 
tha Navy Loagne, and m?rrad at on timo 
on its oxeoutive .-committee,' -'He cited, at 
Alvaratoke, Hampihlfie, on'13 Sept, 1906, 

[Tho TimoH, 26 8apfc 10011 ; Bnglneoring, iH^wwae known a tho Murin Gr.y *J 
Sopt. _100ttji_Capt. H. Ctarbett, Hav^l Oolloge. Mm Oniy throughout m*I|M*d the 

ool!^ . by donation* of money and by un- 
oeaalng effort to int^rot otheii in ilw> work* 



, 

Gunnery, 1897 j 0. 0laBwwn f Armour 'and 
ita Attaoki bvAHUIery, 1803} C'iow*, Htetory 
of the Eoyal Navy, vol. 7, 1003 { the Navy 
tfoVJaa. 1888. J , a E F 



I87S, with fcwr Mtu(itntM* in fm*m'i*M lent 
by William liogam (<j v.."J r'*tor f 
Biahopagatt, 'Alt*r a rewovid in !SBH 
the ttdfof*- waa inataiUd in 1HU2 In i 




WM at ton same time 



Griffin 



167 



Griffin 



a strong advocate of the parliamentary 
enfranchisement of women, She was a 
member of the central society of the 
women's suffrage movement. In 1877 she 
wrote the pamphlet c The Physical Force 
Objection to Woman's Suffrage.' 

For the last fifteen years of her life Mrs. 
Grey was an invalid, but she maintained 
to the end her interest in women's educa- 
tion and progress. She died on 19 Sept. 
1906 at 41 Stanhope Gardens, Kensington. 

Many of her speeches were published as 
pamphlets. Besides the books in which she 
collaborated with Miss Shin-eft, she pub- 
lished in 1858 a novel, ' Love's Sacrifice ' ; 
in 1887 a translation of Rosmini Serbati's 
' The Ruling Principle of Method applied to 
Education ' ; and in 1889 c Last Words to 
Girls on Life in School and after School.' 

[The Times, 21 and 24 Sept. 1906 ; Journal 
of Education, Oct. 1906 ; Burke' s Peerage ; 
cf. Hare's Story of My Life, vol. iv. ; private 
information.] E. L. 

GRIFFIN", SIB LEPEL HENRY (1838- 
1908), Anglo-Indian administrator, born at 
Watford, Hertfordshire, where his father 
was serving as locum tenens, on 20 July 
1838, was only son of the three children 
of Henry Griffin, incumbent of Stoke-by- 
Clare, Suffolk, by his wife Frances Sophia, 
who had a family of four sons and six 
daughters by a first husband, Mr. Welsh. 

Griffin was educated at Maiden's pre- 
paratory school, Brighton, and then at 
Harrow, which he soon left, on account of 
illness. After tuition by Mr, Whitehead of 
Chatham House, Ramsgate, he passed the 
Indian civil service examination in 1859, 
and was posted to the Punjab as an 
assistant commissioner on 17 Nov* 1860. 
* His conversational powers and ready wit 
made him popular in society ; but he soon 
proved himself in addition an effective 
writer, a fluent speaker, and, despite a 
somewhat easy-going manner, a man of 
untiring industry' (Journ, JSlast India 
Asaoo. April 1908). Ho is the original of the 
brilliant civilian portrayed in Sir Henry 
Cunningham's novel ' Chronicles of Dusty- 
pore' (1875), and was credited with the 
authorship of Aborigh Mackoy's ( Twenty- 
one Days in India' (1880), satiric sketches 
of Anglo-Indian life, which first appeared 
anonymously in * Vanity Fair' (1878-9). 
Sir Robert Montgomery [q. v.]> lieutenant- 
governor of the Punjab, turned Griffin's 
literary abilities to good purpose by se- 
lecting him to prepare historical accounts 
of the principal Punjab families and of the 
rulers of the native principalities* The 
work, which involved immense research, was 



based both on official documents and on 
records and information gathered from the 
chiefs and nobles themselves. His * Punjab 
Chiefs, 1 historical and biographical notices 
of the principal families of the Punjab 
(Lahore, 1865) ; ' The Law of Inheritance to 
Sikh Chief ships previous to the Annexation ' 
(Lahore, 1869) ; and * The Rajas of the 
Punjab ' (Lahore, 1870 ; 2nd edit. London, 
1873), at once took rank as standard works. 

Griffin served as under-secretary to the 
local government from April 1870 ; offici- 
ating secretary from March 1871 ; on 
special duty to frame track rules between 
the Punjab and Rajputana from February 
1873 ; and as superintendent of the Kapur- 
thala state from April 1875. He was 
on special duty at the Paris Exhibition of 
1878, and was appointed permanent chief 
secretary of the Punjab in November of that 
year. His official minutes, rapidly dictated 
to shorthand writers, were models of style. 

Griffin's great opportunity came in the 
later phases of the Afghan war. * After 
lengthened consideration/ wrote Lord 
Lytton semi-officially in Feb. 1880, ( I have 
come to the conclusion that there is only 
one man in India who is in all respects 
completely qualified by personal ability, 
special official experience, intellectual 
quickness and tact, general commonsense 
and literary skill, to do for the government 
of India what I want done as quickly as 
possible at Kabul, and that man is 
Mr. Lepel Griffin.' Accordingly in March 
1880 the viceroy furnished Griffin with 
an elaborate minute on the policy to be 
adopted in Afghanistan, and gave him 
superintendence of negotiations at Kabul, 
in subordination only to the military com- 
mander, Sir Frederick (now Earl) Roberts. 
Griffin reached Kabul on 20 March, and 
at once entered into communication with 
Abdur Rahman, who had returned to the 
country after ten years' exile in Russian 
territory, and was beginning to establish 
himself in Afghan Turkestan, Griffin by 
his masterly tact overcame Abdur Rahman's 
suspicions of English policy and finally, 
in circumstances which seemed most un- 
promising, helped to establish him on the 
Afghan throne and to inspire him perma- 
nently with a friendly feeling for England. 

Before Griffin's labour was completed 
Lytton resigned; but the new viceroy, 
Lord Ripon [q, v. SuppL II], offered 
Griffin sympathetic support, At a durbar 
at Kabul on 22 July the wishes and 
intentions of the government were ex- 
plained to the Afghans by Griffin in a 
Persian speech, and Abdur Rahman was 



Griffin 



Griffin 



u 
Ct 



fir 



K&hul 



with ifw Iniiiun ftHwfornwjy hml in 



iwrm h 



fill 



[!gt 

him ni Kinim**, mlwu him *it*uruat of inn ttVHfwn of nmkinv iJm 

' $ ~ ** Bl **'" 1 *^l 1 3t,l,]l ML \ j| 4\J 

: hi#iu*r nfivi< wlumtion. With l)r, (< W, 
fjnf*t,it-**ift of fittnn* rri;ilionhi|>. ; b*itnrt('JH'i(V'-l>tJH)|riiH i iimtoi(im(4 

of tin? n**H- ru!**r \vhirh wnfow* : ur^rd fh** i^tntlovtiii'iif' it* ^"iwhiiifi of tlii* 

jt 1 - f * .'RW |R^ fl fl V ft ft TfeT 

r.*m i *'t-* ' j'ht* ? Indian vi.rtin.rlHnii uinl Ih^ awiml of 
>wdfV \vhtf j hoiiMni'?* for }t'ofwi**n.ry in .f$ii^1 

U^-fw iti h" * Fot-tv-onp V* i fir*i it* ; ivnd Irui'ninjjf! ***^ \\v\\ iw for E 
iiiirl nuj,f5f ||j't%-i* !,w^'u f r .^lt'i*ni*4v ; . mf.*f*'ly H! IIIH it*i!i^n.iioii n 
Mi.r, itriflsM, uh^m nn itti > w*\lri?i* \*wn ^ffihtinhftl in lH?f 

tu thi*p {trinpijthNNt <uid wlicii 

lljr* vrry ilrJinid* ftntl iliHiniJt ; I hi* l*unj*ib t.'nivrrwity u 
, ivl.iirh hi* IiwI mrrit'ti n willi ; in Orf, JHH2* rtiif* of fhn livi* 
unti imilit*!}!^ 1 / Thr ilrili^h \\iw for tJi'irnii*! Irnnnng* Y*?I tht.* 

hirh id*'*ni. Munght lo n 
oth*r l.iy^nin^r^ (!mn K 
iintl Cfrilllfi it 

t.h** .Hrtittth : ri^fniirt {tyii.iwiufnm.til /tV|w*ii 

7), Tin* Itiayiit AH- 
tH jMUit)ji.l)y ifiv^n in 
for f.hr iii^ij*"^ 
jiiW in Up'* f'ii'M 
fJnftitj fvHlJi j .r it^Ij^l l^ttni'r <o r 

linhiil " jutt iw mw'h **i \Volt iny ^* **mtt-iJw ttidjiin 
*f '*.|y*ul '<< Kun* hi- \ Kn^tantf I** *.tdh**tf fo llit'ii 

lrttnn|ih (frifl'in l^H^nnttt . In IHH5, with l^f-n^f ittwl Mr, 



! N 
lyid 
i Jhf* 



in fji,,rtiii.ry liii,' HP W 
ttKiitnt in nilwflii VAitmlik* w*forin 



tin won ih* 
nation in wniurisig in I.H84 iht* 

if Hklik Hitmu Khftn. ww.mt 
c?i4-n.iti-*rt tif Bhiili Jrliitn, fk'giHii uf l!ho|iji 
from JHUH i** tlHll, fur hin it^trmtion o 



i'tt'virw, 1 whktlt lu 

* 
In 'KfitfbMit) C..*riflin i 



n 



It* 



J* 



|.|.*i 



ial llnitk if 
In 

*j.*n him 
of th* !.itii unti <)> nun* 
tif tht* liurnm rtihy 



, in* An tr>MMi< y 
(11112)- Wiwi* hwniti t.tn !'nv* in IHW! 
wmi ii itiiil tnimntMunor fr fhi* 
KxhiMikm, nnti itt flu* 
jubifam in tin* Mitwinu 
<m 



. hin 

t*f tlw* ICiwt India 



* ***W 11-- .,...,.. ._ 

tion of tho tipper ptckyinoa in t88B f Griffin 



110 ii&d ho|MKl fa the 

uhlp of itlw'oltlpro^tooi te\lSi7 r *wton Sir 
.Gtmrlaa Altohltou fq, v. B'tippl. 1] rotired, but. 
hlii utioonvontional frankndM toami to -have 

laada tho govaramont ihy of glyliig adaq wtt<i 
* * i * % * *" . * 

to }uff-0xo0pu<mai 



On ediiwtloiml polloy In India .Oriffin 

>A 'A >u ; * flu 9S 1 ^ j i. 



of 



n 



Hit i 

MH* fully 
ii4vjWi 
wrt>t*V lit (ho 



Irs 



n 
ixtgard tor lilt* Indian |K^*|*!^ y* w^ll 

piitimn** Ho vifgtmu*lyfttjx)i!atKl 
.of. Itucil^ui* Iii tiw 'f'mtiwviiiil w-iwi 
in .South Africa, iumding Uwpu* 
tlit iooroturimof *UUf for India 
and i^-cmlonte* on the t4bjtot in IU07. He 
wmtaiup^ortor of tht HtMim! unittniMt 
in home poUt!o% ' and in 1800 hu 



n ome poo% ' an n uoon^o 

ii!iitt0otIJy Went Nottingham in U*ir 



Griffith 



169 



Griffith 



Griffin died of pneumonia at his residence, 
Cadogan Gardens, London, on 9 March 1908. 
The body was cremated at Golder's Green 
and his ashes were deposited in the 
private chapel of Colonel Dudley Sampson, 
Buxshalls, Lindfield, Sussex. 

He married on 9 Nor. 1889 Marie 
Elizabeth, elder daughter of Ludwig 
Leupold of La Coronata, Genoa, Italy, 
agent to the North German Lloyd S.N. Co. 
at Genoa; she survived him with two 
sons, born in 1898 and 1900 respectively, 
His widow afterwards married Mr. Charles 
Hoare. A drawing of Griffin by C. W. 
Walton is reproduced in the Begam's 
'Account of My Life' (1912), p. 128. 

In addition to the books already mentioned 
Griffin wrote : L * The Great Republic/ a 
hostile criticism of the United States of 
America, 1884, reproducing articles in the 
* Fortnightly Review.' 2. * Famous Monu- 
ments of Central India,' f ol . 1 886, 3. c Banjit 
Singh ' in * Rulers of India ' series, 1892. 

[Record of Services, Bengal Estab., 1888 ; 
India Office List, 1907 ; Lord Lytton'$ Indian 
Administration, 1899 ; Boberts, Forty -one 
Years in India, 1898 ; Imp. Gaz. of India, vols, 
viii. and xx. ; Sultan Jahan Begam's Life, 1912 ; 
Ameer Abdur Rahman's Life, 1900; Journ. 
East India Assoc., April 1908 ; The Times, 
and Standard, 11 March 1908; Indian Bov., 
June 1904 ; notes kindly supplied by Mr. IT. L. 
Petro ; personal knowledge.] F. H. B. 

GRIFFITH, RALPH THOMAS 
HOTOHKIN (1826-1906), Sanskrit scholar, 
born at Corsley, Wiltshire, on 25 May 1826, 
was son of Robert Clavey Griffith (1792- 
1844), rector of Corsley (1815-44) and of 
Fifiold Bavant, also in Wiltshire (1825-44), 
by his wife Mary Elizabeth Adderly, daugh- 
ter of Ralph Hotohkin of Uppmgham Hall. 
Educated first at Westminster school and 
then at Uppingham, Ralph proceeded with 
an exhibition from Uppmgham to Queen's 
College, Oxford, which he entered as a com- 
moner on 16 March 1843. Obtaining an 
honorary fourth class in classics, he graduated 
B.A. on 20 Oct. 1846, and proceeded M.A. 
on 22 June 1849. At Oxford he became a 
pupil of Professor Horace Hayman Wilson 
[q, v.], and gaining the Boden Sanskrit 
scholarship in 1849, continued the study of 
Sanskrit to the end of his life, From 1850 
to 1853 he was assistant master of Marl- 
borough College, of which he was also 
librarian. In 1853 he joined the Indian 
educational service, and on 17 December 
became professor of English literature at the 
Benares Government College. His promo- 
tion was rapid : on 1 June 1854 he Became 
headmaster of the college. He encouraged 



sport, and showed thorough sympathy with 
Indian students. In the following year he 
was entrusted, in addition to his other duties, 
with the charge of the Anglo- Sanskrit de- 
partment; and in 1856 he was appointed 
inspector of schools in the Benares circle. 

During his first eight years in India 
(1853-61) Griffith devoted himself not only 
to the study of Sanskrit but to that of 
Hindi, the most widely spoken vernacular 
of northern India, under Pandit Ram Jason, 
the head Sanskrit teacher of the college, to 
whom he was much attached. Throughout 
the Mutiny Griffith worked quietly in his 
bungalow amid the surrounding disorder 
and tumult. 

On the retirement of James Robert 
Ballantyne [q. v.] in 1861 Griffith succeeded 
to the principalship of the Benares College, 
He held the post for seventeen years, in the 
course of which he acted three times for short 
periods as director of public instruction. 
On 15 March 1878 he left the Benares 
College after a quarter of a century's service, 
and from that date till 1885 was director 
of public instruction in the North-west 
Provinces and Oudh. His success in official 
life, both as an administrator and a teacher, 
was uninterrupted. On his retirement he 
received a special pension, the honour of 
C.I.E., and the thanks of the government. 
Calcutta University made him a fellow. 

Unmarried and without close family ties 
in England , Griffith, after reaching India in 
1858, never saw his native country again. 
On bis retirement he withdrew to Kotagiri, 
a beautiful hill station, some 7000 feet high, 
in the Nllgiri district, Madras, residing 
with his brother Frank, an engineer in 
the public works department of the Bom- 
bay presidency, who had settled there in 
1879. At Kotagiri he tranquilly engaged 
in the study and translation of the vedas. 
He died (7 Nov. 1906) and was buried there. 

An enthusiastic lover of flowers and of 
poetry, he was sensitive and reserved, but 
genial in sympathetic society. His pupils 
and admirers at Benares perpetuated his 
memory on his retirement in scholarships 
and prizes at the Sanskrit college. In the 
college library hangs a photograph of his 
portrait painted by F. M. Wood. 

Griffith was attracted by the literary rather 
than by the linguistic side of Sanskrit. But 
he rendered a great service to the direct 
study of the language by founding in 1866 
the ' Pandit,' a monthly journal of the 
Benares College, devoted to Sanskrit 
literature. This he edited for eight years. 
More than forty annual volumes have 
already appeared. 



(J> **'* 

*nffith 



170 



Griffiths 



.In tiw tranftiatifm of fr'niMkrit |nwu.-y 
Griffith devoted liimmrif for twiarly half 
ft century 



vnhiminotw, hit ate th<. IM^I trmiHlafor of 
ient hulmn juwtry that, Ow tit .Britain 



..rngh hits y*t 
iit 'S|Kfimfiw of oM j 

!n,i,vn r<ry (1838). on,,, mining W; l,,, 

y (ninMlMtivl in vnrioiw ! i n f,,r ( ,mli,. fumuM W ih.- }* 

H fnjm t tw,, r,. rt |. .,,.. ! g W n 

(hi- ( ' MnhAMiftnitrt n<I tin.- ' Ki.Hiii.vntm. 1 H. L, . . ,, 

nntl friiHi (hi- work.-* nf hi.iiii' ^roitt-M. i'.v 1'iunlii. itainii Kriolttm (l(niM.-rl 

, KiilJilMU. An t'tdiM'f frutu (iiiMiroitiii "' tH'ittwHiniifH l Hi-itnn-n niut' nt ' Aura 

vrrnc. A( Miirl- i " v|l ""l ''iil>"fni ( (ihir/.jjmc), ) ,\ t A.M. 



n n 

jir..{h ftlw, |},. 
H'BW < 

r M< ..w 

3 . u 
2nd !it, 

rrun tl 

lhH,. in IW 



it 



in (I HU-VFITHH, AKTHUU <3K 

! 



V 



| HH ,k, Kn .l S 



. , 
i, in 



Hy 
of I 



wwm m rf i 

l .Mm rsiflillH ' ,/), I, w, t 
^ 

,, < M t " 

i, (f, 
1 " 

in MIIHH, ! It... WAN pnwul )!, m,-^ ( .wl Wl,,f S 
' , J)( , , " 

-L 



, ... 



Afl-p !H 



, f,,r wiii h 

irai t.. ih..< HHiy mnlnl. H. W iw pr,,.,,,,!,,! ),- ut. 
m IKMa n v.-rwr,,, ; i!7 ,| M |y !Hff. I, !KH,iM VR 11 " nt 

T h r -;"' v ; ni<i ' i ""'" 1 nt mu **- ' Nw * '^^ 

..Niiilim. IOTIIK nntiifimtnl !,!,..},..,,!} to Sir 
,,. X,ri Hilk Williimi Hvr- , v.l, (..,.. nJin K tl 

~ " 






. 
of -the Whittj Vajurvwlm 1 *r 



li; Nav, IHOi, 
with 



Hytlw wlitil if miiffkt'iry, urn! In 
! fifth i 



t |,j j.',, , Y --.-....... T .*w I 1&'$|0* ifittinfi'fi'i'ti fr* 'lYfff'iJiUf, TIw m if mini," 

wUMt 4^^^ | ^f ^^^ ^ th 

iiwalation tmtii^ at"*'' "'"" !<MnmiHt ltlw 

with a Pupuhir (Jt)tnm'<ntiury/ in' four 

voium^H (.Bwiaron, liS9-4!2| 2ti<! txiit. 2 

votw. !B!MI-7) Thwrtj foiluwtxi tho* Hyiutm 

of tho HftmtivtHJhi,* or Vmln ofehnntMCKm* 

mmm with th. 8rma rit uiil (ifwwrw, 1H1I3) j 

thoMiytmiH af th Aiharviwttiiit 1 r V*'ht 

mainly *JuimiHtiii >f iiiii^cal Hfwl 



U ttm tlwattnwrf war 
th* *Tn*ttt* 



Fmm 



nt Hitlifiw, I to win* 
im I Si l^li, IHH2. 
to 1H70 



. . . 

lationt. Griffith abaiidonod rhymw mitt 

WUiifcH.rfl iifctatiFit*! jii^a. .^.^4,* ...,^, ... , -,. t '* i i > 



a-^n4E)riUi 
-into . ooRmonditig- hmfatta 



,tj w i ' TWfwr. ^w h *ft!fc IfVPt ' 

of tbe auident hymna totter than bj 
meana of orowi or of rhyming verae. Hfc 
method of interpretation ia eotetio j it f ollowa 
partly tho medfaval . oonunentaton, partly 
the rDBoaffchee of 'Weatern -aoholava* lipplt* 
mexitod by iuveatigationa of M own, Hit 
renderingB cannot be reckoned authoritative, 
but they are tho only veraiona-Uiat praaehi 
the nmeral spirit of tho ancient hymns to 
tho fenffiish reader in an attractive form, 

was not only, this moat 



* niaior 



. 
y itU u])|.K.iito)i*ttt t iho 

ahitrgti u! th cmrtvfat 



tnt)ni at Oihroitttr; mitl 



in 



ltcl .him U* witor tht 



til 




^ " " "'' T^ lTT "'' ^ '"' ^'P' "* ** r ff * T"ir*T' * V* jf '(.(I V'" 1 * 

It wan inMptKiUtr of . urlMUfm, imd 
undertook tto tok of unifying this mothoda 
of admi&iatmUan timmghout'tho oountry. 
He. beoame an' -aeknowiedgMi authority 
on 2hmpeoA prteon ivitetii** uml on " " * 
Mitory of Ixmdkm gaolii, Itm * Mwm 
of MHIbMLk (1870; 2nd t^|t, i#84) 
Obxcnielei of Newgate' (1884) mm 
aenoufl works of rawi*f0h| and he addcni 
to hfo reputAtioa in Wm by winning the 
*"** gold medal for a monogmpb on John 



Griggs 



171 



Griggs 



Howard [q. v.], In 1896 tie represented 
England at the international congress of 
criminal anthropologists at Geneva. 

Griffiths retired from the army with the 
rank of major on 13. May 1875, and devoted 
his leisure to literature and journalism. 
He had already some experience as editor 
of the ' Gibraltar Chronicle ' in 1864 ; and 
he became a frequent contributor to many 
'journals. He edited papers and magazines so 
widely different as ' Home News' (1883-88), 
the < Fortnightly Review ' (1884), and the 
' World ' (1895). From 1901 to 1904 he 
was editor of the c Army and Navy Gazette ' 
in succession to Sir William Howard 
Russell [q. v. Suppl. II]. 

But it was as a writer of sensational 
tales of prison life that Griffiths was best 
known to the public, and in such stories 
as ' Secrets of the Prison House ' (1893), 
1 A Prison Princess' (1893), 'Criminals I 
have known' (1895), 'Mysteries of Police 
and Crime ' (1898 ; 3rd edit, 1904), The 
Brand of the Broad Arrow ' (1900), and 
'Tales of a Government Official' (1902), 
he revealed his extensive experience of the 
habits and characteristics of the criminal 
classes. His detective stories, like 'Fast 
and Loose' (1885), 'No. 99' (1885), 'The 
Borne Express ' (1896), and * A Passenger 
from Calais ' (1905), were modelled on 
those of Gaboriau, and were inspired by his 
intimate acquaintance with French police 
methods. In his earlier novels, ' The 
Queen's Shilling ' (1873), ' A Son of Mars ' 
(1880 ; 2nd edit. 1902), and 4 The Thin Red 
Line' (1886; 2nd edit. 1900), ho drew 
mainly on his Crimean, experiences, while 
* Lola J (1878) was a faithful transcript 
of garrison life at Gibraltar. Altogether 
he published thirty novels. 

He also contributed to the official * His- 
tory of the War in South Africa, 1889-1902 ' 
(1906-10 ; 4 vols.) ; and was author of several 
popular historical works. 

Griffiths was a genial companion, a keen 
sportsman, and an amusing raconteur. He 
cued at Victoria Hotel, Beaulieu, in the 
South of France, on 24 March 1908. He 
married on 18 Jan, 1881 Harriet, daughter 
of Richard Reily, who survived him. 

[Fifty Years of Public Service, by Arthur 
Griffiths, 1904 (frontispiece portrait) ; The 
Times, 26 March 1908 ; Army and Navy 
Gazette, 28 March 1908; Brit, MUB. Cat.] 

G. S. W. 

GRIGGS, WILLIAM (1832-1911), 
inventor of photo-chromo-lithography, son 
of a lodge-keeper to the duke of Bedford at 
Woburn, Bedfordshire, was born there on 
4 Oct. 1832. Losing his father in childhood, 



he was apprenticed at the age of twelve to the 
carpentering trade, and coming to London 
when eighteen, he was employed as an artisan 
in the Indian Court of the Great Exhibition 
of 1851. He improved his scanty education 
at night classes at King's College and else- 
where, and in 1855 was selected to be 
technical assistant to the reporter on 
Indian products and director of the Indian 
Museum, then in the India House, Leaden- 
hall Street. 

His artistic tastes and keen interest in 
photography were encouraged by Dr. John 
Forbes Watson [q. v.], who became his 
chief in 1858, and at his instance Griggs 
was installed at Fife House, Whitehall, 
pending completion of the India office, 
in a studio and workshops for photo-litho- 
graphic work. He had familiarised himself 
with the processes of photo -zincography 
discovered by the director-general of the 
Ordnance Survey, General Sir Henry James 
[q. v.]. By careful experiment he found 
that the use of cold, instead of hot, water in 
developing the transfer left the gelatine in 
the whites of the transfer, thus giving firmer 
adhesion to the stone and serving as a sup- 
port to the fine lines. He also invented 
pho to -chromo -lithography by first printing 
from a pho to -lithographic transfer a faint 
impression on the paper to serve as a 'key,' 
separating the colours on duplicate negatives 
by varnishes, then photo-lithographing the 
dissected portions on stones, finally regis- 
tering and printing each in its position and 
particular colour, with the texture, light 
and shade of the original. 

He greatly cheapened the production of 
colour work by a simplified form of this 
discovery, viz, by a photo-lithographic 
transfer from a negative of the original 
to stone, printed as a ' key ' in a suitable 
colour, superimposing thereon, in exact 
register, transparent tints in harmony 
with the original. Opaque colours, when 
necessary, were printed first. So far from 
keeping secret or patenting those improve- 
ments, Griggs described and gave practical 
demonstrations of them to the London 
Photographic Society (14 April 1868). He 
was thus a pioneer in the wide diffusion of 
colour work and half-tone block-making, 
and helped to bring about rapid cylindrical 
printing. But for his * brilliant and pains* 
taking work, chromo -lithography as a 
means of illustrating books would be almost 
a lost art, like that of coloured aquatint' 
(MABTIN HARDIE'S English Coloured Books, 
1906, pp. 255-6). 

Griggs established photo-lithographic 
works at his Peckham residence in 1868, 



* 



llt/US 
1 *^ 



.iroomc 



ftaoii lifter thfl {ttiMifmtim* of \m firMt imtnbk* truaUw j Hir Itidmn! TI.WJ*WH 'Thirt 

aehi?vr*mt<nl ........ 4lw form*! if yl fflfilra ilhMw 8rmm NaU * in BurJimfl^MM; MN! man 

tin Dr.* I'Vtrl.H' WtitwmW Tt'KtiU* Miuiu- wiriifjiw workn, mid* JIM f>r. M. (', (Jook 



many 
ting Dr.* I'Vtrl.H' WtitwmW Tt'KtiU* Miuiu- wiriifjiw workn, mid* JIM f>r. M. (', 

iminittH of fhi* l f r*f*!0 of ! VtlliiMTiit.ioM *.i .Hritifh Fwigt ' {iliwl tdii, 
), ivhirh wiw fnllmnti by ; H vuk lNHl-) inj IIJH ''Hundhook* 



Tim 



ip in Ifulia ' (tHUH), by dnmm f*Vr#KMon ; tlmti^h by w *wtw a t;omj*l<<t4Y Ibt of 
, v*]. Hi* .|HO r*"wiw.!wl HUMW *if tht. i ^U'i^u* wi*rk in #iviw in flu* Slotmml of 

'r*Virfnu 4 iwiwu .Art/ JHII. H*.JiJ. 



to hi-r Maj*'Hiy and mibwH.jm'Hl.|y t* Kin^ j <>li t'/. liHKJ). rtrul in J-JIH !a(4*r yrarn w 
l^hvaiil VII, Tlimitfh U ^.oiitrntH r*l ihr i aHMi^hii in bu^incHH !.> IHH t-wu H*:n, T 
.u.'U.m wrii'Hii**}***-^'*! Jwf.w^ttSt.mih Jinn f*f W. Oriw* *V NI.*UH w*w i'ormt'tl inti 
and t*li*nvhtir^ in IH7H, In* . a |iiil.iluu'-um|MM*,v niiS*MM\ 11H..HK Hi* \VIIH 
to m^rvii fclw liidiii **JlwM* iill f**r a fiiijfi inafiiixitiM dir^^or, but owing 
tiM*xt(^ftirth tlwotttitf hiit*f*lf .; i*' ilMir/vlf-.h rrmgiii**! all rrjinitviioi* will* 
iii hi w.u Snuitui^i j l.lii* tv.ti-Hj*a-y ttt 

In tt?mxlti?Uifi}M :*C <M mnriUM^riitn and j fin liH.i at 

buri^l in ib* Fttrrrtt Mill 

alH^r, rarrit:^ wi tut 
MH bin f.at 

n-MMtiV* it** 
of 4(114 pt^t*it (187i), wiw rtrt-mitl iMt fur j 

I.IIMHC i*MM than U.M* f?*iifv fir i* inw?i*i j tt^h t-VilMirpii Hn4,^ M*jii ,lur t t rhit*.. 
<( till* wrmiiiifcl M*S. ity liaiwl M*.*n* witMy ; ^rapbi** JSMf\ M|. \.**W\*M> NM, io^* IK April 
iicnn'Vi.T, nn,* IIIM N1mk<'**j'ar** | IKiiH ; .rtittfit.t-.t.lirHmM'JftUit^m^hy, jiainj-ili^i 
with mfind iti(n-H:iu<.1.i(iHH by | by tn^^<i IMHJi; J*.yru, .l Jntimit Art, 
k Jjtnn^ KtiiriiivaH |q* v Siijij*!, ifj 'I 'li***. .HUJi* t*bii< by t'ol. IlimlJ^y ; Tin* 1*i 
trnsiit'M vfk{lH8!.-iH), whirl* wrn* H ^ r **' HMI j iVmhTi 1 l.t^Kwft.-r, H ,J*ui. 
at (to. wwh tt-hili.' ilw huttt.l-trmHti ftwi- *I*trirttinn ia|i|ihf.n.i by Mr, Wnitt-r ** 



i*i by 
l*hilii|*rm *|* v,j, 



T 



4 K, tirwf- 



at 



iiiiilt* hiif I*! W <lMl-ifw*t uit*'i*ttttrtf,tm.ii**$ Kijf i*t<f"wwU JUMfVi l^fer, 1 J"* Hi lit 

rH .* #.wi * >, ?! Jr * *" T IT * 

*f*wtiw* Orchard 
htui bwatt wild at 
On tho initiative of Hit 

gave him ootiiitant <Morai.ww>ttl 

Vw ' T 1 

In IHHi " 

of eouiuui on tSchunititiii for ! wriii*r, MtHiotut mm i4' iiitbitrt 
a mnm of Hhiliing * i 4 t>ri{ilU>K of luduMtnii! j {{ v.j, jmjh*ltMji..)ii of tSutli.ilk, 
Art, 1 200 of whfoh h*tv Imm,. \w\u*l t ahieily | IU.H fjttlwr'n r*HJi4:*ry iC Monk 

from the Cii.intM% Pi^rHtui^ AmbinM f j JJO Awg* i.H(51, Tiirough IUH 
^kiliiuty J'ttUiifcu, HuMMiiin, utul H|>aiih { ih*n.i wtw A fitntily 
MIMioiifumM at Houth K<<ft*fin#km,. Umloriai | .i)i'n?liat, *WKl f thwn* in 
armngement with the gov**rmm?nt of Imiia, I believiug* iiIotH)*reliiiioimhi| with 
aluo nttgotiated nt Hlr (]m*rg<i'H iiiHtftneo, i Uorrow [*$* v. j luiHUlhewii 
he Isittad !mm f an* IBS4 the *|utirt#r)y \ Wyk lk*gk wear "Weyiuouth* 
* Journal of Indian Arfc and InduMtry/ in ; U> IHOi) he w at ipwieh griiiiiitiar mihool 
imperial- quarto. (2*.), whieh k nUH'earriml | under Dr. M A. lloitleii t?j, v. Hupp). i,| 
on by Jbli Kuoeemioni in buninem* A notable where he diMtitignklitd hittiMfH iioth in 

L**tiii proHe and' In JLatin vt?nw 



work In th* flame Hold, dlitad by Ooionoi 
1\ H* lilndlay, wi bin * Aiian Oitrpst 

.'K' k K > % ^^i.i*'*^ 4 Jk 1* ^ *'u H 4 l 

Dcwinu* i905 of UO.Qoknmd Uioi 



. 

at 181* a copy* Nor wai to 
in Illutetittg uoh worku w Dr, 



Jam<ia Burgcw's roporti on the wctaology 
of Wwaturn India through * a long mnm 

of yatiri, and hi * Anoiont Monument* of 



India* (1887 to 1011); Golonel f 
Hindley'tt many works on' the art 
history of Hajimtaua j faxjuimiles of 
illuminated MHB, at thti Britiah Musaum 



(1880-4903), and othr 



for the 



tew ho won uovoral ouui for rawing. 
Ed holpad ki found lyia i^dit a uohml 

mtul for^ * yuar with 

' 4i?% tl 4" ffrf'tl ; f # -#** ^*1 i,J t* i I'lfli 
m l4.li J^<f'lyMl#} * HH1 MH 



went up to tbrpun vhrbiti tJ 



Oxford* matriculating in 

1871 'to WM ateotud 'powttnaMtor of 



j n 



JBvan iti 

life mn In gUffitMi had ixwrofied a niilgwltir 

* . i *.** * * t . . . *"* , 

over 



at Ipwioh had given him i0me rml know 



ledge. of Romany and of gypy lore * 



Groome 



Grose 



at Oxford he came to know gypsies inti- 
mately, a fact which gave a new turn to 
his life. He left Oxford without taking 
a degree, spent some time at Gottingen, 
and- for years lived much with gypsies at 
home and abroad ; he travelled on the 
Puszta with Hungarian gypsies, and else- 
where with Roumanian and Boumelian 
companies, and he married in 1876 a wife 
of English gypsy blood, Esmeralda Locke, 
from whom he afterwards separated. 

In 1876 Groome settled down to regular 
literary work in Edinburgh. He was soon one 
of the most valued workers on the staff of the 
' Globe Encyclopedia ' (6 vols. 1876-9). In 
1877 he began to edit * Suffolk Notes and 
Queries ' in the * Ipswich Journal.' He 
edited the ' Ordnance Gazetteer of Scot- 
land ' (6 vols. 1882-5 ; 2nd edit. 1893-5), 
which took rank as a standard work of 
reference. In 1885 he joined the literary 
staff of Messrs. W. & R. Chambers, and 
as sub -editor and copious contributor gave 
invaluable assistance in preparing the new 
edition of c Chambers's Encyclopaedia ' 
(10 vols. 1888-92). He had a large share 
in a gazetteer (1 vol. 1895), and was joint- 
editor of a biographical dictionary, both 
published by the same house. Mean- 
while he was an occasional contributor to 
c Blackwood's Magazine,' the 6 Bookman,' 
and other periodicals, wrote many articles 
for this Dictionary, and did much sys- 
tematic reviewing for the t Athenaeum,' 
1 A Short Border History ' was issued in 
1887, The delightful sketches of his father 
and his father' 8 'friend, Edward FitzGerald, 
published as ' Two Suffolk Friends ' in 
1895, were expanded from two articles 
in 'Blackwood's Magazine' in 1889 and 

1891. 

At the samo time Groomo wrote much 
on gypsies. His article on * Gipsies,' con- 
tributed to the ninth edition of the * Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica,' made him known to 
the world as a gypsyologist. e In Gipsy 
Tents' (1880; 2nd edit. 1881) recorded 
much of hie own experience, He was joint- 
editor of the ' Journal of the Gypsy Lore 
Society ' (1888-92 ; revived in 1907), and 
a paper by him on 'The Influence of the 
Gypsies on the Superstitions of the English 
Folk ' was printed in 1891, in the ' Transac- 
tions of the International Folk-Lore Con- 
gress.' Mr* Watts-Dunton has said that in 
Groome's remarkable Romany novel with 
the oddly irrelevant name of ' Kriegspiel ' 
(1896) * there was more substance than, in 
five ordinary stories,' the gypsy chapters, 
with autobiographical elements, being 
* absolutely perfect.' 'Gypsy Folk Talea* 



(1899) contains over seventy tales with 
variants from many lands, and the elabo- 
rate introduction is a monument of 
erudition and ripe scholarship. He pro- 
duced also an edition of Borrow' s 
4 Lavengro ' (1901), with notes and a 
valuable introduction. When his working 
powers failed him, Groome was assisting 
in the preparation of a new edition of 
1 Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Litera- 
ture ' (3 vols. 1901-1903) ; and for more 
than a year he was a confirmed invalid. 
He died in London on 24 January 1902, 
and was buried beside his father and 
mother in Monk Soham churchyard. 

Nothing in Groome's life is more 
remarkable than that he should have passed 
so swiftly and cheerfully from a veritable 
Bohemia of romance into the bondage of 
systematic labour, and have worked in the 
new conditions with a rare efficiency. A 
singularly alert, swift, and eager intellect, 
he was unwearied in research, impatient 
of anything less than precision, a frank 
and fearless critic ; thoroughly at home 
in wide fields of historical and philological 
research, and in some of them a master. 
A man of strong convictions and not a few 
prepossessions, ho had a knowledge of 
the romantic side of Scottish history such as 
few Scotsmen possess, notably of Jacobite 
literature in] all its ramifications native 
and foreign. His vivacious style showed 
a marked individuality. Men like Swin- 
burne and Mr. Watts-Dunton cherished 
his friendship, and ho maintained a corre- 
spondence with eminent scholars all over 
Europe (e.g. August Friodrich Pott and 
Franz von Miklosich) ; some of his many 
letters to C, G. Lcland are quoted in Mrs. 
PennelTs 'Life of Leland' (1906). 

[Who's Who, 1900 ; Scotsman, 25 Jan. 
1902; Mr. Watts - Dunton's memoir in 
Athonaoum, 22 Fob. 1902 ; information from 
brothers ,- personal knowledge,] D, P. 

GKOSE, THOMAS HODGE (1845- 
1906), registrar of Oxford University, bom 
at Rodruth in Cornwall on 9 Nov. 1845, 
was fourth son of James Grose. An elder 
brother, James, wont to India in 1860 in 
tho civil service, and died as member of 
council at Madras on 7 June 1 898. Educated 
at Manchester grammar school, under the 
strenuous high - mastership of Frederick 
William Walker [q. v, SuppL II], Grose 
was elected to a scholarship at Balliol 
College, Oxford, in 1864. He was one 
of tho few to obtain four first classes, 
two in moderations and two again in the 
final schools (classics and mathematics). 



Grose 



174 



Ciubbin 



s 



hy H, K 
'rrt r*f 
in fl 



in iJH>3 uncl 



aid, 



fnntl wrtn fnrttn.nl for 
of un<K*rnM.itmk* m 



iibtiriii, Il'WHij 



irK on 
At Oxfortl fir 

,f; K, (?. 



Imttxl B.A. in 

, r . 

r* JIM (t wfttdHii at 
Inn, Iwt hi** fikiw rhtin^tni and 
lit? did not go Ut thi* Imr, !.n I.H70 hn wiw* 

* * * ' af 1 4 i ' ' * ,. - j. t 

li* a fi'I.)fUvMii|i 

*pfitlif**d tittup ill 

w tin.' rwi nf 

lit 1872 1*<? wfi-H til 

xvorlt wii^ ''tn{inr<l to Mt*.* itnf.i*^ of 
: t:^o rh|ilain nt**l MTMrtttM ill thi' rliuj^*!. 
1HH7 h<* wvw *'It*t.'t*"rI I*.* ih? hriKfutiHitit&I 

ii, ami in IWI7 t lhf iHtw* f 'J* mviu'r *i{ rmn*4iiim^ Imrn r> III 
,* rr^i,H'fi7ir \vhi(fh Ii** h*1*J till hi ^*^ f ^. ^*** fHMtily Imin<% Kjifninli 
n I till. hc hrtirl b:**'^ prwi*.|*ril of ytti^ri^k^wii.MifMurthwiin of *)r>wph ("< 
; n,i*i m I.Hrt7i wb'ii llm ftiiAiu^K | ^y, hw wifn .Mariji. diMtghtor _! 1; 
III jnw wiil* i f| lii WftH 1 Wiw* tif f.'ufk, <>f f.lifrt* Htifviviiiig J.j 
n\v ofiirtu *if mninr ! '^d tiv^ *i*f* i rf*, f hi* IIiinHift4hi.tr, f? 
lr**i^tiritf ivhirh lik^wi^ It** ttjntittiiwi <. I w "l<*> w * w ^ f f ^ f t ^ itifhi^ tut! iiml t.*f 
hililtii]hiMtii*nth. llrt^wii lH7<h.mfi Wil8 ! |.i**rl.mim.0 ImiUI, j|ii! Ilii imny, 

in tht* m?htxii f hUtttittin^ th*> miifc of nvjttniit, ' Hbtin* 
limn a f!o/,m gtiwhinJ Umm*l$ in ihf.' (Jriin<.n.iti wr, 



** 



* lit* WIN* ttl 



w*.i 



t *>f this 



hi* 



tlm 



a 



(*. n 



tiouiifv 



ni Knorkuny, w 
7I>, nwl f.*ri.-Hi^ 



h*i Im.s 

*m 7 
tin* fn4l tim*fi hitrt of ii horm* wht^h 



in 



Hill f.tjwH (*|. v.J I 



iti Humt* ' 



n 



monitor 

with- mitttmi iltftt were nw 
voloc inat wmi grail, tin won th 
affootion ol many tii'riit]0nti of iiruii.r 



witocl !ik tuna tind fit** mniioy 

mblkmis iwiiong w 

irf thmtt who -w<?m to him !n th 



hiu piipili*' futum lift*, huwcwcr fiir mmovwi 
they ml^ht to frwnt Oxftrri. In hl oiwrly 

* 1 i w ' i 4 4" 



an Alpine elimb<4f, M<i wiw 11 

of the Alplno T Club -fmin HMD fill 

latterly hU ohW oiifcdwor.ptiritiil wiui Ibki 
botny*" Almant to tho tafc he tmvdUad 

* * -m d JK j* .01 ., 

*' 



In 1S04 h paid ' niiaa months' vWt to 
Irtdla. Ilii .roomi iiltlmaWy bmsami a 
Ktoroliouno of artlitlo oh jootn- and. -photo- 
graplw brought. back fmm foreign huocbu 
Ho diod in obllm), after a .long aad painful 
illncHM, on 11 Fob, 1000, md waa burted at 
HolywoII eomotery, . The 'Union Society, 
who had two yeaw before nreitented Wm 
with a, eervieo of Bilver plat imoiibeci 
4 Vim atronuo, mm eariiuiimOf optiine cb 
aoeietate inevito/ adjourned thaw debate 
of. jpeot to hii memory. His portrndt 

* Wf h 



iiift iit 



H^unrr nnd 



A 

him l*y n iUHK .Frwit'ln 
nf (Jrirk, Mdti!lrin ilt llrtrnm lit IHttH, 
nlt *IO,iH)<)/.' in imihliitg 



liunt<Ht tli 



, tniiil 
f tho 
youth Im t*iok 
l 
to 



tunii'ttry with 
utui \v no 
b th 



mf4r*Mt in 

i(.Jti wmi 
,tl ho 



in Iftihml* Ho wnn tho 
of tHwmtiii whim tlmt horjio won t!i* 
hurdia nia* at Atitattlf, bwt hi4 mW Jilin to 
Ix>pd Mannar* befom he won tht (Jntmi 
National- At UverjKX)! l iBHSl* linn* wa 
another flna cihawr in hia iioMwmNion. Hwy- 
ing the utalUoftft Kendal and Ht. "Florian, 
Inbred* .frarn tl*i maro Morgantittt*, CklUm 
Mow by the fortnw anci Arrt PatHflk by the 
latter, CMtoo Mow won the Two Thousand 

' .Lager 'aw wall AM tho 



govornmont for 21,11001*, who 
later p*Mid him on to' tho Pruwiitn govern* 
mont for 14tOO(U; The toiler goant- 
ment also bought An! Pairlok for 21,0001. 
clay or two War ho won tho Kolipio 



Guinness 



175 



Guinness 



Sceptre and Rock Sand after an excep- 
tionally exciting contest. Other notable 
horses bred by John Gubbins were Blair- 
finde (winner of the Irish Derby) and 
Revenue. In 1897 he headed the list of 
winning owners with a total of 22,739/., and 
was third in the list in 1903. His horses 
were at various times trained by H. E. 
Linde (in Ireland), JoussifFe (at Lambourn), 
and S. Darling (at Beckhampton.) After 

1903 John Gubbins was rarely seen on a 
racecourse owing to failing health, and in 

1904 he sold his horses in training. In 
1905, however, his health having apparently 
improved, he sent some yearlings to Gran- 
borne, Dorset, to be trained by Sir Charles 
Nugent, but before these horses could run 
he died at Bruree on 20 March 1906, and 
was buried in the private burial ground 
at Kilfrush/ He was high sheriff of oo. 
Limerick in 1886, as well as J.P. and D.L. 
A warm-hearted, genial personality, he was 
a kind and indulgent landlord and em- 
ployer, and a sportsman of the best type. 

In 1889 he married Edith, daughter of 
Charles Legh, of Addington Hall, Cheshire ; 
she predeceased him without issue. His 
estates passed to his nephew, John 
Norris Browning, a retired naval surgeon. 

[Notes supplied by Mr. D. E. Browning, 
of Bruroe, co. Limerick ; Burke' s Landed 
Gentry ; Sportsman, 21 March 1906 ; Baily's 
Magazine, May 1906 ; Buffi's Guide to the 
Turf.] ' E. M. 

GUINNESS, HENRY GRATTAN 
(1835-1910), divine and author, bom on 
11 Aug. 1835 at Montpelier House, near 
Kingstown, Ireland, was eldest eon in the 
family of one daughter and three sons of 
John Grattan Guinness (17 83-1 850), Captain 
in the army, who saw service in India. 
His mother was Jane Lucretia, daughter 
of William Cramer (an accomplished vio- 
linist and composer, who was son of Johann 
Baptist Cramer [q. v.]), musical composer, 
and was widow of Captain J. N. D'Esterre, 
who was killed by Daniel O'Connell [q. v.] 
in a duel in Feb. 1815. His grandfather, 
Arthur Guinness of Beaumont, co. Dublin, 
established the first Sunday school in 
Ireland in Dublin in 1786. During their 
father's lifetime the family lived variously 
at Dublin, Liverpool Clifton, and Chelten- 
ham. After education at private schools at 
Clevedon and Exeter, Guinness at the age of 
seventeen went to sea, and travelled through 
Mexico and the West Indies. On his return 
to England in March 1853 he experienced 
religious 'conversion.' In Jan. 1856 ne entered 
New College, St. John's Wood, London, was 



ordained as an undenominational evangelist 
in July 1857, and entered on evangelistic 
work, to which he thenceforth devoted his 
life at home and abroad. He met with 
great success as a preacher in London, 
rivalling Charles Haddon Spurgeon [q. v.] 
in popularity, and preaching often at the 
Moorfields Tabernacle, the charge of 
which he was offered but declined. There 
followed preaching tours on the Conti- 
nent in Jan. 1858, in Ireland in Feb. 1858 
and in 1859, and in America from Nov. 
1859 to May 1860. After his first marriage 
on 2 Oct. 1860 he and his wife spent twelve 
years in incessant travelling. He visited 
Canada in 1861 and Egypt and Palestine 
in 1862, He then held a short pastorate 
at Liverpool, and afterwards worked in 
Ireland, Towards the close of 1865 Guin- 
ness took a house at 31 Bagot Street, 
Dublin, with a view to forming a training 
home for evangelists and missionaries. In 
1866 he also conducted in Dublin the Merrion 
Hall Mission, and there he helped to bring 
Thomas John Barnardo [q. v. SuppL II] 
under religious influence. In 1867 he left 
Dublin for Bath. Work in France occupied 
much of his time from 1868 to 1872. Next 
year he founded in London, and directed 
till his death, the East London Institute 
for Home and Foreign Missions, for the 
training of young men and women for home 
and foreign missionary work. The Insti- 
tute was first located at 29 Stepney Green, 
and subsequently at Harley House, Bow. 
Barnardo was a co-director. During the 
first year the students numbered 32. At 
the end of three years branches wore 
formed in London, and one was installed at 
Hulme CM College, Curbar, Derbyshire, 
Accommodation was provided for 100 men 
and women ; over 1100 men and women 
have since been trained. 

With the opening up of the Congo and 
the publication of H. M. Stanley's letters 
at the end of 1877, Guinness and his wife 
resolved to concentrate on foreign missions, 
A monthly magazine, * The Regions Beyond, ' 
was started in 1878, Tho Livingstone 
Inland Mission was formed in the Congo 
in 1878, and in 1880 became a branch of 
the institute, with Guinness as director and 
Mrs. Guinness as secretary. It was trans- 
ferred to the control of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union in 1884 (see Mns. GTOT* 
NESS'S The New World of Central Africa, 
1890), A new mission to the interior of 
Africa, the Congo Balolo Mission, was 
founded in 1889,and others followed in South 
America in Peru in 1897, and the Argentine 
in 1899. The organisations were combined 



(iuily 

#r 



in ! MM Inform * IV finiimw !foyond Mi*- 
ftiofiitr,y lotion,' uti titwwf nrmrt body whrwi* 
ftirtfivitiw writ* fnrfhrr rxfrwir'd fa Indii* 
by ilif foww-tion of fh f'Mwr nitwit m in 
ib* Brntfttl wwdiw in ti*OK 

4 did wit 



in 



orlo 



ninnmi 



o 



n 



in 



tiHTM*f* it* IflKSM'w 
iw ffmfnu 

ifiiitH #imii<ftr fo 
HiirmninN*uv*<mtr<r 

iijwtj in l,Hl*7* A w 
t Kjtyrt. in iitfHf biff* jfrwi fmii 
In 
mi 
thti 



flw 



of ho 

^l /Urn* in 1882* a 
'M grammar of (ho 
?!', ;md *A CtmrnmAr of tlm 
iw rir.kf.?n in tlw d 



frrtm 



find 



flirt 



ry, n many Dtht*r 

ino!mttii * Tht^ f'il of thV Ki 



with 



, AitntnUm ntwi 



n 



"|t|i 



ftiit 



ti'UO i M' Anil Wmmw 
hirf.*^n Kr*riiM*tw, JHf4l 

r.f <utmitm>i k H lift* 



in 



, ..... r,,k tfMt <with 



*<f 



nti. 2 



* 



n 



* 



*if Iliilifiiu wlipfii In* wiurw lit 
on 20 i.Hit, IHIMI, WIM if tjjti 
wummt *tvigistbin, Hhf* jtiinwl in Jill 
t)iiii4*tt wii WIM mw^titry *if iho 

and *f tb U ving 
cm wnf* tiltlur of * T hi liie- 
Bnyaml * from W78, Ami, 
iabtimiinjfc with twr 



, 



Mr-Mirj* nf Dr, Itnrtmrdo, HOT/j W, It, 0,' 
UUMA*, W1WJAM WMIIiT. fiwt Vw. 

nf (ViininnnM, brifij ill l.^ndnn tin 

HMI$ iif Dr. J 
f h 



. 1H71S) mid *Tlw Nnw World of 
(Amtrul Afriwi 1 (iHlin), Hhn tllwl tt t iJtij 

and wnn buriid in*' itebw ultyr 

Hho hmt ix dau^hi^m, tif whotn twM*V'mly ! 

urvlyl ohiidhoot'li and two gunn, All 



The eidcwt ion, lr, Hurry 
1861 ), ii A dlroottr of ito 
HOUM. ..Thtt.yaunfl|0r 
Luoy. BvananUno nbta, .iCsrl Kumm, 
1006) v f*Utoa * Th RogionM Beytind 1 for t>mo 
.nine yewn ltor her mcittef 'ftdttAtb, pubiinhd 
bookM on Bpath AmorioA mid Indift, Md-wiw 
writer of vawe,- Her fethar publlthod' A 
memoir of her In 1W7. OulAiteM nUmtedi 
iwoondly, on 7 July 1903. Omoa s danghte of 
Bt!i Hurditch, )>y wham ha hAd two 
In ooiiAfaorAtion with ilk lint 



wopheoy. The moit important, *Tho 

End of the Ago in the Light of 




f Tliom^ ftmrl, H win* 
privAM*ly, nnd fit I tin <*niriy ngi.* of nix* 
rnt t.t Triniiy ^.tUt^n/lWiiMdMw, 
Hii ww {m}u!tir ui Mm M.nivtrH-iry untl wan 
ithtjHtni ttnwidtmi ttf Uit (^amhrt^o Union, 
In JK/Ht Itt^riultiiitiMl H,A, with A Unit oiAtw 
in tfw tnond Hf'it.iiHH*i trijwm, llitm nnitnily 
t^tntiUMhiHl, nm| tmusitHiH) 'M.A, In !ftt>. 
C..Jn *JlJ ilAft. JW.H) iw WAM Allwd UiihottarAb 
t{* Imwr tVini|t)fi, And j**ii tlw nnrthtim 
airmdt. Ho niutmt tlw liwini! ^irtigglim 
A junior bArrinttir, And tltoro if* a," wll 
i:u*ilMuiiitiiiti*I. Mtory tit n itimtting 
Uire<im0mtKirH rf tht irU whu, 
ing of thoir |irtw|tHtfii at hotito, ngim! 
iry their fortuniw' in Itnlia or thu 
Iliit thoy nxfontidomt thoir dt^irmitmtion, 
and all of thwm rum* to afninmum hi their own 
oountiy, Tlw throo wwo Chr!<M liyiwlJ 
Huppl, I], aftorwardii lowjl ohief 
of -England, F*rrw Heiwohoil [q. v, 
lL fUvwatthi lord ohariodUdr of 
Onwt- Britiin f and flully, wlit* gradually 
aitabitahad -a pa! pnwittoa tit ttw bar* 
apapuUy in oommarmol OONCMI at UverpooL 



lino proanoe mid attriollve pononality. 

IP w 



Gully 



177 



Gully 



According to a contemporary, who spoke 
with intimate knowledge, he * was one of the 
straightest advocates a circuit ever saw.' 
He * took silk ' in 1877, was elected a 
bencher in 1879, and eventually became 
leader of the northern circuit. 

In 1880 he felt that his position at the bar 
justified him in entering political life, and 
at the general election of that year he stood 
as a liberal candidate for Whitehaven, 
where the Lowther influence was strong 
against him. His opponent was George 
Cavendish Bentinck, and he was defeated by 
182 votes. Nor was he more successful in 
1885, when he tried again and was again 
defeated by the same opponent. It was 
not until 1892 that he obtained a seat in the 
House of Commons. Robert Ferguson, 
the liberal member for Carlisle, dissented 
from Gladstone's home rule policy, and 
at the general election of 1892 Gully was 
selected as a liberal candidate in his place, 
He was opposed by F. Cavendish Ben- 
tinck, but was returned by a majority of 143, 
and retained the seat until he left the House 
of Commons. In the same year he was 
appointed recorder of Wigan. 

In the House of Commons Gully did not 
take a very active part in debates, but was 
known, and liked, as a quiet member, 
apparently more interested in his pro 
fessional than in his political work. His 
opportunity came in 1895. In the April of 
that year Mr. Speaker Peel resigned his post. 
The liberal majority was small, dwindling 
and precarious, and the unionists resolved 
to nominate a member of their own party 
as his successor. The candidate whom they 
selected was Matthew White Eidley [q.v, 
Suppl. II], afterwards home secretary and 
first Viscount Eidley. On the liberal 
side Mr. Leonard Courtney (now Lord 
Courtney of Pen with), who had been chair- 
man of ways and means, was suggested by 
the cabinet. But his attitude on the 
Irish question and his somewhat brusque 
individualism were certain to alienate liberal 
and nationalist votes. Sir Henry Camp- 
bell Bannerman [q. v. SuppL II] avowed 
his willingness to take the post, and he 
would apparently have been accepted by 
the unionists. But Sir William Harcourt 
was unwilling to lose so valuable a 
colleague. Then Gully was suggested as 
a * safe ' man, whom all the sections 
of the liberal party would support. The 
suggestion is said to have come from 
Henry Labouchere. Gully was adopted 
as the liberal candidate, and on 10 April 
he was elected against Sir Matthew White 
Ridley by a majority of eleven, votes, The 

VOL, LXVIII. SUP. II. 



opposition resented their defeat, and it was 
intimated that in the event of an early change 
of government the unionist party, if returned 
to power at a general election, would not 
feel bound to continue Gully as speaker in 
a new parliament. On 25 June, after Lord 
Rosebery's retirement, Lord Salisbury 
became prime minister, parliament was 
dissolved on 8 July, and at the general 
election the unionist party obtained a large 
majority. Gully's seat at Carlisle was con- 
tested, but he succeeded in retaining it 
by an increased majority. During the 
short interval which elapsed between Gully's 
election to the office of speaker and the dis- 
solution of parliament he had firmly estab- 
lished his reputation as an excellent 
occupant of the chair, and when the new 
parliament met in August the notion of 
opposing his re-election, was abandoned, the 
tradition of continuing in office an efficient 
speaker was maintained, and on the motion 
of Sir John Mowbray, the father of the 
house, he was unanimously re-elected. He 
retained his office, after another re-election 
in 1900, until Ms retirement in March 
1905. 

Gully had a difficult task to perform in 
succeeding the majestic and awe-inspiring 
Peel, but he proved himself equal to the 
task. Handsome, dignified, courteous, 
impartial, ho sustained the judicial tradi- 
tions of many parliamentary generations. 
His professional training enabled him to 
master quickly the rules and practice of 
the house, and his judicial temperament 
secured their impartial application. There 
were some who criticised his interpretation 
of them as too technical, to others it some- 
times appeared that, as is natural to men of 
sensitive conscience, he inclined too much, 
in cases of doubt, to the side to which he 
was politically opposed ; but no one ever 
questioned his fairness of mind. One re- 
regrettable incident lost him the confidence 
of the Irish nationalist party. On 5 March 
1901, at a sitting of the committee of supply, 
the chairman, Mr. Lowther (afterwards 
speaker), had granted the closure, and a 
division was called ; but when the order was 
given to clear the house, about a dozen Irish 
members refused to leave their seats. The 
speaker was sent for, and repeated the order ; 
but the members refused to leave the house, 
and were forcibly removed by the police, 
The rule thus enforced was not embodied 
in any standing order and has since been 
expressly repealed* But there is no doubt 
that it represented the then existing 
practice of the House. Whether its en- 
forcement could have been avoided is a 

, . ' . ' K 



Gully 

ftbtiul \vhirh Anyone m s rfwu?i 



with th 

[*f*fctjil<* If* <**pri'*rt ii cf:mik!t*fit <:Juni*\v . 

liniou. in J*milMM tn 7 

In Miift'h HK'*, uft^r nearly In* ywir' Uw t.<f.v f 



th* 



'.iiirnt'v 

* 

UUHNKV, liHNHY ML1N 847- 

*.i), miiti nf ;ci**j'U'*% i.*]fk**tf, mm of 

i ' .f ; 't ^lt t '& t " 

t '* t t .1 ^t\"' \ 1 ft 'k \}> 1 1 r ( 1 1 T^t >' k ^* I '* ' t I 1 *i ''4 

|y,H ** Uf I%M ii.li**r I IlllI},, 

7. 11' 

i 1 851), under 

of Pr, Morliinar. 



* 



iif lit'iilfh, if* n>itf Uvj fHMi <*f r. ... 

tf hi?* work wiiJ* inii^h " IH* gHini:ti t.ht 



In '' 



- 
tlwr** until iHIMI; itt th school 



n 



1HII5, lit 



imd u VMt** *<f 



(mm 

b$.i* 



mi 

Jth, utirt *lring tb 
yrurn t.f I.IH lib* h< wti^ a regular 
tint Hnwii.* iif 1'itrrJH, 



l.t.A, i 



hi ri.:J]i>^* hont. utitt run fur 

in lit** Jiffil rhuiH t,f tin? xiiiturol 



. 
wiw r'ltnirituu't **t tti^ n.^Viti n*mmif^m tin : tifuiT IVif^.ir Williani 

tr tuir**, urn! ttlt.M4 ih*.i r*?nMim-iru* MIJ |tf v), wwl nrl^l f>r it whit** n 



Miller 



ti 



in 



- at 
uf flu 



tlw* j* 

fauuir, It** 

i<4Ti!iivrt iMm**iJf-r* **f 

K\iitltit.ujii 



IHHlt, 



in Ajml JH70, ^ Jit i 
i IIM wiw wiiittr Mlmv if hm 
In JH1I ln.MH*k holy wnl^w, awl 



n 



atwl 



ittun 



from hi* will**** t!<*ath or^ Ifi .Nov. j ^ 
ii wa*i l&kou w^rUitintv ill wh.ilt I Wrift"H 



Nt, lV 
ffi*f ii 
i.^turi*r 



in IH7S4 im 

Wiiltrr Wrrn at, 



n 



^ 
<.-rntiy M mmmi 



.mmt'ii a UfttijKmiry twv**ry. H* dlwl tm j MywhiiiK, nml IHIWI^W * 
6 NovtmiiMjr in tliat yowr ut hin <H>Miiiry 1 **'d 01 wirft vulu^ thai 
w^t, SutUin Hiiws,Sfii:tml, IUK! wiu* litirW | IH77 nmn^titjp[ jmrtiw 
ut BmokwiMiiJ, tbnMirriiHli.inlfiA-iriHHOa Wmi A Wuntoy, which 



W^IMIW* m 
Itrm of 



Wulfonl .. 

unitM S*.*lhy of VVhitJiy 
ill in KNMtix* Ho hiwl JMHIHI .four 
ctauautorM aitd two wm**- HIM t'id<r ncnt, 

liornoiuJtv HtjtHHJwdi.Hl to thi 
ungt?r wnii 'Kdwaiil VVttlford 
for many ymm jirivaia 
hoth to {tin 'fathar and' to bin 
,_ ,,iooiar -on Mpeak0r v owl hi HOW 
examinor of privatu blifi for tlm two -houndi 
of parliament -The teit portrait of Gully 

* . t * f j 1 ij i 'tf' 1 *, i # * i * i 

m that ' by hir UoorgB lieid in the Mpeaker H 
official .hcrnne* Another '{tortrait*- painted 
by t'hts Hon. John Collier in I BUS, Ii In 
th hall of the Inner Tompte. A. itartoon 
portrait by * Spy * appogmi in * Vanity 
Fair 'in I m 

{The TimM ( BH Nov. 1909 ; Oarliulo 
Jffixpr<ua ami Kxamin<jr .IS Hov, 1909} A* I, 
Dawrnt, Li von of tho BpuakufM, 19U ; 



un 



hnmo 



ib In* hw).k{ : & uj* hin i 

,.., T ._ m ,. fk| / > niiii ill iM7fi hi* J>ub 

only buttle, t* Mnsall but h*ttr al unrful 
on ry*tttllogrfl4*hy 



b the Kuotety fur 'Prm<iiiK Christian 
. in !W(I ; > rfxHi to 



0. 1* 



found tho Omlalltjgtottl HooU'ty, ! wan 
a ittDmb&r. m itn ffimt <H)wnil. In 1 894 
he ww apjK-irtteci Ui UIM fHwt of i*rln- 
of tlie llurham Ouik^o of 'fcta 
Tyttt). in uobeiwiion 
. At ft csrlttal portod in 
the history of the Goltogo of Scionoe Ounu>y 
ihowod taot> ability* and immm of otm- 
dilation and wtainbtroiion.- Nwxt ywwr 



flunwy uddud tho dtttleM of pmftwuor of 



Gurney 



179 



Guthrie 



mathematics to the burden of the princi- 
palship, retaining the chair until 1904. 
In 1895 he took a prominent part in 
founding a department of mineralogy and 
crystallography at the college, and was 
himself the first lecturer, giving his services 
gratuitously. In 1896 the honorary degree 
of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the 
University of Durham. 

To meet the additional accommodation 
which the growth of the college made im- 
perative, Gurney arranged an influential 
public meeting at Newcastle in 1899, where 
a strong committee was formed to collect 
subscriptions. In 1901, at Gurney's sugges- 
tion, the Armstrong Memorial Fund was 
. devoted to the completion of the college, as a 
memorial of Lord Armstrong. The college 
thereupon took the name of Armstrong 
College. The new buildings were duly 
commenced in 1904. 

Gurney died through a mountain accident 
in Switzerland on 13 Aug. 1904, having 
apparently lost his footing whilst out 
alone on La Roussette near AroHa. He 
was buried at Ganerew in Herefordshire. 
In 1872 he married at Whitchuroh, Here- 
fordshire, Louisa, daughter of thp Rev. 
H. Selby Hele of Grays, Essex. He left 
a family of nine daughters ; the eldest, 
Mary, is head mistress of the Newcastle 
high school for girls. 

Gurney was essentially a teacher and an 
organiser of teaching, who combined great 
abilities as an administrator with a sound 
knowledge of scientific principles and 
marked powers of clear exposition. He 
acted as chaplain to the bishop of Newcastle, 
and warden and chaplain of the Newcastle 
diocesan house of mercy. For the first 
supplement of this Dictionary he wrote 
the memoir of Lord Armstrong. He also 
privately printed ' The Continuity of Life ' 
(1876) and * A Sermon on Words ' (1882), 
and contributed notes on geology to the 
6 Transactions ' of the Institute of Mining 
Engineers. 

There is a bust of Gurney by Mr. C* 
Neuper in Armstrong College library, and 
an oil painting by A. H* Marsh in the hall. 

[Mmoralogical Mag., vol. xiv. Oct. 1904, 
No. 63, pp. 61-4 ; Newcastle Diocesan Gaz,, 
Sept. 1904, p. 11.0 ; the Northerner, vol. v. 
No. 1, Nov. 1904, p. 2; Lady Glare Mag,, 
vol. iv. No. 1, Oct. tenxl, 1904, p. 7 ; City of 



London School Mag., No. 169, March 1905, 
p. 3.] H. L. 

GUTHRIE, WILLIAM (1835-1908), 
legal writer, born at Oulhorn House, 
Stranraer, on 17 Aug. 1835, was son of 
George Guthrie of Appleby, chamberlain 
to the earl of Stair, by his wife Margaret, 
daughter of Robert McDonall. Educated 
at Stranraer Academy and at the Uni- 
versities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, he 
passed to the Scottish bar in 1861, but 
never acquired much practice in the courts. 
Devoting himself to the study of law, he 
became editor of the ' Journal of Juris- 
prudence ' (1867-74) and an official re- 
porter of cases decided in the court of 
session (1871-4). In 1872 he was appointed 
registrar of friendly societies for Scot- 
land, and in 1874 one of the sheriff- 
substitutes of Lanarkshire. In 1881 he 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Edinburgh University, and in 1891 
represented the Paculty of Advocates 
at the International Law Association. In 
1903 he was raised to the position of 
sheriff-principal at Glasgow, where he 
took a prominent and useful part in public 
affairs. He died in the house of his son, 
David Guthrie, C.A., Glasgow, on 31 Aug. 
1908. Ho was buried in the Cathcart 
cemetery, Glasgow. He married Char- 
lotte Carruthers, daughter of James 
Palmer of Edinburgh, by whom he had 
four sons and two daughters. 

Guthrie was an industrious legal writer. 
His principal publications (all at Edin- 
burgh) were: 1. The fourth edition of 
Robert Hunter's ' Treatise on the Law 
of Landlord and Tenant,' 1876. 2. * Select 
Gases decided in the Sheriff Courts of Scot- 
land,' 1878. 3. Translations of Savigny's 
8 Private International Law ' (copiously 
annotated), 1869, 1880. 4. Editions 
of Erskine's * Principles of the Law of 
Scotland,' 1870, 1874, and 1881. 5. 
Editions of Bell's * Principles of the Law 
of Scotland,' 1872, 1885, 1889, and 1899. 
He also edited George Guthrio's 'Bank 
Monopoly the Cause of Commercial Crises ' 
(1864 and 1866) and 'The Law of Trades 
Unions in England and Scotland under 
the Trade Union Act of 1871 ' (1873). 

[The Times, Scotsman, and Glasgow 
Herald, 2 Sept. 1908.] O, W. T. <5. 



auen 



I lad en 



HAOKN, Si 

. i'<f.rh*T 



* i,H*nt 
A 



t mm* 



wo 



in 



it 

SKVMOtlH I*Arw win* #pt in ihi nrf, t&htmfa, 
, flit.* w.i ol qitif** muni f n*w bin |iw*Jy nrtmtia inoli- 
'M,l*. f t7HlijH21) . imfbit (u* ww wlway* it nfmintfh iuH 
MU Ml Krpf, .. of HIM tw of tinwi.ng in imming tlw 
I hiM fnU'HT <i)'i* : i i*v^ M( th* Hiirgt'pti* 

;j to ij'm!*'ii H4it.ixh.t jft*ift*:i.Miifi from km 

t\M f^MHJntmt work i*f HirK**n t ivhit'h hi.^ t 
|rtti>- ; itH JHH7. il* OH* u.rt> uij hindy o'f i*i 



n 



f 



b 



iMtiittrur, IK iJii* ttjut. 
t< .M.stt'^pi fnr li. ffW 
_ niirl fttwu* fii-itttly jM.rtmiU uft4r 
ill ; Wright .*!.' !HT!*VI hw wirk i** tmtitvjy 

U J ? ' * ,fc 1 * * * . *" '. 



in 



in I ho 

of I hi* S 
% wht*n> in* 

, iiiitl, lufor, ^riim^r *.M 
itt lh f**ilitnry howp 

f44T nnd in 



Htu*fi*K* lint I 
\ Hrn* h 



to 



irttt-h 



Aft 



of 



to 



t*f Htytt% ii, imi* 
til tiu* vnUn* **f lini*, HIM! ii 

fit ; fhi(rrttl||.fi iHilufitliftci ttf 

fi*i!ifji|Vt*% M*wl; iff 3 

luiijih^r f'Wt;* hiiurlrtHl Hii*f <Hty iti all (No 
itttti r7 in .!*r. 

ii - in iwfily 



of a Hi.*il* ; t 



in 



niiti t^t^hing whtai 



lor i 
ovia 
t!u C* 



liMtnimrv 

*- . i . * * 

iif iSririiiH^ jittn A.I 4 ! 
in (trivAMt |nwiitm t Hi 

!. in 111:47, moving in IH7M i*i : 

4f f*t'*it'f 'l^f iit#fBLliF* ill Illit-Ilflttll ti'i flit* '' 

4Hf*ji"t>$ ,**if*VI. **.'* ***. Mft4* I *"# *-" ip'l.1%' ; 

i of ft. fkrgii |i.rlvttUi . firinitfa* IH? i it* 
time for muah uuhilo work, in 

. * & '* ^ i.%i* J iij *t t. *.* 

to Biirgicicy M0ti*niKi mirvitig wit tlw Jfirjw | iiin |H : Hiktit r w in** 

tuitl ettntrihuting in thin mjwity n*i AUMih^r would & 
ihittitttm* rt.^|^rl ix^narktibtM | Hi si of WH 
^>iwlii|i of tho i>|M^nU>iuri of | Italiiift jmtmtiy 
lit* witM^uiiiNuitiitg mirgt^ti l< J litit tJu+r** wan 

! ( f thft I iit*fof0 lift (iM*k W| C'Uthltig n-giiiii in 
By that Uiw* li'mlt^t hml 4.iiio Jtito 



ttru 



iiiis ttwwl to urns 



th nnitirtl^ of 
<*nrly w* 

f |V*yrU^li 



the |*ri 

too toyn! 



of. 






lit th 

fr 

lift* h 



with 



McNeil 



in 



II], w 



' woll w 



wltiah 



beoo&ie more or tei ; 
from tho'old-ftuihloYted mothud* of burial 



ivitiob to affected by Ui iawn 

A 't M. JKi-*'' tau, lUd .L- 



tbn of a t 

linhod on um subject, sevoral 
Tha X)Japoal of the Dead/ *A 




to. Earth* 1875). 



and * estimation -an Incentiivo to OHine 
(2nd edit, 1B92). AmoM hii fellow prtaoti- 
ti00ra he w&i noted- lor aa Inatmetiva 
power of diagnoMi, -due 'largely to a dfad- 

vision* Mtioh of hid 



time in tho evenings- while a student in 



on 






Iteten l:M*itr 



of 
of t m 



otimitis b 



, 25)-ti( 

by linpUght Th<* two 

' 



in 

* u $ 

Mil Hi 

ilouo 



in IHISJi. th0 
tlw thirtwm prlflti 



One Imlf of Haden'n etoidngw wens pro 



in tbe dDondo iuoiKHKiing' lB59Hixty 
tight being dono In the two 'yoom 1864^1} 
Tfon in IB77, wlic*n h won 

Bir John 01 
^irwtiydM iravn! 



Robiiwon in Spaiiiy ha eompfeted Jjta"iWK)rd 



Haden 



181 



Haden 



number for one year, etching thirty-nine 
plates. Between 1859 and 1887 he was in- 
termittently regular in his pastime, two years 
being the longest interval that he allowed 
to pass without etching a plate. After 
1887 no plate is recorded until 1896, and 
in the next three years, 1896-8, he did 
eighteen plates, including a considerable 
number of mezzotints, a process which 
he chiefly practised at this late period of 
his activity. His last plate, a sketch of 
Woodcote Park, done on a pewter plate 
from the artist's bedroom window, is dated 
1901. 

Except for the twenty-five etchings 
which appeared in Paris under the title 
4 fitudes a 1'eau-forte ' in a portfolio with 
text by Philippe Burty (1865-6), nearly 
all Haden' s etchings were j)ut into com- 
merce separately by the artist. Pieces of 
capital importance in the sale-room are the 
'Thames Fishermen' (HABKINGTQN, No. 
11) ; ' By-road in Tippcrary ' (ib. No, 30) ; 
the larger ' Shore Mill Pond ' (ib. No. 38) ; 
c Sunset in Ireland 7 (ib. No. 51); 'La 
Belle Anglaise' (tV No. 90); the * River 
in Ireland ' (ib* No. 91), and, most popular 
of all, the * Breaking up of the Agamemnon ' 
(ib. No. 145), a subject repeated in a later 
plate (ib. No. 229). But those pi&ces 
capitales arc by no means the best of his 
work, which is as often found in the plates 
of less rarity and value. Special praise 
is due to the series of dry-points done in 
1877 near Swanago, e.g. ' Windmill Hill,' 
No. 1 (H. No. 163) ; and for breadth and 
vigour of style in pure etching ' Sawloy 
Abbey ' (ib. No- 148) ; ' By Inveroran ' 
(ib. No, 149) j the Mnn, Purfleet' (ib. 
No, 139) ; the ' Essex Farm ' (ib. No, 155) ; 
and the 6 Boat House ' (ib. No. 156). 

Haden's practical services to British 
etching include the foundation in 1880 
of the Society (now tho Royal Society) 
of Painter-Etchers, whoso president he 
remained until his death. His public 
service was rewarded in 1894 by a knight- 
hood, and his distinction recognised abroad 
by honorary membership of tho Institut 
de Franco in 1905, the Acad6mio des Beaux 
Arts, and the Soci6t6 des Artistes Fra^ais, 
He was elected a member of the Athensoum 
in 1891 under Rule II. Among the medals 
awarded him at various times for etch- 
ing were Grands Prix at the Expositions 
Uruverselles at Paris in 1889 and 1900. 
He exhibited etchings in the Royal Academy 
from 1860 to 1885, using the pseudonym 
of H. Dean in the exhibitions of 'I860 to 
1864. He also produced a large^number 
of landscape drawings (now preserved in the 



collections of Mr. F. Seymour Haden, Dr. 
H. N. Harrington, the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and elsewhere), some of the earliest 
being in water-colour, but the majority exe- 
cuted in black chalk, characterised by great 
breadth and vigour of handling ; he received 
a medal for some exhibited at the Inter- 
national Exhibition, Chicago, 1893. Most 
of Haden's etchings were done direct on 
the copper without the aid of preliminary 
studies, but drawings which were used as 
studies for twenty-seven etchings are 
known. 

The (jhief collections of his etchings 
are in the British Museum, the Avory col- 
lection in the New York Public Library, 
the Allbright Art Gallery, Buffalo, and the 
private collections of Dr. H. N. Harrington 
(who was one of Haden's executors) and 
Mr. Harris B. Dick of New York, Special 
exhibitions of his etchings were held by the 
Fine Art Society (1878-9), at tho Corpora- 
tion Art Gallery, Derby (1886), by the Royal 
Society of Painter- Etchers (1889), Wunder- 
lioh & Co., New York (1890), P. & D. 
Colnaghi (1901), F. Keppel & Co., New 
York (1901, 1903, 1904, 1906, 1908-9), 
Grolier Club, New York (1902), at the 
Salon d' Automne, Paris (1907), by Obach & 
Co., London (1907), T- & R. Annan & Co., 
Glasgow (1910), Ernest Brown & Phillips, 
Leicester Galleries (1911, Dr. H. N. Har- 
rington's collection, with his valuable 
preface to the catalogue). 

As a critic and writer on art, Hadon 
will be chiefly remembered as a pioneer 
of the scientific criticism "of Rembrandt's 
etchings (of which ho had a considerable 
collection). He was largely responsible 
for tho Rembrandt exhibition at the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts Club in 1879, and his 
introductory remarks to the catalogue 
gave the chief impetus to the criticism that 
has divided so much school work from 
the master's own etching. In addition to 
this introduction (published separately in 
1879 as ' The Etched Work of Rembrandt ' ; 
French trans. 1880), his most valuable 
publications on art include * About 
Etching 1 (1879; 3rd edit. 1881), 'The 
Relative Claims of Etching and Engraving 
to rank as Fine Arts and to be represented 
as such in the Royal Academy' (1883), 
'The Art of the Painter-Etchers' (1890), 
'The Royal Society of Painter- E tchers ' 
(1891) (this and the preceding reprinted 
from the * Nineteenth Century '), * The 
Etched Work of Rembrandt, True and 
False ' (a lecture, 1895), his ' Presidential 
Address to the Royal Society of Painter- 
Etchers, 1901 ' (1902). 



Haig Brown 



On rotirmg from hi** Lwnlrm 
in 1BB7 Hittitti lived in t!u< 



^ Ilaig Brown 

1840} and inking h*ly wlm 



1852 



',7 : J(,. Sf , H! 1 .H. 1 ( * W W, T ' . i . "1 * n " > - - - ' 1 ''.. ^ 

of AIri*HC*.mt r HwnjiHhirt*. ' From j work 



n 



IIP \VHM 



188ft ho rtwiuwt at 

w* old KiiautM-lwn hmjmv, w!wrn Im dinl 

cm I .him* IMO* i^Iy Hnsli*n di*d in 

IftOH, By lu*r In> hint <*wi 

imt! ihrw riH. lii^cUU'Ht wnn, _ 

lhf ^)Kmtni Hirvirn in South Afrirfu 

both dtnn 1 bv MfM'nntb fliwr! in 

* *ii * ^ 1 1 

on*.* ot'inic in liw* j"W"WKi*,HMtr>ii r>i ru-H 

M.r F* SVvin- ..-- -. -. . . ; ,. ., 

u ^ * ,t A,, u u j -4-^ * . -*"i| 4 4 ' 1 :s,f i ' l i'"i\i' iJ fc i; t |iSE4 1 

f<* ili^ !t<?y*M iSr*('r* s f t V of rrtlttti i r"-nt<llU 1| fH *>tovn HHI 

Thw in it iiurtrmt ilrawing by AI|ihoH* ; t-i*1vi d^ 

itlN'.nit IH8*i. atid o*ro in 
of 1 
Hm i* 



In 

Khvyn *f fho hfihm*1rrHhi[ nf 

.Hrmvn 

i .Nnv,, its H|il^ f the* 
nlifi*>ti t-tuif' * lli* s Sri mot 
\VHM thm hiH fill*% 
iiti*ti ul tin* Hi^hfjfiL On 

* in {.'hHrU'rlmuw* at 



t* *rhfi<'ki'rn, who tiiwt 

I! nig ..Brown 



Hi \VH.H al 
t*ntit?at. l'lit<M*(i iii iht* In* art* o 



{ pkh'B),. I.,, ,llHm<t {187f), "U 
7K), W. Stnui(iHH:i, II, 



fjimfioff, ntwl u-iili 

- itn * 



it waw 



rw't'i'inriiwi by 0, W"'Xlirr!mnt "(!HHt))[ ijM*ibl.\ utnl jlm report rf llw 

***t<Li *n *** ***! t* 1 4 tt I t'ii j\ f at iff*"* 4*i i I WWt I 1 *^* 1 1 'ti JiH T H "t III! Jill nl^l*'l3fl *i^">l*'>l vlftTIV * 

>\ H 1 " 4**' fi/ntl JIM.' ** * * > lt fr.iP.. J^, * 'r ^ t * "> .# |i ' ' . , * ^ 

itthiiiHcm fIKH7i. untJ Sir Fmuk'S|irt *iHit*ii*!y riiun.iiiifiwltt.J t<Hnnmvii! A 



m 



(i l<*hinMow (I8H7), and Sir Frank 
{It'll 1, affvr tin* 



tlw 

tin* ftbjfH'twitM nf 
Ayii<n |'*|- v HtiftpL Ij, who 
ri'ttiovat im uw iwry * 

' 

r in 



JII, N 
10 (im*!i 

of fwMttrm^H) ; n'riiuw, *?** ; & Hth!mrf.j t'imi 
tUO ; inlorninUmi mjmUwi by iti H, ; v^ntora wul ihrir i|tiritii.iti 



in 

Apart 

Jiko A* H, 
th 
thirty, w 

:*1K* 'Who 



fy tho 



A, M, If, 



HAW BKOW'N, WILUAM (IH2- 
1907), inmito of amnt>rhnuHt% born nt 



|j ft j ts 



i>C thi 



itutitority win* tli*'*i* 8<ij*rit)r to thai of 



won thrnt mn of Ilitiiiuw iirowu orK*H 
hur^h by hiH wif^ Atm*)ia, dnug.!it4r nl 
H'aig of th faintly of k Hai^ of B 

)jr(w*itlati*ji k> UhriHt*H Hospital, wh<n ho 
rtnnaint^U flmi ift Ihrs junior wrhool itt 
liortfortl. and laf^t* OB in ]'/Hlon tmiif 
1842. Throughout Hfo hn 'Jiuunt.niiM.Hl ii 
clows' oonnootion with th Ilo^jjltal, of 
whkli ho teama a * donation govtmior * In 
1864, and from that tima tok an aotivn 
arfc in tho work of this governing body, 

. a. . .'**. j "3 . tf ' 



i* Iluig 

finnihtr 1*> ol*l (Jarthiwiitrm, htyig 

if*ilt 



won 



itt* 



n 



tho 



o 



s OKpproE0a being of oftpaoiai iinr!oon 
oonnootion with tho'' mmoysl of th ohool 



to Horaham In 



WM author. In 



i Kfttli /tf * T^A 
fj |>PliH O* J.Jw 

Carmori ' in Latin, and -of *Tho 

Bong ' m English, with an acidod' vendon 



in Grook, Fnsboh, and Oannan. In 1842 
lie tmtared Bomhrok^ Collago, 'Cambridge 
graduating B.A. in 1840 an eighth junior 
optima- in tho mathematical md wmnd 



in . the first 



in tho 



tripos, 



Elootod a follow in October M848 (M.A. 



I8<JO this 

on l!i*' rwttuval, n4 n. 

WAH 



hill* 



fijur 



*ni 
JttU*r 



'* MH! 



of 
law 



'The* new and admimlilt' niu? at 

ww iwKJidtwtitlly dinovoml by Ifalg 
Bmwn, wlio, wlum. on . vWt to !*!* wifi : * 



hi mstory of 
naighbourhood, hcuml tlmt tho * Dwinory 

' 



for 



watkcni 



Iho 



mm day, ami mado up inn iirul Tlta 
governori who hud ild"* law purtitm of 
their London mtata to Morohant Taylom* 
ohol for n prion far bolow iln mil valua, 
rofuflod, by what pmved to Im aiyoty 
ooHtly error, to purohaso moro-tbfm fifty* 



Haig Brown 



183 



Haigh 



five acres, a large part of which was useless 
either for buildings or for playing-fields, 
and made provision for the accommodation 
of only about 180 boys. But the main 
point was carried ; the first sod was turned 
on Founder's Day 1869, and on 18 June 
1872 the new school was occupied by 
117 old and 33 new boys. From that 
moment its progress was marvellous. e The 
Schoolmaster ' no longer occupied a posi- 
tion subordinate to the c Master ' of the 
hospital, but by the appointment of a 
" new governing body of Charterhouse 
school ' (distinct henceforth from the ' gover- 
nors of Charterhouse'), in accordance with 
the Public Schools Act of 1868, he became 
a headmaster, with the very amp] e statutory 
powers whicn that act bestowed. Once 
Haig Brown held power he knew how to 
use it. Fearless himself, he inspired all 
around Mm with his own courage and 
confidence. Within a few years, in addi- 
tion to the three houses originally built 
by the governors, eight others were erected 
by various masters entirely at their own 
risk, until by September 1876 the number 
of boys had grown to 500, the number to 
which it was then wisely limited, though it 
afterwards crept up to 560. In 1874 the 
school chapel was consecrated, and from 
then for more than thirty years frequent 
additions were made to the school in the 
shape of class-rooms, a hall, a museum, 
and now playing-fields. When Haig Brown 
retired in 1897 he had earned the title 
which he everywhere bore of ' our second 
Founder.' 

In 1872 the future of Charterhouse was 
precarious ; in 1897 it was secure j and the 
result was mainly due to the powerful, 
single-minded personality of the head- 
master. Ho was not a great teacher, 
certainly no theorist about 'education, no 
lover of exact rules, and rather one who 
allowed both boys and masters the largest 
measure of independence. Like the other 
three great schoolmasters of the century, 
Arnold, Thring, and Kennedy, ho neither 
sought nor received ecclesiastical prefer- 
ment. Though bold to make changes, he 
was loyal to the past, so that ho became 
the living embodiment of e the spirit of the 
school/ both in its old and its new ' home.' 
A man * of infinite jest,' though he could be 
very stern, he was always very human, so 
that ' Old Bill,' as he was called, was an 
object equally of awe and of affection. 

On his retirement from the school in 
1897 he was appointed master of Charter- 
house (in London). H took an active 
part in the government of the hospital, 



and remained an energetic member of the 
governing body of the school. Among 
other distinctions bestowed on him were 
those of honorary canon of Winchester in 
1891, and honorary fellow of Pembroke, his 
old college at Cambridge^ in 1898. He was 
also made officier de 1' Academic in 1882, and 
oificier de F Instruction publique in 1900, 
He died at the Master's ]odge at the hospital 
on 11 Jan. 1907, and was buried in the chapel 
at Charterhouse School. 

Haig Brown married, in 1857, Annie 
Marion, eldest daughter of the Rev. E. E. 
Rowsell. During the forty years of his 
school work she rendered him untiring 
assistance. By her he was father of five 
sons and seven daughters. 

As a memorial of his work at the school 
a seated statue in bronze by Harry 
Bates, A.R.A. (who died before the work 
was wholly finished), was set up in front 
of the school chapel in 1899. His portrait 
by Frank Holl (etched by Hubert von 
Herkomer) wag placed in the great hall in 
1886. 

Haig Brown's published works are the 
' Sertum Carthusianum ' (1870) ; ' Charter- 
house Past and Present' (Godalming, 1879); 
and * Carthusian Memories and other Verses 
of Leisure' (with portrait, 1905), a collection 
of various prologues, epilogues, epigrams, 
and other fugitive pieces. Three of his 
hymns, ' God, whose Wisdom made the 
Sky,' * God, Thy Mercy's Fountains,' and 
' Auctor omnium bonorum,' have a per- 
manent place in the service for Founder's 
Day, and are worthy of any collection. 

[William Haig Brown of Charterhouse, 
written, by some of MB pupils, edited by his 
son, H, ,13. Haig Brown, 1908 ; personal 
knowledge,] T. E. P. 

HAIGH, ARTHUR ELAM (1855-1905), 
classical scholar, born at Leeds on 27 Feb. 
1855, was third son, in a family of three 
sons and two daughters, of Joseph Haigh, 
chemist, by his wife Lydia, daughter of 
Charles James Duncan. He was educated 
at Leeds grammar school, where he gained 
nearly every school distinction. On 22 Oct. 
1874 ho matriculated from Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, with a scholarship, and 
began his lifelong career of study f and 
teaching at the university. As an under- 
graduate he was veraatile and successful, 
He took a first class in classical moderations 
in 1875 and in litersa humaniores in 1878 ; he 
won the two Gaisford prizes for Greek verse 
(1876) and Greek prose (1877), the Craven 
scholarship (1879), and the Stanhope prize 
for an essay on the 'Political Theories of 



Haines 



184 



Haines 



* 

Dante 7 (1878)* Me miuio pungent and 
withy 



by Inn wife Harriet, daughter of f t} 

at tho Union on tlm liherai Kid ridge of Kmlfonl T}ie 'father won ( 
side, and he rowed in the Corpus eight Hcended from jr.ojteroH Suwx \ 
when it WJIH near tho hem! of the river, of whom tho mont remarkahle want. 
On graduating 11 A* in JH7B (MA. 1881) j liaineH {10IJH *lBKf), author, among 
ho was elated to a felloWMhij) at Hertford, workfv>f *TheJ>eventionof 'Poverty '(KJ74) 
which ho held fill I HBO, lie lxcwn dnwimii ami 'A Method of < Government for PuUIio 
lecturer at Corpim alno in 1878, and for the j Working Almnlmtwen' (Hi?!*)* Kdueaknl 
next twenty-Heven yearn wan ronHfantly | at MtdharHi nehool ml in JlrtjHwtlH and 
etigngeo* iii twttimig ut (hat and ofhe^r j Drenderi, Kntieriek* following th<* fxainnlc? 
coiii'gert. In HK)I he w*.w mhnifted fellow j of IIJM two elder hrotherH enfere<l Uu arniy, 
of GVu'|niH t find w^m appohiled m-nior tutor ? iw'ing ^wxetied enni^n in tht* 4th {tfi 
tlie foJiowintf " : year. He wiw eiiiwHieitl i Kiiig'n Own) regityerst on ill <huie iHIJIK 
inodemlor in 18HH !) tutd nguin in I. Hi 17 H, | Ho j*.>in*ii IIIM re^inient at '.H/tngnbms 

Hnigh eollalw*mie<i with T, L. Pajiiiloji j where lii eldent liroihr-r <'ir^gory, hm! jut 
in an edition of Virgil with a very weftd j married ^ a 1tuigiUr of J^tr 'I1.ng[i (jif'titr* 
text(IB!)2); am! he |HtljliHhe(l *The Aft;ie ! w/inln tlie lii>l viwi*unf.) (jotj^'h j<i, v, 
Theatre 1 (IHBft) and * r flio Tntgie Dram aj who ^ \v*w in eoiiiyad **f the MVMOJ 
of the (Jreekn 1 (IHiH)}, Thene workn, whieh | diviMion. l*hw faintly eoimeetiou linj j,, 
gavo ilaigli a ^ewml refitjtation f eMhihit j IH11 to tho upj-ininfinVnt of flainew, wlm 
Hound Heholarnhip, iiidefM'ndenf- jitd^ijeiit, j had tjeeii |*rotiio(ed hHiteitaut in 
the fitiutlly of JiieJd e^ponitifnh and aj'W^A.lM^ to Hough, then eomitm*i 
widt* t*ang<> of danniea! and nii?^*e!Ja!ieotiw I tfhief iu the Ka?t IndieM, ! ttit* |j ri 
w.twiing, _ J war hr* wiw <rlig miJitury Heeretary 

Haigli laid in*m Htr*w than mow! Oxford j the eontfttaiider ifjefiief, mjd fought 
tHtorn of hin time on verbal twnmu^ ami \ Mond&ee iui*i at Fers^f^Jjah. where 
tlKuieed for done leatiia! Bfwly, Hut thi* j *lHg<roijHi t v wntiutied, j.ii wrvb 
Jimii-ationH of hin method were <H*iiHiHteut j rinvimltnl l!y a <*itj-4twiu\y, without ]'iavm^nt 
with browi and vnij*ath<*iin literary in- j in Ihe !0th fiof (My IK-.IIJ). wniww he 
tere^tn. He wtudiiHt Kn^Iinh literature with | e^ehangi^l in Mnr*?h 'lH-J.7, into tiie 2!t 
<-h naine fanfidiotm dili^iitH* whieh iw* i f(-t (the Neot^ luHilii'iv), 'From *2ll Mav 



wptm the ohiMHkiH and wiwi a 
and oxtnniwiy 



aritio of tlte Englinh jKH*tH. and of Home of 

the greater writorw of Oenttany, 

i j .|: j W ' 

and Italy. 
Miiigh took little jiurt in 



living a <nutc|Uii 

faintly lf and ehenHhing a few intimate, 



i died somewhat 
at hin renideneo in the. Parkn at Oxford on 
Dea IiH)5 and wm Inmwl in liolwell 



ho iimmwl Matilda Forth 



In Ag 



dwighfcorof JoromiAh Cttton 



i ,11* 

* > i.* * i- * > 



D,JL Bh.o prcxiocxmaoti him in July IIKM f 
leaving four children, 

[Percm*l knowioclgo ; Fontor*n Alumni 
OxonwnmK,* aftfolo by A, 0, (U, A, 1>. Omilv 

"H'?! * t H * ' 4 't V jy r i A U ' ' bf 



, 
Follow of Magdalan CoUoflo Oxford) in tho 



Oxford MagaKine,-24 J*m IK)6,] 

HA1HEB, BIB FREDEEIOK PAUL 
(1810-1000), fiold-mawhal, born on 10 Aug. 
, at the Paracmap Farm, KWforl, 
x, wiw youngest child in tho family of 
three mmnmd adaughtor of arogory fiuinoi, 



B. (1778-1853), who waa in 
ommteadiat throughout the 
war and at Watorioo, and andcd 

In 



at I.IHI 



7 Mny J8-' he w 

iMgli imrf 

rtt 



for thf* 

mitt the batik* of Clhiii 
For the wmi'i* 



th 



**f Mm 



in thw 

wn ivi a brevet innjorif 
' 



iltijemt, 



1H4U mui ii 'brevet li 



v in Atiituftt< 

' '" ' 



Jn 



to the {Jrimt'H, iin u-im 
itetloiiM of tlif* Alma unit Hulaolava. 

rank m a brtfvtti iieut^ilone| 



him lifc the bat fb* of inkttrmatft 
IBM) In wttntuamlof n Hitmft 

held fr nix hmint tlm J 



on the jK*it rimd whioh ^uanlcti t! 
to thct iKtcond divMtm oam|i mi<! 

m Kingioko 1 !! opinion * augmwito th 



of. tha.day UN to an 
f much worn 



tho 



oquetly mem gnttititmr 
Hum would thrWtao Imlttng to it 

' 



ami ' 



battio 



for w^dbig tr*xitm 

to idlenoD ilia liuiwiaii artillery 'on Bholl 
Hill* am! that ludpod to bring thci battio to 
itt Ittnl.orfaii, After tto imttla of Inter- 
mm he iuoowlm! to a majority in tho 
, and he wm pnmotad to a brwvet 
(88 No?, 1854) in soognitln 



Raines 



185 



Haines 



of his conduct. In April 1855 he was 
gazetted lieut. -colonel, unattached, and 
from June 1855 to January 1856 he was 
assistant adjutant-general at Aldershot, 
where, the camp was in course of con- 
struction. From June 1856 to June 1860 
he was military secretary to the commander- 
in-chief at Madras, Sir Patrick Grant [q. v. 
Suppl. I], and accompanied him to Calcutta 
during the interval between the death of 
General Anson and the arrival of Six Colin 
Campbell in the summer of 1857. In 
Oct. 1859 he was gazetted lieut. -colonel 
of the 8th foot, which he commanded 
from Sept. 1860 to Aug. 1861. After 
brief periods of service as an acting bri- 
gadier-general at Aldershot, as deputy 
adjutant-general at headquarters in 
Ireland, and as a brigadier-general in 
Ireland, he was promoted major-general 
(Nov. 1864) and held the command of the 
Mysore division from March 1865 to March 
1870. On his return from India he became 
quartermaster-general at headquarters from 
Nov. 1870 to March 1871, and from May 
1871 to Dec. 1875 was commander-in- chief 
at Madras, becoming a K.C.B. in 1871 and 
a lieutenant-general in 1873. 

From April 1876 to April 1881 Haines 
was commander-in- chief in India. From 
the beginning of his term of office the 
attention of the Indian government was 
occupied by difficulties with Russia and 
with Afghanistan. When an Anglo-Russian 
war seemed imminent, in 1876, ho 
strongly opposed a proposal of the viceroy, 
Lord Lytton [q.v,],for an invasion of central 
Asia by & small force ( Life, pp. 21.6-24). 
He did. not oppose Lytton a ' forward 
policy,' and ho regarded the Afghan war as 
inevitable ; but he differed entirely from 
the viceroy's estimate of the forces required 
for the purpose, and he disapproved of 
such meawurea as Oavagnari's suggestion 
of a surprise attack on All Musjid. He 
believed that the Kuram valley, to the 
strategic value of which Lytton and his con- 
fidential adviser, Sir George Colley [q, v.], 
attached great importance, was a cul-de-sac 
and useless as a military route to Kabul. 
The reinforcements on \vMclx Haines in- 
sisted at the outset of the campaign of 
1878-9 proved to be required, and for his 
general supervision of the war ho received the 
thanks of both houses of parliament and 
was given the grand cross of the Star of 
India in July 1879* He was made G.O.B. 
in 1877, and on the institution of the Order 
of the Indian Empire in 1878 he became, 
ex officio, O.I.E. 

In the Afghan campaign of 187980 



Haines had again serious differences with 
Lord Lytton about the Kuram route, 
the number of troops required, and the 
relation of the commander-in-chief to 
commanders in the field. His relations 
with Lytton's successsor, Lord Ripon 
[q. v. Suppl. II], were more cordial, but 
his warnings of the danger of an attack 
on Kandahar by Ayub Khan were dis- 
regarded by the viceroy. He acquiesced 
unwillingly in General Burrows' advance on 
the Helmund river, and ordered Bombay 
troops to move up in support. After the 
defeat of Burrows at Maiwand (27 July 
1880) Haines suggested the relief of 
Kandahar by a force from Kabul com- 
manded by General Roberta. For his 
services in the conduct of operations in 
the war of 1879-80 Haines received 
again the thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment, and was offered a baronetcy, which 
he declined, The close of his term *of 
command was occupied with discussions 
about the recommendations of the Indian 
Army Commission of 1879, from which 
he dissented, urging the continuance of 
separate presidential armies. 

From 1881 until his death Haines lived 
in London. He represented the British 
army at the Russian manoeuvres of 1882 
and at the German manoeuvres of 1884. 
He had become a general in 1877 and was 
raised to the rank of field- marshal in 
1890. Ho was colonel of the royal 
Munster fusiliers from 1874 to 1890, when 
he became colonel of his old regiment, 
the royal Scots fusiliers. In his closing 
years he was much interested in foreign 
policy, especially in central Asian ques- 
tions, in art, the drama, and in cricket. 
He died in London on 11 June 1909, and 
was buried in Brompton cemetery. 

Haines married in 1856 Charlotte (d. 1881), 
daughter of Col. E. Miller of the Madras 
army, and had, three SOHN. A portrait 
by the Hon. John Collier (1891) is at the 
United Sendee Club, Pall M!all, London, 
A caricature by J. T- 0. appeared in 
Vanity Fair ' in 1876. 

[Memoir of Kiolutrd HaincH, lf>33-8>, by 
Chariot* Reginald HaincB, privately printed, 
1899 ; Army Lints ; A. W, Kinglako, Invasion 
of tho Crimea, vol. vi, 1877 ; G. B. Malleson, 
AmbtwluvB and SurpriHOH, 1885 ; Beport and 
Evidence of tho Indian Army Commission 
of 1879; K. 8. Bait, Life of Hugh, First 
Viscount Gough, 1903, and Life pf & Freder- 
ick Haines, 1011 ; Lady Botty Bailout's Lord 
Lyttoa's Indian Administration, 1899 ; H. B. 
Hanna, Second Afghan War, 3 vols* 1899-1910 ; 
The. Times, U Juno 1909,] B, S. B. 



I-F i I * I 
ill HI 



i ,H( 



Hall 



HAM BURTON, ARTHUR t-AW- ! In 

SKCJR flrat lUnoH HAMMJUTON (183&*,< tin* wnr nffiw* rm tht wmmiilw*, { which 
HK)7), civil Mfrvjutf., third mm of Thnfiw* l Ix>rd Wiutirtgi.* |Vj. v, S|*j>J. Mjwiw tlmhwwl, 

it ml 



Huliburton frj. v,| ntu! 
i*f 'Hnj4 Lfrtv-tvnn* Xnvill 
t*om lit- Wifulrtnr, Xovn ^rofw, nn 2*1 
183& Mi* wi.w f*dur*ff<! lit. Kini3**4 ( 
in tlmi town, tht i.*Jrl**Hit nnivir>4iy in 
tlir* lifitnifitnH. frwn \vhirh Jin iwivfri in 
18IHI nn honorary IM1L. clrgrm !i<* 
thi* N'nvii Srnliiw Jwr in 
hut ii ftnv month** kl**r ho n<- 
ft twiii itUM#ii>f{ in Itu* 
cnt of tin? British nrroy, nml 
the* Ifttnr (*tatf#* *>( tin* Oiwwtn war Jin 
IMI A dvi! mmwii^wir ai iho hiwm In 



> nvt*i4||iif* I he 
<:if Mi*rvirt* in thi* army. Hw i.liHi?niipnt 



t rf.mfni.m+rj it strong 



cC 



th 



in 



M|'tr.*n 



flit 



111** 



In 



n 



it 

i 
tl'J 



-*n 



hut 

j^ 

in 

q. v, 
t 
Ilm itit 



Aftor flit* l 
to th*i foit.rw in 
hw wiw n 

ivn^riM, uiu 



o *.C 



WMH 



lit 



n 



in 



n 



<*rv.ft 



in^ htn 
f<niH*lly 

In fhiM rrtwtfut hn 



in thi* 



* Anity 

It J.H n< 



*i|, 



in 



fin* 



wiw tlm 



rw 
*.jf 
nrw 



itultfiiry ^ritk;M f thn 

ntwl 



In 



infc( iillwmww ttf th*.* nriny at 



'' f *.:* 



urn! n 



n 



in 
n. 



of 
for i.*niv*mfcl 



tmining. 



of 



jttjliinry dcfmriuuwi *rf 
lia, whitfh |K^t ho 

till !87 5 on returning to thi wr riHit*i* ^ niwl _wiin 
ho aattnl m uluiirtnan f n c^tttniniiit^ 
brought nknii n muiih*n<w<i.mt tic 
ticm awl t^ffeotcMi niilwtiuitlti! ntjrnintnir^i in ! \viib 
so* In _ IB7B hn wan ati;Hnnii'^! : bn*m 

of mtpfiUon ami tfttn{ : trt. and It : in f*niitf>I0t4i harinony with fli*i mititary 
m U> HW}>t?rviHi5 tho vits j fiftit^ltfciM in thn war t>Jl'ta and hin npiniun 
tualHngof tit** ami y ilming tnghttfainjmiKv; wiw 14*1 in high g.j'ii f*y Ihrw* wtidi^rH 
whk'hi!Utlud^lth^NihHvx|:KHJttioiiff lHH4----($ i MU tho IMJIJVW lint wh*. wur** twi*t vi'rw.ul 
On tltt'j t.mtuttony of bml Wf.*!<.iby nt* ; in th*V j*roi>|i\m of tuililAry ad}nifiiHi.ra- 
army that ho had Imm ttHHumut^i * with ; H*.n. Of* 3 Nov. 187? h* inarrii*d Marian 
ww nt> wall fml m tho Britiwh troopH ww* j Kmily 
on thafc <icaiiiiion in tiirmkmKtam:^' of un j wi*)t.)U 

d^nte<l diffloulty* In ittuognitiiiit of | m^oiid bart*^t j who t*rvivwJ htm wiihout 

aryfcf# Hall burton wa* inatlo C.li ! tatw. 

1880 and K.O*Ii In 1SSH, On tho 1 fi> iw i tniHt*iH>i * MVtim^ .1* IIJM t'liitiio 

1 %#A It j* *i* # * ' i 4> t * 1 I S'lffffr** *"l'lill ilH*>ff I* I* fl'VlilH* ft* JJ~ * Ml-fl*M 

abolition o! tha omoo of olvfllim ciiroetrrr of . ^ry^n, jy j,' fi Atlay* llKiu? 'ii 

and transport* . In 1887 h^'wan farinatbui] " * '* J li 

temporarily on tii0 rotired Hut; but 

after fiarving.on aeveml important publto | HALL* CHRI8TOPHKR NBWMAN 
mqtxirlog at homo and abrond ho liooamo 
in May 1801 awrftftnt timte-aaoretery for 
war, and in 1S05 pormitnentiandarRpo9ratArjr t 
which offlco h'0 hold Mil hit retlroraent 'by 
opomfcion of tha ago-Hmlt in '1807* Ho wm 
mado Q.OLB, In that year* and in 1900 ww 
raised to tha poemge undor tho title of 
Baron Haliburton o! Windsor in the 
pzovlnoe of Nova Soolia and dominion of 



tltvitws born 
Mtiy 1H!<I, wa W>M of 

.,"], |mipditof f tho 
Journal** by Mary, datifih'tor of 



hii fatlicr'i printing 
working nuooaiiiivr*iy ' 

ami r 



In 1B37 ho'wtmt ta High- 
bury Cbl!0gt* f In training (or tho oongro 



Hall 



187 



Hall 



gational ministry, graduated B.A. at Lon- 
don University in 1841, and in 1842 was 
ordained pastor of Albion Church, Hull. 
There he gathered a large congregation, 
was in demand as a preacher, and in 1834 
issued his first publication, a sermon on 
6 Christian Union.' His tract ' Come to 
Jesus,' issued in 1848, made his name 
widely known. Over 4,000,000 copies in 
some forty languages or dialects were 
circulated during the author's life. 

In 1854 Hall became minister of 
Surrey Chapel ; Blackfriars, the scene of 
Rowland Hill's labours. His success was 
pronounced. As a mental discipline, he 
read for the degree of LL.B. at London 
University, which with a law scholarship 
he obtained in 1856, During the American 
civil war he was conspicuous for his advo- 
cacy of the northern cause, and in 1866 ho 
was appointed chairman of the Congrega- 
tional Union. He was warmly welcomed 
on visiting Canada and the United States 
in 1867, was made D.D, of Amhurst 
University, and afterwards declined the 
offer of a pastorate in Chicago. During 
the controversy attending the education 
act of 1870 If all sought to effect a re- 
conciliation between W. E. Forster, the 
minister in charge of the measure, and non- 
conformist members of the Birmingham 
League, who distrusted Forster's policy. 
Hall was also the means of bringing 
Gladstone, with whom ho became well 
acquainted, into conference with represen- 
tative nonconformists. Throughout his 
career he sought to promote closer relations 
between church and dissent* In 1876 the 
congregation of Surrey Chapel moved to 
Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road, 
built, mainly through Hall's exertions, at a 
cost of 64,0002. In 1892 he resigned Ms 
pastorate, and in the same year received 
the D.D. degree from Edinburgh Univer- 
sity. He died in London on 18 Feb. 1902, 
and was buried at Abney Park cemetery, 

Hall was an accomplished preacher, a 
man of wide sympathies, artistic feeling 
and evangelical fervour. " For many years 
his work was done amid circumstances of 
great trial. He married, on 14 April 1846, 
Charlotte, daughter of Dr. Gordon of 
Hull They separated in 1870. Litiga- 
tion followed. Hall filed and withdrew a 
petition for divorce in 1873, but was suc- 
cessful in a second suit, which he initiated 
in 1879, when a counter-charge of adultery 
against him was withdrawn. A ' decree nisi 
was made absolute on 17 Feb. 1880. On 
29 March 1880 he married Harriet Mary 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Edward Kjiipe, 



of Water Newton, Huntingdonshire, who 
survived him. There were no children of 
either marriage. Busts in terra cotta and 
bronze by Edward Onslow Ford [q. v. 
Suppl. II] were exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in 1878 and 1885 respectively. 

Hall, in addition to many tracts, minor 
works, and several volumes of verse, con- 
taining seven hymns in ' common use ' 
(JULIAN'S Dictionary of Hymnology), pub- 
lished: 1. 'The Author of "The" Sinner's 
Friend,"' 1860, a brief memoir of his 
father, whose autobiography he edited in 
1865. 2. Plain Truths Plainly Put/ 1861, 

3. * Sermons,' Boston and Now York, 1868. 

4. e Homeward Bound and other Sermons,' 

1869. [5. ' From Liverpool to St. Louis/ 

1870. 6, * Prayer : its Reasonableness 
and Efficacy,' 1875. 7. * The Lord'B 
Prayer : a Practical Meditation,' 1883* 
8, ' Gethsemano : or Leaves of Healing 
from the Garden of Grief,' 1891. 9. * Atone- 
ment, the Fundamental Fact of Christ- 
ianity/ 1893. 10. * Newman Hall: an 
Autobiography,' 1898, 

[Hall's Autobiography, 1898; Tho Times, 
9 Aug. 1879, 18 Feb. 1880, 19 Fob. 1902 ; 
T, W, Reid's Life of W, E. Forsfcer, 1888, 
i. 539-42.] A. R, B. 

HALL, FITZEDWARD (1825-1901), 

philologist, born at Troy, New York, on 
21 March 1825, was eldest in the family 
of five sons and one daughter of Daniel 
Hall, lawyer, by bis wife Anginetta 
Fitch. A younger brother, Benjamin 
Homer Hall, was a barrister and was 
city chamberlain of New York (1874-7 
and 188^-5), After education at his 
native town, at Walpole, New Hampshire, 
and Poughkeepsie, Hall took the civil 
engineer's degree at Troy Renseelaer 
polytechnic in 1842, Ho early showed 
a passion for English words and phrases, 
which grew with his maturer years. He 
entered Harvard in 1846, but before his 
'commencement' he was sent early in 
1846 to Calcutta in pursuit of a runaway 
brother. Wrecked off the Ganges in 
September, and compelled for the moment 
to stay in India, Hall took lessons in 
Hindustani and Sanskrit, and finally 
resolved to remain in order to master 
the languages. After three years in 
Calcutta (where he studied Hindustani, 
Persian, Bengalee, and Sanskrit) and five 
months at Ghazipur, Hall removed to 
Benares in January 1850. At the govern- 
ment college there Hall was appointed tutor 
in Feb. 1850 and professor of Sanskrit and 
English in 1853. In July 1865 he became 



Hall 

inspector of public instruction for Ajmere- 
Menv&r& at .Bajputana, and in Dec. 1850 
for the centra! provinces at Saugor. There 
he nerved m a rifleman for nine months 
during the Sepoy mutiny. Ha then spent 
eighteen montim in Kn gland, ! ( VaiKH% ant! 
Ainerioa, and reviniting England in .1800 
reecHved tho lion, degree of ,'D.CVL. from 
Oxford Umvermty. 'lie finally left India 
in 1862, and w^th^l in I/on<lon aa profeHHor 
of Sanskrit, HinriuHtani t and Inolian juriH 
prwleitee in .King'H CJoJlege, and librarian 
at the India ofiicw, Froiu 1B64 till Inn 
death ho wan examiner in HitultiHt-ani and 

f ' * 1 A /* it * 4 

Hindi far ti.H civil Bervioe ooiitimmHUjnerH ; 
he was also eKamlner in HatiHkrit in 1HBO, 
and in English in.lBS7* 

From Im early years in India, Hall 
devoted himBelf with exceptional !f,eal 
and induHtry to the nftidy of ioth Indian 
and EngliHli literal tire and philology* 
Whilo at Benaren iw followed tins e&amplo 
of tho prineipal of the aollege, .lamt^H 
Kobi^rfi Ballantyne [q v.], in diHt^jvcring 



1 88 




many unknown HaitNkrit 
mid in edilini4 artd translating Meveral 
Sanskrit and Hindi worlm. fie wan the 
fh'Nt Ameriean to rtlit a SanNkrit test, 
vh, 'Tho AfmalxKlha, will) itw eomineu- 



tary, nnd tho 'l 



two 



edited and |mb!bk*d at C'alcutta tho * 
khyai>mviM5lana ' . (18/5B) and tho 
khyiy-ira* (1B02) fotu1i^*nth* and 



Hankhn 



th 







century workw roHfweUvoly on 
matorialjHt yHttm of 
* JHftryattttltlhani a ' ( 1 H51i) 
(IB/19), and tho * l)arfarfli ; Ht > with itn com- 
inentary and four chaptorrt of Bhamf.a'M 
* - prepared 

*In<!i.*x 



in 1850 a valuable. 
to tltti !^bliogm|)hy of Indian Philono- 
phical ByBteniH,* 0! workn in llindf, Hall 
j*ublihcu * Tito Tarkanangraha, trunHlatmi 
ink) Hind! tnmi th #Sai : iHktit anit Kng- 
Hsh' (AHalwbad, 1850); "Tim liftjiwiltS, 1 
a colleotion of Hiiulu Abgtiew (Allaha- 



biwl, ISM) j and * Tho Biddhlnt i^angralja f 
(Agra, 1850), Ho aii*o iranslat/ocl into 
.Hindt Ballantyne' * HyuopsU of Hotonoo f 
(Agra, 1855) and .cxUted- hia Hind! 
(irammttr (London, 180B), and a Hind! 

' 



(Hertford, 1870), ' Othor of . Hair 
workB on India w * I^otures on tho 
Nyliya PhiloHophy,* in both Saimkrit and 
English (,toiarH 1802) ; and * A BaUonal 
Refutation of the* Hindu Philout)hial 

, tmimlatod from tho Hind! and Ban- 



it 1 (Calcutta, 1S62). He 
re-editod arid anwotatod (Sir) Honw 

of Uu 



Hall 

* RigvednwaihhitA * <18(W) and of the 
' ViHhniipurAna ' (vok 1~(5 pt, 1, 1 864-70 
vol. 5 pt. 2 (index), 1877), 

Whilo librarian at the India office Hall 
directed much of Im attention to 
lit. 
f< 

which he wan an original member of "com- 
tmttee. In 1889 IKS retired from tho India 
offioo and removed to The Hill UOUHO, 



iterattire. Ho (Miited Home hookn (1804-9) 
or the Early English Text Hoci^ty, of 

* 



, Huffolk. r I 1 here lie divided 
time J.Ktw<*on Im edition of ilm * ViHhmt- 
purftna * and renearah in EngliHh philology, 
vEeaent EteinlitieafimiM of Falw Philo- 



l 
g 



gy' (New York 1K72) (.niitaij.Hi a pun 
nt eHtieJHm of Eielnirl f*rant White 
*W<m.l ami tlieir UneH 1 (N**w York, 



*Modeni .Kngiwir (I.H7) and 'On 

AdjrativeH in *abl* ' ( JH77) contained much 
that \vnn nr*w ami valuable. From 1878, 
wlten ]>r, (nffenmrdH 8ir) flanien A* H 
Murray berninie ivtitor t*f tlte. * New Englmh 
Djetitmnrv^ Hall rentlered tho nndt^rUtk- 
ing malt'Vial aid* * AH a voluntary and 



la Ilio hiH(i.*ry of tho 
langurtgis fh^j devtted four hours 



daily to it tirifleul ejcajninjUion of tho proof 
tthwtM, and tht* filling up <f dfieiencieH f 
whet Ijer in the vocabulary <*r f he (uotatioitH * 



(Pn*fiwu* to Nm Knq+ .//*>/., OxfimI, 1888), 
Bunng tho natni* jjeriini Hall ofmtribuU*d 
down to M Home IS200 wtmln ami exprenwona 
in tho HuffoJk dialeet* win<sh ho iuwl heard 
and m>U*l, U t*rnf, Wriglit'n * Diakiofc 
J>i(!tioitary* Hi* left at hin death hunilftHte 
f kmg ItHtw of t{ti(.itatitnm for Sir Jamwt 



Murm.y*H 

Halt tlied at iiin IH.HUM at. MtideHford, 
Suflflk m 1 I'Vln 11H)L UIM iwheH after 
wero interrtnl in Oakwood 
, Troy* Now 'York* lio ntarriiHl 
at Delhi in 1H/J4 Atiiuliit Wurd (*/. J110}, 
daughter of IJeut,*tio!tmd Arthur HlmUlhaJU 
of thi* Kiwi India t/ompniiy** nervi(H% Of 
fivo ahiidnni of tins inarria^t.% fhreo died 
young } a won and tituighter ''Hiirvived hiuu 
5'htrw IH a bniiw tafolt>t to MaU'n memory in 
ord ohtiruh* Ho rtnv.Hl in IBIJ5 
hon, df'mn of Li^J.), from Harvard, . 

wtiiMo ho gavia m>nia 
Oriental nmmiHoripttt, many of 
thm 



to whicth during hiw 



Vork Ntttltin* 14 tW. 



by W'titidiill Philli 



.Bookman* Hnv York, xiii* 
(with portrait tokan In 



(ii.iarn.olr. 
5 Modern 
Mivreh ltH)l $ 
i Jul 



o 



Fb, 1901 1 foforinfttton from Sir J. A, Ii 
and from *tm t Mr, liialmrtl !D. 
H1L] W. B* 0. 



Hall 



189 



Hall 



HALL, SIB JOHN (1824-1907), premier 
of New Zealand, born at Hull on 18 Dec. 
1824, was third son of George Hall, ship- 
owner, of Hull and of Elloughton, York- 
shire. In his eleventh year he went 
abroad to finish his education in Germany, 
Switzerland, and Paris. He spent the three 
years 1840-3 in a merchant's office at Hull. 
In 1843 he entered the secretary's depart- 
ment of the London General Post Office, 
and soon became private secretary to the 
secretary of the post office. He served as a 
volunteer in the hon. artillery company and 
as a special constable during the Chartist 
riots of 1848. 

In 1852 he emigrated to Lyttelton, 
New Zealand, bought a neighbouring sheep 
run, and remained a prominent citizen of 
the province of Canterbury for the rest of 
his life. In 1853 the provincial councils 
were called into being by Sir George Grey 
[q. v. Suppl. I], and Hall became the 
member for Christchurch district of the 
Canterbury provincial council, on which he 
sat, except during his occasional absences 
from the colony, until the councils were 
abolished in 1876 by act of the central 
legislature. From 7 Feb. to May 1865 ho 
was provincial secretary, and from May 1855 
to 1859 was a member of the provincial 
executive. After a visit to England he 
became in 1862 member for the Mount 
Cook district ; in 1864 he was re-elected to 
the provincial executive and was until 1869 
secretary for public works. 

Meanwhile he had been made resident 
magistrate for Lyttelton, sheriff, and 
commissioner of police on 27 Nov. 1856 ; 
a resident magistrate for the colony on 
27 April 1857 ; and a justice of the peace in 
May 1857, From December 1858 to July 
1863 ho was a resident magistrate for 
Christchurch, and from January 1862 to 
15 June 1863 first mayor of Christchurch. 
He was also the first chairman of Selwyn 
county council, and chairman (in 1869) 
of the Westland provincial council In 
June 1863 he was commissioner of the 
Canterbury waste lands board. As a 
provincial politician he is best known as 
the originator of th road board system in 
Canterbury, and for his sheep ordinance.^ 

In 1855 elections were held for the first 
responsible parliament that assembled in 
New Zealand, and Hall was one of th 
Christchurch members for the hotise of repre- 
sentatives until 1859* On 20 May 1856 he 
became colonial secretary under Sir William 
Fox [q. v. Suppl. I], but the ministry lasted 
only for a fortnight ; during that period 
Hall spoke against voting by ballot. On 



his return from England in 1862 he was 
called to the legislative council (4 July). 
Resigning in February 1866, he was 
at once re-elected to the lower house 
by the Heathcote division as a supporter 
of Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld [q. v.] 
and an opponent of provincialism, 
holding the seat till 1872. Ho was a 
member of the executive council under 
the Stafford ministry (24 Aug. 1866- 
28 June 1869), postmaster -general (24 Aug. 
1866-5 Feb. 1869), and electric telegraph 
commissioner (12 Oct. 1866-5 Feb. 1869). 
In 1867 he attended the intercolonial 
postal conference in Melbourne. During 
1868 he acted as colonial treasurer during 
Sir William Fitzherbort's absence and drew 
up an able financial statement. 

In 1872 he was called to the legislative 
council He was a member of the executive 
council 20 July-10 November 1872, and 
colonial secretary in the Waterhouse cabinet 
from 11 Oct. 1872 till 3 March 1873. Ill- 
health then drove him to England till 1875. 
He became a member of the executive 
council under (Sir) Harry Atkinson [q. v. 
Suppl I], without a portfolio, on 1 Sept. 1 876. 
On 13 Sept, the government resigned, and 
he was not reappointed in the reconstituted 
ministry on account of his health. 

As a prominent Anglican h strongly 
opposed the education act of 1877, 
which established Beeuktr education. With- 
drawing from the upper houao, he wan 
chosen member for Solwyn in the general 
election of 1879. For some months he 
was leader of the opposition, and early 
in October he carried a hostile motion 
against Sir George Grey by a small majority. 
On the 8th h formed a ministry, He 
remained premier, supported by Sir 
Frederick Whitaker [q. v.] and Sir Harry 
Atkinson, until 21 April 1882; ill-health 
then, compelled his retirement, but he 
continued to advise hie colleagues, In 
the same year ho visited England and 
was made a K.C.M.G. Premier during a 
period of great commercial depression, Hall 
was continually faced by a need for retrench" 
ment and fresh taxation. The duel work 
of his government was the repeal of Sir 
George Grey's land- tax, the suppression of 
a Maori demonstration headed by the 
prophet Te Whiti, and the passing of the 
triennial parliaments bill and the universal 
suffrage bill, both measures which had been 
supported by the party he defeated. 

Hall again sat in the house of representa* 
tives for Selwyn from 1883 until 1894, 
when he retired from political Hfe* In 1890 
he represented New Zealand at Melbourne, 



1 90 



1 1 alii day 



1888 
ChnrioH 



mjirriod her 



htmbaml, Bir 



|"q* v. *Syp>L l| f with whom 



tho first conference on 
fedoraticm. In 1803 he introduced into .,..,.... 

tho ministry's oloctoml bill an amondmtmt 1 nho IwwJ ..,.. ... ....,......., ,,,,,,, 

conferring the vote upon WOIWM, a reform | Aflvr iiin doaf h tn 181)5 King Kdwitnl VII 
which ha had alwayn activoly wnpporlwL j tht?n l*rir i ,r.* of "WwlirH, 1:w.*nnnn primidcnt of 
It was paBHcd into fiw on tho ovo of tliw j an inlhwntwl t^unnutliM-.* whtoh WUH fonnod 
general election. In 1005 ho wa choncn j to mmm Inml for ht.*r boueiit* AH a rw 

j ..... J i 1 '*' * t * i i-i I . ,*,. . ... 

.|M Of Ii 

Lnily 



of the* IxMUlwraolfew* Company in 
London, but wiw unable to loavts New 



to take tho office. In .11*00, I ho 

year of tho Kinv &.whmd oxhiMlion^ ho 
b(H:!fiinn firt liiftjor of (Iroator hi 
On 25 Ot. h<! MI ill, m\d on iJ5 Juno 
ho di**d at I J ark IVrrm^, ChriHU^vur^h 

'burkii in tht,i family vault in ii 



nt AHO!O were 
Aflor t ho 



<n I! Hi*}f, tHljH of hor wily won (by 



in 



ttonfc in tho Ihil 

at Iforliii iw u t**fotlH*r f nviHit.in 



HtuuturM m 1801 Iteo Awm (d HtOO), 
daughter of William Drytiiw, of Hull, By 
ho had IHHUO three* HOIIH iwl one ttaught<* r* 

rn Dk't, of 
'H Now 55,*Iad 
IWM, IH07 (with jwrf rait) ; !lwif JI'H Ilmf, of 



and K 



. FJiu Loi^ VVhtt.? 

HJJIM;JM?M and ohitimry Kujii< r ^H in N\v in 
Titwm. Auckland Star, <.'i.utlfrf*ury Ti 
!J ,luly ltK)7(i*trfmiJ.).J A. ii W. 



H ALJLK 



l y 



At 4N Nivitt? tu | 



WILMA MAiUA VHAN<J1S<M Unv 
HALLA (a8a-IH), violiuwt., wan Iliinl 
child aiut Ht*<>ti tfaught**r of j*.wt*f N^nida 
(1807-76)* orgaubt of tint oatiuHiritl of 
.BrUtut, Moravia, w}tm who wmi Imrn >u 
21 Mftreh 183(1. Ahmwt in infmuiy Wilma 
Iwgan U> play thc violin, Mar tMuihi*r WAH 

of wjvon H!UI 



ouo of BaohV nonaliw at ViMnim, *wul 



lu*r lino 

mtjut, A tour thrwugh North ( farmuny with 
hwr fciftijly folIowwL On m April IH4U n 
thw 



a 



at tins Plwlhftwianitj , 

Othw ioum through Kun>|i HJUVIU! hor 
In 1864 who ult ' 



at Paris, and tlwwj H)U uiarriw! 



in thi) aamo ycwir Lmlwig 
Bwodish mwiiditti, taking ilm mirnamo <*f 
Normaa-Noruda, Bho nsturnod t london 
in 1869, Apiwured at the I%Uhartnonio 
ami romabud MU 



, 

loading tho quartoto at the Monday popular 
ponoorts. TJie favour .aooordod bar brought 
her biuk to .London; 'overy winter, iha 
spooiaDy diMtinguiibod m a quartot* 



Altai, 

duke of Saxo-0()burg and Ootha, Joined 
with JBarb Dudley and Hardwioko in 
presenting har with tho oolubratod 
' 



vmriuv 'violin that had holongod to 38rnnt. 
In 1885 aho wan toft a widow, On 20 July 



In .ItJOl vi*liiMt, to Qu^i.'n A!rxamira, On 
25 *I it it. JIM)H h j-ila,ywl at tin* coiut(*rt in 
ioii in Jiii'ioory f*f iftMirhini. who wa 
of hor fn?tju*'t HHiriat<*.H, Sho 



at 



f* April IV* J I, 
u 



jvo twhmijw*% 

of 



on 
Th 
in 



lur int^r|ir'i-alii.inH ^Jivo lu^r a 



n 



h(*r iou 

to | ho groatoHt nirtk* jK' 

1.7 y\frit 101 1 : SI mil, Mny Itll I J 
lit! 



vitri, Hi Violin^iDti itn* Ajtj^n<ii^; A, 

ii|4L nlii, with 

h from IH7*!) II, I), 

II A l*U 1 > A Y . S t it 1'1'iM UK til t J Ii *) A M KM 

timi i.i'tt|otitttit^ov**rtior nf 
m; of Thwwtrt llailuiay of Ew^Il, 
bom ih'f <*ti (' 



lh ( 

tho Mywm* ^ 
in 1HJ4, 



IHiJU), tuitj^ m.*rvmi on 
lfii*llu)ay 



at 



. Ilo 

ttivit Hwviuo tttttl arriva n 

B J uno ! HS25. Hitlittlity ilrnl H 

to tho 



to tht. 



on 
br 
i th 



tht fV 



khtmtt urn! 



^ 
twirt. Ilo wtw joint 

t.i(t{M*iy wHwoU>r in llwudt?!- 
k in No*tfclmlt iwwl 

from .Fob. 



.. 

anil from April l&JMI *wrtitttry U th kmrci 
of nivotiui). ' In 'May IHtift ho wt ftpm*intHi 
judicial atwl rtivoityo HWJWlAFy i 
and, in iddition, Innn Mwroh 1H40 
to w* junior Mtwn^Ury U* tht* gov 
of Indb both in th<* oio *wtl in tins 
ktive dbportmenUi. In 1840 iio w*w 
toorotary in tho homo d^fiartttiont by 
'DaJhounio, who hattt a high opinion of him 
and wutftUatftttittKl wtum, in July IHIiSt 



Halliday 



191 



Halliday 



Halliday was compelled by ill-health to 
take long leave home. He was on sixteen 
occasions examined by the Parliamentary 
committees on the renewal of the East 
India Company's charter, granted in 1853. 

Returning to India, he took his seat on the 
governor-general 7 a council on 5 Oct. 1853, 
on the nomination of the court of directors, 
Bengal, hitherto directly administered by 
the governor-general, was constituted on 
1 May 1854 a lieutenant-governorship, and 
Dalhousie appointed Halliday as * the fittest 
man in the service . , . to hold this great 
and important office ' of ruler of a territory 
comprising 253,000 square miles, with a 
population inadequately estimated at forty 
millions. Sir John Kaye credited him 
with natural ability, administrative saga- 
city, and a sufficiency in council which had 
won him general confidence (Hist, of Sepoy 
War, 9th edit, p, 58). Halliday sought 
with vigour to reform the administration 
of Bengal, the most backward of the great 
provinces of India (Sir JOHN STEACOTY'S 
India, chap. xxii.). In a valuable minute 
(30 April 1856) he submitted a scheme for 
the complete reorganisation of the police, 
and carried much of it into effect. Road 
communications were improved and ex- 
tended, and Halliday supervised the up- 
country administration by prolonged and 
difficult tours in all directions. On several 
matters ho came into conflict with members 
of the government of India, and in a 
private letter (6 Jan, 1856) Dalhousie was 
constrained to confess that ' he has so 
managed that I believe ho has not in 
Bengal a single influential friend but 
myself ' (DALHGTJSXIS'S Private Letters, 1901), 
In hearty sympathy with the policy of 
educational advance laid down in the 
despatch of Sir Charles Wood, first Vis- 
count Halifax [q. v.],' Halliday appointed 
a director of public instruction for Bengal 
in Jan. 1855, placed the presidency col- 
lege on an improved footing, and in 1856 
initiated the Calcutta University, the act of 
incorporation being passed in the following 
January. 

A rebellion in June 1855 of the wild 
Santal tribes, who were suffering from the 
extortions of money-lending mahajans, 
was, in spite of preliminary protests from 
the supreme government, suppressed by 
martial law (Nov.-Bec.). The Santal 
country was placed under special officers 
and the five districts named the Santal 
Parganas. Halliday was also faced by 
agrarian difficulties* By the Act of 1859 
known as the] * Magna* Charta of the 
ryots ' he restricted the landlord's powers 



of enhancement in specified cases, gave 
occupancy rights to tenants of twelve years 
standing, and improved the law relating 
to sales of land for revenue arrears. 

Bengal was not the chief centre of the 
Sepoy mutiny, but Halliday was closely asso- 
ciated with its suppression. His influence 
over the governor-general Canning was great, 
and to facilitate constant communication 
he removed from his official residence, Bel- 
vedere, to rooms overlooking Government 
House, Calcutta. There was no member 
of the government whom Canning * so 
frequently consulted or whoso opinions 
he so much respected ' (KAYE), It was 
under his strong persuasion that Canning 
allowed British troops to replace the Sepoy 
guard at Government House in August (Sir 
H. S, CuNKiNaHAM's Earl Canning, 1891, 
p. 126), In his final minute (2 July 1859) 
regarding the services of civil officers, Can- 
ning credited Halliday the * right hand of 
the government of India '-with effectually 
checking the spread of rebellion in, Bengal. 
Halliday 1 s * Minute on the Bengal Mutinies' 
(30 Sept. 1858) gives full particulars of 
his activities (see BtrcKLAro's Bengal under 
the Lieutenant-governors), He was included 
on 18 Mar, 1858 in the thanks which had 
been voted by both Houses of Parliament to 
the governor-general and others. He was 
also thanked by the East India Company 
(10 and 17 Fob. 1858), and the court of 
directors acknowledged his services in 
detail in a despatch dated 4 Aug. 1858. 
Retiring from the lieutenant-governorship 
on 1 May 1850, he was created (civil) 
K.C.B* a year later- 

Halliday was inevitably exposed to the 
censure which Canning's clemency in 
restraining the spirit of revenge provoked. 
Halliday stoutly defended in an official 
minute his own educational policy, to which 
Sir George Russell Clerk [q. v, Suppl. I] and 
others attributed the revolt. But more per- 
sistent was a personal controversy in which 
Halliday was involved for some thirty 
years with a subordinate officer, William 
Taylor [q. v.], commissioner of Patna, 
Behar. With Taylor, Halliday's relations 
were strained before the Mutiny. Taylor 
bad printed *for private circulation' a 
violent * Protest against the Proceedings of 
the Lieut.-Gov. of Bengal in the Matter of 
the Behar Industrial Institution ' (Calcutta, 
1857). Subsequently HalHday doubted the 
prudence of Tayler's procedure at the 
opening of the outbreaV and with the 
approval of the governor-general removed 
him from his commissionership (4 Aug.). 
Halliday appointed a Mahommedan to be 



Halliday 



192 



Hamilton 



deputy commissioner at Patna, and mm- 
official Europeans resented HO strongly 
Canning's sanction ol tho appointment that 



it was made ono of tho grounds m the 
Calcutta petition for Oanning'H recall. 

a * ^lr l t * " ,> J _ L u_-- iifl. fc 1 1 1 ,., ^ 1 J *-v J li^i r.it*1 J i 



Bioncsr of Fatna andineinberof tho board of 



revenue ; another non i 

of tho Bengal cavalry ; and 



oin Sir Fnxii'ritik l/oc;h Halliday, 
IH comniiHrtioiH,*r of pt>licu% Calcutta. 



Anglo-Indian opinion rallied to the 
of Taylor, whoae published attacks on 
Haliiday continued (nee The, Paina Crisis 
1858). Finally Taylor refuned wwmttw 
of future good conduct* and, mstgmn^ the 
nervier on full jiennkm on 2!) M;m-h IHrU, 
purHUi'd hi agitation for mirenrt of idl^gfHl 
wrong till IUK dt'ath in 1802* Th o|M*n 
controvitrBy Hcarculy cloH(l htion? 14 Juno 
mm, when a motion by Hir ii]Ktr b?th- 
bridge lor a Hdect tioaunitUo on I'ayli.^r'M 
oa>" was opnoBod by tho ndr-*rtary | 
for India (Str Jolm CJornt) and ttdfoatffd 
by KM to 20 (ef. ParlittiMntorif Ptt^rA : 
/hdlidatfa 



[0. 



BwrklrwuTH Un^al under tho 
Cjilfsnl.ta, 1SKJ, L 1-102; 
Mwf.iny hirtfcorii'H by Kayiv .Malli?Hfm l*V>rmHt, 
antl ilolwrH ; Kir W, I/M>\Varnrr'H Lifts of 
l)Ihou!Uis .HHH ; PnlhoHit*H Private l^tter^ 
IIHO ; I*nrl. jiiqH'rH tm Taylcr'n {'an,*, ciUd 
jibov*', iiitd I'nv^rN iMHikn and pautjthhjtH ; 
r*nrL DrbnU'H, 'lH7, 1HHO, and 1HH8 ; India 
Lint, llHtt; *nmTimi*H, 2lt>rt. H)L| 

K. li B, 

HA.Mi.tUN BM1TIL 



IIAMII/IHTN, DAVID MMK8 (184- 

wffcww,/*Hfiy .* ,* r ,..,M - *IH)0), pathoiogiMt, Iinrn on March 184ft at 
. 1870, No, 2JIH, ami ! Fafldrk, wiw tliirri chiW and nmmd on of 



1879, No, '308, uiul 1888, N*:m. 220, 247, uml pri 
258)* * TlwTimc'H * and t In* hinit riaH *.f tho j on 
mutiny, Maih'Hon and Mr, T. !{> 'Hcilmi'H, [ i.y 
vehemently tti*novnuu*d lialltday^H twatin^nt | 

Taylcr with ri^iTvntioiw. f riio eonli'ovrrHy j 
in ttiom ju<iu.!iiUIy reviewed by Mr* U. W. ; 
Fi>rreHt in hin % lliKt<iry of tiw Indian I 
Mutiny 1 (vol. uL 11H2), who nh0wn Tayi*r 
havtj be^^n miHtAikoit, tJtcatrionl itiul 



in tltai town, who wroUt numor- 



nry yHi% rung^r .i a naval 
A HiMicr Mary tjuirri<l on I* Foh. 
hiw M*n:'*iwt wif* CJhnrlo 
ni.\th VtH^ontil Mirlvilli** At 



, utul 



t** },th<:l4*y l:*y thu 

itltans iltiilj^ffi*^J B 



Afu.*r 



m 20 Kept ! 

ttppointtnl to tho omineil of ittdb, 
and th<?tt) being' no tatutery limit of Umur<*, 
wtnuiaod n inambor until bin n^natkm u 
31 I)t?c. 1880. Hi Hftlttrksd ptil 
had then OKtHiditl t>v<r Mixiy-ont? 
Halliday wim a nuinkiian of 
capacity, 4 |K*rforiniug on tho vtmtm 
lie gitve and took part in tjiii*tr^ w!*n 
lieu t -governor of Be^r^al, eaniiii 
iobriquet of * Big j^idille,' In luU< 
hk great taturo anil o<*nuJtm.Hiig 
made him ootwijiiouoiw in ttmny i.t 
M high-ok otjttoorti* at tho Ury 
and " olfiowhoro. . Bwtftining hi* 
and memory unimpttlrod " when a nor4 
genarian, ho oould vividly deaorlbo In th 



ih*i 



v, J. 

In IM7 tw* ww* hoiimt iiur- 
.'lkliJ*rU Infirmary 
fli<*f fti ChrAlm^rH* llo 
for two t+arn at tho Horthttm 



on 



cord' 1 
tho trktnnial 



tit 

aiu 



r*iiri?H 
In 1H74 wiw a 

C!t*pr j>rkn of 

iMlit.iu Hfnif of tlwy'H ll*m|iiiai, Thfc 
him to MrMMiii two your* in worki 



twontteth century a an ye-wltttfi th Imt 
wtiee (widow-burning) n^ar ClalcutU^ jtmt 
before -the practice was prohibited by tb 
wgulation 0! 1S29, He died on 22 Oot, 1901 
at'hia ru8Mnoe,.2i Bolton Oaudenn, -South 
Kensington, and was buriod at Brompton 
cemetery. 

Ha ttjjirriocl in 1334 Kltea, datighia.r o! 
O^noral Paul Macgrogor, of tho lo^t Iittik 
Company's army, " Bho diod in 1 886, til hurl 
* ^ . A * , M , i Vf '|i| ui (4|0^ JKJU, FrtKloriok 



Mytton, Bengal (J.S.* wwa nomotime eommw- 



. tt' 

ImwUm mm 'm n it* violation t<j the 

nko jiaihologini to tiw 
lioyal Iitllrttittryi I>wrin Vnift^woi 1 Swul^w'ti 
(18HO-!) hf*th*JivirHl tho lociurwi, but 



wan iii,iji|>olrit4l in. not 



In !8H2 f wtum a . mi m 
ir in l&iitiburftit, lu wa^ ttj>u*)iiitt*tl to 
lruf imttmUiy fiuU<l by SlrWtHiiwu 
Enwmttn Wlbm fq. v.] at Abwrlwu 
hlit tlf*i*i. work wm dotw. Ho otitlwly 
wi the tiu*hirui K* that nt hb miigna* 
Uon through iU-hwdtti in MWIS tlw 



. 
tltm and 'puplb in ail |mrto <>! thu .world, 



wm nhowtt by tho volumo of * 

* l* 



. 
whloh Uiy'<lodiftt*id t*> him in 11KKI at 



Hamilton 



T93 



PI anbury 



the quater-centenary of tho University of 
Aberdeen. The book contain^ an article 
by Hamilton on ' Tho Alimentary Canal 
as a Source of Infection ' and his portrait. 
An enthusiastic and inspiring teacher, 
with a strong personality and threat powers 
of organisation, he was the first to intro- 
duce the practical teaching of bacteriology 
into general clans work. Ho initiated the 
bacteriological diagnosis of diphtheria and 
typhoid fever in the north of Scotland, 
and did much to apply pathology to tho 
uses of ordinary life. He investigated the 
diseases of sheep known as c braxy * and 
'louping ill, 1 and was chairman of the 
departmental committee on this question 
appointed by the board of agriculture in 
1901, which presented its report in 1908. 
He'confirmed the description of the *braxy * 
microbe given in 1 888 by Ivar Nielsen and 
discovered the bacillus of * louping ill.* Ho 
wrote widely on all branches of pathology* 
especially on the nervous system, tuber* 
culosis, and other diseases of the lungs, and 
on the healing of woxmds. His textbook on 
pathology (2 vols. 1889-94:) was recognised 
as a standard work. 

He was F.R.S.Edin,, and in 1908 was 
elected F.ft. S.London. In 1907 the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh made him an honorary 
LL.I>. He was a connoisseur in music and 
a facile draughtsman. He died on 19 Feb. 
1909 at Aberdeen, and was buried there, 
Hamilton married : (1) in 1880, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Griffith, by whom he 
had two sons and one daughter ; (2) in 
1894, Catherine, daughter of John Wilson 
of South Bankaskine, Palkirk; she died 
without issue in June 1908. 

[Information from hiB brother, G. G, Hamil- 
ton, and from W. Bullooh; Proo. Boy, Boo, 
81 B,] H. D, B. 

HAMILTON, SIB EDWARD WALTER 
(1847-1908), treasury official, born at 
Salisbury on 7 July 1847, was eldest son 
of Walter Kerr Hamilton [q. v.*I, bishop 
of Salisbury, whose friendship with Glad- 
stone descended to his eon. His mother 
was Isabel Elizabeth, daughter of Francis 
Lear, dean of Salisbury. Edtxoated at 
Eton (1860-5) and Christ Church, Oxford 
(1866-8), he entered the treasury in 1870, 
before he could take his degree. He was 
private secretary to Robert Lowe, chancellor 
of the exchequer (1872-3), to his father's 
friend, Gladstone (1873-4), and again to 
Gladstone in his second administration 
(1880-5). With Gladstone his relations 
were always intimate. Gladstone wrote 
to him, on his ceasing to be his private 

VOL. LXVIH. SITP, ii. 



secretary (30 Juno 1885) ; * AH to your 
HervioDs to mo, they have Imwi simply 
indescribable * (MoRi/KY's Glatlntrnia* iii, 
210-1 } Hamilton published t Mr, Glad- 
stone' a monograph, in 1 808, in tho preface 
to which he Bpoitfes of himself as * one who 
was privileged to know Mr. Gladstone for 
nearly forty yoarw and Btill more privileged 
to have been brought into tho closest con- 
tact with him for a oonmderablo time.* 

In Juno 1885 Hamilton became a prin- 
cipal clerk in the finance branch of tho 
treasury, in 1892 .assistant financial s^cro 
tarv, in 1894 assistant secretary, and in 
1902 permanent financial secretary and 
joint permanent secretary "with Sir George 
Murray, until the autumn of 1 907, when he 
was compelled by ill-health to rotiw* from 
the service, Ho was mode 0,B. in 1885 ; 
K.O.B. in 1804; O.O.B. in 1906, and 
a privy councillor in 1 908 ; ho also 
held the honours of K.O.V.O* and I.R.O, 
Ho died* unmarried, at Brighton on 3 Sept, 
1908, and was buried in Brighton <wmatwv* 

As an official, Hamilton devoted himself 
to the financial rather than tho administra- 
tive side of the treasury, and mastered the 
details of Oitv business and banking, He was 
thus specially connected with QoHohen's 
great financial measures, and published an 
account of thorn in ( Conversion and Re- 
demption : an Account of the Operations 
under the National Debt Conversion Act), 
1889 '(1889). 

Without striking brilliancy, Hamilton 
gained to a romarlcablo degree tho con- 
fidence and affection of those whom ho 
served* In nearly every case official rela- 
tions led to private Friendship. In personal 
life he found his chief interest in music, 
and ho was the author of various musical 
compositions. His colleagues in the treasury 
presented him with his portrait by Mr. 
John da Costa in March 1908, after hw 
retirement, 

[Who's Who ; Tho Tirana, and 2S CM. 
1907, 4 Sept. 1908; private information.! 

0. P. L, 

HAMILTON, EUGENE JACOB LEE 
(1845-1907), poet and novelist. [Seo Lam-- 



HAMPBBK, Second VISOOTTNT. [Bee 
BRAHSD, HTOET B.OBBET (1841-1000), 

governor of Hew South Wales,] 

HA3STBUEY, MKB, ELIZABETH (1793^ 
1001), centenarian and philanthropist, 
born in Castle Street, All Hallows, London 
Wall, on 9 June 1793, was younger daughter 
of John Sanderson of Arnthorpe, Yorkshire^ 



II an bury 

and latvr of kmdon, H*r fatliH% 
coining to I<oml<m joinwl th SorMy of 

; hrr mother dk'd \vimtt nh<* w 



M anbury 

j 



with ii vi<nv 1o 



riiH of visil-H 1o Morocco 



priwmtTM. Sin* 



till* lot Of 

iinlu'd a Moor* 

l"tittC! $ it'"* M *> * * ' *.* : * .* "I* " ' "" "' " ' *' . tl* I It t ' 

iiT two ywifH old. Intimacy with th** wli rrfiw- in liinKirr anti inwliffl in tho 
nii*VK i*'fl ti* h*r iWHiHtin^ 'tlIi'/.a)H*lh I int**rtnr of fho roitntry. At h**r death tit 
Fry!"f{ v,| in IHT work of viwtmtf priwmM ; !tir?hmon<l. SuiTMy. nn 22 (tat. 1BOO, nho 
iwr eltUr' 8jMt4r f Miiry, who hrmiito f h* j wmmitkt! ih*? win^ of tho Titnior miMMmn 
wifo of SvlvanuH Fox, WUH idr^ady rn- ! tr lur rnttwin. lli^nry rnu\y. Hr 
rtml in ti % H* lib* ^rvipt*. Tho H^frrn H!M ' auUitiit^raphy, i*- rv^narkaViIi* riH.n>rd was 
i,nok purl in fin* nnfi nlav^ry inov*M*.'nt, rdii^l hy hrr IUIMHS Mi'M. Alhwl 

tt'ifo, Cttrjii'litiH Hrttilmrv. of Mmj^h C'Joiirt. |Aimut .Monitor. ltJi; 

^ T w ' ~ TI s ' ,. uii * r ' 

U)iai;irti Siivi't, riitnil : , wrmwr Mt tn* 1 : - 
ii!ii*(iHiithiiMhHi ttfitu now Alton V i.iiinlH'iry 
bid. ' Ho won. lirt *wu5n t. tlio t.Jrm*yH 
of KarUmm, Hw UfHt wifir witt* Mary, only j htiry 
t'liiid <if William AHon fj* v.J. hM jvrtt*ir. 



M. I Nov. Itmt ; < l imrl>Il^ Miuthury: 
Aui.o1iiojjjni[jhy, HW)1 ; !,ilr nf 'Mrs, Allii-rt 

K hy C'hurlntf** Hun. 



Mr, C*H 



By him !* wan mtlwr f.f 
u. HOJI, f'Iirn*litiH, uutl a 

Mm. H.uUwry 
tiiitiiHl4*r is'i ttw Nooiffy of 'Fri 
Willi 



n 



on 



y, J 

<;. F. s, " 

HANHl.TkY, Siw 4AMKS AIITHUR 

l, liorn at 
#jirt o nmror, nuur 
3 .Ian. IK&J, wan oiti*jf 
fouriviri rhiitlivii of iSainiu*! Hanl..wry, 



Wtrllintn, S 



at 



hm 



of 



f r*. M^iittt. A Itmlhi-r, Willww, 



and 



with ht*r 



h>r 



fu 



of i In Utn uriii.v 



VUMS wiw with tho 



rrgini^nf whim if- WIIH imnihiiataHi at 



till tin* <*iui of h**r Joii lifts b'in 

bi tlw j>fimw work of 

) iuii! in i 
of two <liuiK'UU>rit t 
and (JhitrlntUi Hiinhury* in (*1una. mt 
Indm. PurwR May 

h*.' Hi*nt a 

yearly H$tin in 



-|. v, Stippl, I.J.J in 
itHl ti Si'Vitnri, umi WJIH in t> 
l!<*!*{*itnl nntil hir< d**ath. Another 



of Km>H forwanltnt a 

* h**r oitloHi uJ*jMit. f Mrn, 



Hurttty/'on :il CM, I.1HH, it^l I OK yiuw 
4 month* ami WM*kM, Sli wiw tmriwi 
at WuliingUm* il**r jwrtniit wjw |>ainti 
in hw 100th ycmr by l.*i?ry BlK>ftnt|i and 
now Wonp to I^wly Itunlniry (widow j!" 
hr hul'm*ul f H grant- iu*phi*w} of " 
Vontimiglla. A rcttiiiati in in the 



of MID. HanburyV wm. Only four or ftvw 



oilier Bri tilth nubjootn Iwvo on. 

mime ndvanocxi 
h*r dmth thw.w IXJXWSIHI him* 

to dio at n gmate lifts. 
daughter, OIIABW>WE KAN.RHAY 



IiO HH)())/pri*n roforni^r, twin at Htoka 
Nowington on .10 April IHiJO, taught w a 
girl iin raggiHi HohoolH md mmtml tho : |x>or. 
On Blaokilown H!I OHUl>lihod <jvml 
ohool mid mimum roouw. ^ho travdttxi 
iargaly in .Eurt{Ks and had frionda in 
many* Frunoo, Spttiw, and Italy* In 



n *wt|'w<?*<H and. 
mHfn rtnd f ', tl,) $ di*"d on Iiii way 
India In IHH4, 

|{miiuikt^i MJ*. front Trinity 
*Jw, ill !Hf*;j, lit* *'nti'rw! tlui 

w n nn 
it) 

l> iHHtl; mi'r^t.n.in*itmjori.iu I Mnruh 

n 2? Nov. 
on f* May 1HHI ; 
on 14 

from th* m*r vto on 1 3 *. 
*H'tt* ( tJ an tioaorary F,H,(.J 
rm 111 Jlwly IHfcK* and P-ft-tJ-H/KiiliMttl. tm 
i4-A|irit IHH? (hi* lUiuma uf 
S!a ft* 
wiw 

Nova HtHia, kf*m* ho WIMI 
and tlu*ni tt* India. M< wtrvwi with 
vttlk*y <*4:iiiion in th* Afghan 



war of ii7-4l/iind wiw jmwt*nt during tlw 
miwoh Irani fUhul to tht Hif of K 
har. ' $fo win* umk*r lin* in tliu Imtiluof 1 
in that wtnpftlgn, WHW tn.nlbntHi In ds 



tironzo 



wan prineipai 



tho 

tho O.B. (IBHi). v . He 
offloor undur l 



H anbury 



195 



Hanbury 



Wolseley during the Egyptian campaign of 
1882, when he was present at the battle 
of Tel-el-Kebir, and for the first time caused 
wounds to be dressed on the battlefield. 
Twice mentioned in despatches, he was 
made K.C.B. He served as principal 
medical officer at the Horse Guards and at 
Gibraltar (1887-8), and was surgeon-general 
of the forces in Madras (1888-92). In 1905 
he received the reward for distinguished 
service. Tall (6 feet 1 inch in height), alert, 
and handsome, of great independence and 
energy, Hanbury was a popular master of 
hounds at Ootacamund. Ho died at 
Bournemouth on 2 June 1908. 

He married in 1876 Hannah Emily, 
daughter of James Anderson of Coxlodge 
Hall, Northumberland, and widow of 
Colonel Carter, C.B. 

[Brit. Mecl. Journal, 1908, i. 1463 ; Lancet, 
1908, i. 1731 ; information from the Rev. g. 
Smartt, vicar of No wry.] B'A, P. 

HAKBURY, EGBERT WILLIAM 
(1845-1903), politician, born on 24= Feb. 
1845 at Bodehall House, Tamworth, was 
only son of Robert Hanbury of Bodehall, 
a country gentleman of moderate landed 
estate but of ample means derived chiefly 
from collieries, by his wife Mary, daughter 
of Major T. B. Bamford of Wilnecote 
Hall, Warwickshire. Left an orphan in 
early childhood, Hanbury was educated at 
Rugby and at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, where ho was woll known as an 
*oar,' He graduated B.A. in 1868 with 
a second class in litersa humaniores. At 
the age of twenty-seven he became in 
1872 conservative member for Tamworth 
borough, and held that seat until 1878, 
when he was elected for North Stafford- 
shire. He lost this seat at the general 
election of 1880, and for the next five years 
threw himself energetically into the work 
of conservative organisation. He contested 
Preston unsuccessfully in 1882, but won 
the Beat in 1885, retaining it with increasing 
majorities until his death. 

A vigilant and unsparing critic of the 
estimates even in the conservative parliament 
of 1886-92, he was regarded at first as some- 
thing of a free-lance ; but when the liberals 
returned to power in 1892, he and his allies, 
Mr. Thomas Gibson Bowles and (Sir) George 
Christopher Trout Bartley [q. v. Suppl II], 
kept up a ceaseless warfare in committee 
of supply upon the policy of the government 
in every department. He was particularly 
energetic in attacking from the financial 
side Gladstone's home rule bill of 1893, and 
it was largely due to him that the question 



of the national store of cordite assumed 
the importance that inspired Mr. Brod- 
rick's motion of June 1895, on which the 
Rosebery ministry was defeated. 

When the Salisbury government came 
into power, Hanbury was made a privy 
councillor and financial secretary of the 
treasury. That post he held until 1900. 
The unionist ministry was then recon- 
structed after the general election of that 
year, and Hanbury succeeded Mr. Walter 
Long as president of the board of agricul- 
ture, with a seat in the cabinet. The 
change was regarded with some suspicion 
by the agricultural community ; but 
Hanbury went amongst the farmers on 
all available occasions, delivered speeches 
at agricultural gatherings, and won general 
confidence. 

A man of exceptionally fine physique, 
Hanbury died suddenly from pneumonia 
on 28 April 1903, at his London residence, 
Herbert House, Belgrave Square. Mr. 
Arthur Balfour, the prime minister, spoke 
in the House of Commons, with the approval 
of all parties, the same evening (28 April), 
of Hanbury 's love for the House of Com- 
mons, of his accurate knowledge of its pro- 
cedure, of his assiduous attendance ; to the 
board of agriculture he had successfully 
brought an originality of method and 
desire to adapt a young office to the needs 
of the agricultural community. He was 
buried in the churchyard at his country 
residence, Ham, near Ashbourne, 

Hanbury was twice married (but left no 
issue): (1) in 1869toIsmenaTindal(d. 1871), 
daughter of Thomas Morgan Gepp of 
Chelmsford ; (2) in 1884 to Ellen, only child of 
Colonel Knox Hamilton ; she survived him., 
marrying shortly after Victor Bowring, and 
taking the name of Bowring-Hanbury, 
Hanbury's eldest sister married Sir Archi- 
bald Milman, clerk assistant to the House 
of Commons, and there was a family law- 
suit, carried up to the House of Lords, 
about the terms of his will. It was finally 
held on 7 Feb. 1905, by the earl of Halsbury 
and Lords Macnaghten, Davey, James, 
and Robertson (Lord Lindley dissenting) 
that upon the true construction of Hanbury's 
will there was an absolute gift of the 
testator's real and personal estate to his 
wife, subject to an executory gift^ of the 
same at her death to such of his nieces as 
should survive her (The Times Law Reports, 
xxi. 252). 

A caricature by 'Spy' appeared m 
< Vanity Fair *( 1896). 

[The Times, 29 April and 7 May 1903 ; 
Annual Register for 1903 [119], 130.] E. C. 

o2 



Hanki n 



I In nl an 



HANKIW, ST. JOHN EMILK CLA- [ 

RfclW? (1888-11)09), playwright, horn ! 
,, Sept I860 at Southampton, WOH i 
third and youngoHfc win of four duldwn of j 
Oharlcft Wnghi Ilankin, a df*j4ftimdafc of ; 
tho ancient'" Oirnish family of Kontoll ! 
and at on titno luwlmaHf^r of King { 
Edward Vl'n grammar Mfthool, ^oulhampton* ; 
Hi rnothor WUH 'Mary l^mim (rl H)fP), s 
daughter of Kdimwd Tlu*maH Witfloy 1*<>rn>t | 
who inhcrito*! onfafrH at Cray'nl.% ; 
M. Ift tlaittiary 1H83 llaitkiu , 



on 2!J April HW. 'Tho Charity 
that lif^an at Htnm * anrl * Tho C 
uwt,' whirh wan }rhapH th 
of hl playn. proved Itmn inci 

int imrfnrmfHl privately by 
tho Btagn Rorid-y'm btJirlon in 1006 md 
1fM)7 n.wn(M5tivoly ? and \vr*n* afterwards 
MtirfnMfti1ly rn|mt<Ml at r*|^rtx>ry th^atroa 
in M/in^lp-Hl^r, Tav^rool, and Glasgow. 



Hchrilnr, nntl At tluuigo f 
n ho won fin OJ.HM jKtmro*ftirhip n 

Oxford, n witll AM a 
Aokrnytl Halmlnrnhip, for whidfi l 
li&tft hwwHfcurlly throng bin w 
matrkutotwl on 2! Out. l48fl, imrt Uk 
d olaH*Hin honour mmlrrttionH (JHHH) 
in 



In 



In journaHnm in 



From I.HIH) hh 
MW.* In 
f)nily 

' ui C'abufhu AfU*r a yrnr in India 
an attiu'k of infUarift dmv*^ hSi hoiiiin For 
a timi* Jfunkw worki^i mi * Tim Tiimw,* niwl 
ho c?ftrilMitfHl to 



in 1CK>7 tirwli'r tin* ironiit lltln nl "Throe 
lliiyn wiilt Hujipy K*1iiigH,* witlt a. pr*faco 
in whioh ho r^pltt^l to a*iv**rHn fnti<UHm 
in fhn proH* I * Th 'LikHt of.th^Do 

tiH.vi l'>y t!o Stng Bocfoty 
IIHJH aiu! p.1.!tHlu*<l in 11K)0 
nd orttBjmlwn tialim 
than 1-^it*ni, HH alflo 
tw finn-art }rn*H, *Tho Burglar 
whu Kai!<*t* whioh hml a mi^^HHfttl rtm 
at tho Orit.tirii-in TJnitr in Nov*ili^r 
, nncl *Thi OcuwtAut Tif.>v<r,' whkh 
prm.h.f*<-l at tho llrtyivlty Tlioat.n* in 

i^ work,, jn > far rw It 



wit tim 



In two w*riH o 



whidi 



inttmlity. lw**^ trari'M r*f Mr. 

w' inf litonw. Bui ho nhowotl )rigiimHty 

Irs hl ti1'jHfiliif4t frm*flm frtnn arty 

of roinnti<i illtiniVm and jn hin i 

nf Htmtttntmt whMi Jo<1 him tiwtnlly t<? nnd 

hin iHtifn^lloH with tlio vioiiir of tho 



in ttw * awl 
ublbhtx! indoptmclontiy, vte, f Mr* tHm<jh ( ii 

' f!W!), wfetoh 

itpptommtary aef** lo thn grwit 
of iha Bn&lMi dmnta, and * Ixmt 

Hc*riw r:f nwbtltt jmrodiw of 
In f><"th pr*wo n*l v<*n**n 
a rali.tS friwikn**K wn* 
!!anklii f H mail* ttinhiiitm, TJwi flrnt* of hln 
to tw iw*t*tl wim *TIm I 1 wo 

yw, 1 wltl^h waw p 

In Ixincfon by th Bfmp Htu?itsty in l**<h 
1903 arid later by Mr. William HawUvy 
in Australia and Now KmUand, Wlwn In 
1905 tho attain of a jomalit*>i lite in 
<sampi41udi him to rwti.ro to 
in 'fllc>ttaniitarthtm y ha 
to writing for the 



olrtJwrntH.ii and hta 

. wrll |ilntiiml Im diiolly nimml 

at a floUlfy itinit^ mtrilyMk uf nlmmotor, 
finoly '|: : ti*t4Hl wit I iiilotl ti* 

i ptil*ii at lar*? w tho orltitH in 
hj rrtiml 



de Mionwioup Dupont 1 wan' produoodi again 
prfvatoly. by the 8te^ BcMiiaty In 1806, 
and if$* ; boli : !sKn cxoltad nomo w*ntm 
HanWn* who thoroughly beliovud in hit 
own powem and pnnoipleft* obtainid 
gomiino mKjo in tho witty and mmgwntly 
ironical ouittf^iy otUIod ''Tim Return -of 
the Prodigal,' which waw publicly produced 
on 20 Sopt HH)5 by MtmrB, vcnl 
'Barker -at the Cfourfc Thoatws ant! 



incti IIW from 

tl'mn ti <:!orIv*Hl lituiollt from 
tho imfliN ft!, !,lnw!r!uil(4 W**Ik ThitJiw 
ho wont in tho wrly Mtinimttr wf HK)t> and 
in t lit of dt}>r<nwi*n tlrownwt himlf 
in tlio rlvor I.t^tm tm 15 Juno 11WI. 
iwlm woro bnrlo,cl afi^r atiwmtifm ftt 
^ Clr^f! Ha mnrH^I in 100! 



tlto ptihlMtor. llo loft fir* 

w^, 2! .Tun*? ltHt ; AthtmmHffl, 
liKHI: l^nitmrni MifcoOnrthy 1 * The 
Cwurt TJtrtr, JWJ7 ; M!virn 0*.illw 
, JIHJ4 { Foti.r> Alwmni Oxon 
Mrlxhm A Book f 

tfivnttt infarmtiim from 
, St. Iohn IlmikSn,] 0. . W. 

H A H L A N (propwly 
IP WARD (1 855-1 W8),6ittiun 

bom of Irfaa purarif^ at Toronto*, Ontario, 
* <m 12 July 18S6, ^wtw* wm in tho 



Hanlan 



197 



Harben 



family of two sons and two daughters of 
John Hanlon, hotel proprietor, and his 
wifej Mary Gibbs. His nephew {Edward 
Durnan was sculling champion of Canada, 
Educated at George Street public school, 
Hanlan developed an early taste for rowing, 
and Jie gained his first important success 
at the age of eighteen, when ; he became 
amateur champion of Toronto Bay B Turn- 
ing professional, he boat all comers in 1876 
at the centennial international exhibition 
at Philadelphia. In that year ho took un- 
successful charge of an hotel in his native 
town. Ho became champion oarsman of 
Canada in 1877 and of America in 1878, 
Further successes in America led him in 
1879 to test his powers in England ; and 
on 15 June 1879 he defeated the English 
champion, W. Elliott of Blyth, rowing the 
course from Mansion House to Scotswoocl 
suspension bridge on the Tyne in the 
record time of 21 mins. 21 sees. On 
Hanlan's return to Toronto a public sub- 
scription of 40002. was raised for his benefit. 
Hanian revisited England in 1880, and 
on 15 Nov. beat Edward Trickett of 
Australia on the Thames for the world's 
championship. In four subsequent races 
(1881-4) Hanlan retained the title, but 
lost it on 16 Aug. 1884 to William Beach, 
a blacksmith of Illawana, in a race on the 
Paramatta river, and suffered further defeat 
from Beach on 28 March 1885 and 26 Nov. 
1887. Two further efl'orts to regain the 
championship in 1888 were unsuccessful. 
With William O'Connor ho beat Gaudaur 
and McKay for the double-scull champion- 
ship of America on 8 Aug. 1898. 

Curing his career Hanlan, who was 5 ft. 
8f ins. in height and weighed 11 Htone, won 
over 150 races, and as an oarsman was un- 
surpassed for finish and stylo. Unlike his 
English rivals, he used the sb'de simul- 
taneously with the swing, kept his body 
well back, and hold his arms straight long 
past the perpendicular before bending them 
to row the stroke, to which added strength 
was given by the skilful use of bis great 
leg power. 

Hanlan died on 4 Jan. 1908 at Toronto, 
where he was buried with civic honours. 
He married on 19 Dec. 1877 Margaret 
Gordon Sutherland of Picton, Nova Scotia, 
and had issue two eons and six daughters. 
A painted portrait of Hanlan, sitting 
in his boat, by H, H. Emmerson, which 
has been often engraved, belongs to his 
widow. 

[Sportsman, and The Times, 6 Jan. 1908 ; 
Toronto Globe, 4, 6, and 7 Jan, 1908 (by H, J. 
P. Good) ; B. C. Lehmann, The Complete Oars- 



, 1908, p. 49 ; Morgean, Canadian Men and 
Women of the Time ; private information.] 

W. S. J. 

HAEBEN, SIR HENRY (1823-1911), 
pioneer of industrial life assurance, born 
in Bloonisbury on 24 Aug. 1823, was eldest 
son of Henry Harben of Bloomsbury by Ms 
wife Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Andrade. 
He was first cousin to Mr. Joseph Chamber- 
lain. The Harben family was originally 
engaged in banking at Lewes, but Henry's 
grandfather was a partner in the provision 
stores of Harben & Larkin of Whitechapel, 
London, and his father also carried on a 
wholesale business in the City. Aiter a few 
years in his uncle's stores he was articled to 
a surveyor, but loft that calling in March 
1852, when he became accountant of the 
Prudential Mutual Assurance, Investment 
and Loan Association. The company was 
founded in k a small way at Blackfriars 
in 1848 and had me t.^ with little success. 
Harben, who remained; connected with tho 
undertaking for sixty years, converted it 
into a colossal concern. In 1854 the 
company, mainly on Harben's advice, 
started a scheme of life assurance for the 
working classes ; the new departure was 
at first hampered chiefly by the rivalry 
of the Safety Life Assurance Company, 
of which Gobden and Bright were directors, 
but which soon collapsed. Harbon was 
appointed secretary of the Prudential on 
20 Juno 1856, and soon proved that indus- 
trial life assurance waa practicable. He also 
organised for the first time the valuation of 
industrial businesses on scientific principles. 
On 24 Feb. 1870 Harben, who had become 
in 1864 a follow of the Institute of Actuaries, 
was appointed actuary of the Prudential 
company in addition to the secretaryship. 
On 23 March 1873 he became resident direc- 
tor and secretary, resigning the latter office in 
the following year. Ho was made deputy- 
chairman on 19 Dec. 1878, chairman on 
28 Dec. 1905, and president on 31 July 1907. 
In May 1879 the business was transferred 
to Hoi born Bare, where the large block 
of buildings accommodates about 2000 
clerks, whilst the company's annual income 
exceeds 14,500,000^. and its funds exceed 
77,000,OOOZ. Harben's services and advice 
were to the last available for the company. 
He presided at the weekly meeting of the 
board on 13 July 1911, five months before 
his death. He was knighted on Queen 
Victoria's diamond jubilee in June 1897. 

Harben was a prominent member of the 
Carpenters' Company, joining the livery in 
1878 and serving as master in 1893. Between 
1889 and 1897 he gave large sums to assist 



Harben 



Harcourt 



tho company in thoir variww HchenwB of 
technical education and nodal philanthropy. 
Thewi benefitctiona included an endowment 
for technical l{;ottm?N and a gold modal in 
connt.K5f.ion with tho IriHlitute of Public 
Health. The Convaluwcont Home for Work- 
ing Mi' n at Ruwtuigtou, IJttlehamptoji, 
tho erection mid partial endowment, of 
which coNt him over #000t)/,, wan founded 
in 1805 and opened in 1H1I7. It remained 
under bin own irmiw^eotent and (-hat of bin 
#oa during their liven, nnd then reverted 
to Hit* Carpenter^ Ounjwny, which now con- 
tribute liberally to it** HUppoH, 

n'M Umdoti houwj for uvnrly half a 
wn at Hampntad, und ho keenly 
cl himwlf in local affairs For 
many yearn ho wan a leading moiuber of thi 
HanipHt fad vcntry* and bem ino itHchairtiwn. 
Hi* reprwmtf'd Mampntead on tho Metro- 
politan Board of Workn from 1881 to 1HHU, 
mid from 1880 to 181)4 on tin* I./mdon 
county council In I.MH) he heeaiue the 
imtt mayor of liauipHtead, nwl wan eleeted 
for it m*t!omi year, hut m%ned owing let 
fulling health. A ^eueroun nujipoil^r of 
tlw lotiitl chnriticH, he built a wing of 
the Ham [mtend (Jeneral HoHpital, liberally 
lielped the Mount, Vernou Slowpifnl fi.*'r 
CouHUiui'if -.ion and the Ht'lnntl for the !!liwl 
arut gavo rH.KH>/ towiirtJK buildiiig the 
Publkj Li!>mry H h(*l|>nd to 
l*ttrlinttHJtit-hili Fieldn and (|(>lde.i'*H 
tin <*};m t4jatH*H lor tho fmblia* For 
the JLonciciDi' City Minnion hw Iniilt a hall at 
Mamplaad, nut! wan honorary doloiiel of 
the 1st eaiiet battalion of the royal fumJiew 
Viluwtt hejub|uarterH are at, HampNtead, 

HIH country neat wan Waruhaiu J-odg<% 
near Iloivliain, wln^re he lMii.lt the Warnliaiu 
village hall ami dub; ho wan a UL, of 
BWHOX and nerved an high nherill in 3 HUH, 
An c*nthu*iiu*t for ariekct^ he ^ouwtrtUf^Hl 
one of the Jbiwt urickiit gnntndH in HuwHeji* 
where im|H>rterti iuaUihiH wew ^layini, A 
uoiiHorvtttivo in |K.>Htic^ f he iionU^ttjtJ uit 
HucooBRfully Norwich 'lu 1B80 and Cardiff 
in 1B8& 

Hts diod at hm BUHNUX rHtdnm> on Dea, 
1911, and wa buried at Kensal -Qmin 
cemetery* Ho married (!) on 1 Aug.' 1840 
Ana (d, IBm), daughter of Jtumu Bach, by 
whum ho h.tt<l iwm a BOH, Henry Amlradi f 
bin HueooHHor tm ohainnaa o! tho ftudential 
(184SMt)10), whoHo doath In Auguat 1910 
wan a Htw<*r Wow i -and (2) on II Nov* 
IB90 Mary Jiuie, daughto of Thamtui 
Bullinau Colo, Ha W^AH Hurviycxl by a 
daughter and two gmndnonH, H. I). Harben 
and Guy E Harbon tho nrtwt. 
Uarbon .publwhcds I. l The Weight 



Calcidalor/ 1H40; .'in I edit* 18151 2. 'Mor- 
tality Experience of the Prudential AH- 
omjumy* I8n7--7lV I.H71. 3, 'Tho 
, (Juid<% r rableH for fbo UHO o{ 
I^binufaeJurerH * ,' ; new edit* 
1870. 

A portrait by Mr* Norman MaebHh \vm 
painted in 1H72 for Mu* b:u.rrl*room of fho 
Prudenf ial C'ouijiauy. Aiu>t-hf*r ]W..wnla- 
tion portrait* by tlio lli.m. *lohn 
(1HH!)) in in tlu.? H*unjw1..wuJ 'IV>w 
A lairtt fi'oiit lifo wan modelled in 
Mr, tlumt'H N^Hlifld F*i'MVf.b, 

t 

[inMtirant'^ Ileenrd, H !>er, HtiJ, xlix, f>71~ 
HO; Prudent isij SJutT M/t/.i-fie (pMrf-ruil/), May 
UMJ, i. 120-1, nd fVe, Mill, ii, aft; 



, IfMJ, Jt*.*iv, *'i7. 



; Tlie TiiueH, -I 1>re, lull; 

1'ixpn.^it, !* . 

Ht, ilo1w*M Wil vViv*Tl|Hrl\ 7 

IlHI ; lirit, MUH, C'af, ; imfrn kmril 
b JSir KrnrHt 



.11 A. HC1CI miT t 1,1? VKSUN KliAKCIH 



See 



H AHOOtlliT, Sut WI.UJAM <J 
CJK ANVILLK VKNA liLKS Vf^tiK'ON 
JWM), MliU?mimit, br.ru tm J4 CM, 
in thn Old IteHirleuee, *rk WttH 
yo;i,trjgf*r HOII in H family 'f tw*i wittn aii<i 
ilvt.i ilau^btern of Wiliium Veruon Ifiireourt 
[{. vj of NiiiH*hu.i .Park, (l,\foiii, enuoj! 
o!' York, by bin \vife Mn-liklfi Mar, 
daughter of (VtfMuel Wiilimn ii*.H'h 
father WIH Kir 1*houtn? tujoeh uf J 
HulTolk, aud whone gntiuilather wan Hir 
'rhoiuaM (iooeh |i.j, v,| biwhoii r>f K!y, 
lfam.nirf,*H ^raiid In liter* Kdwait! !farn>tiit 
_ op o! Vt*rk HOH uf i..ii*orgo 

Vemoti, lytuil Venio.u t took, hm mt*iht*r*M 
liiiiiw of liareoiirt ou HUi*ei*t>ilin^ t*. tha 
property of \m imt ^oiiHiiu 'William Hiiiv 
jwmrl, third ntu'J lant Karl Iliu^ouit | .4. v.] t 
in 1 85ft), Iliit'tH> lift w*w {m.iuil t>f u dem 
which witH tmtviibln throtigh jiuwy 
hoimtm Ui tlw* Jlaitla^uet rovaJ "fau 
K hatl Ilttlt* in ooimittm with hiw t 
i>rotluir,. itklwan! William llwmmrt (iH2J5~ 
ISyi ) UHtfUUttih <>owm.rvaj ivu, whHitwtitM:li*d 
to the Nunuhitm iwtttit^i in i**7l t aud who, 
although- hu mm 1IJ\ for O^loi^tiiuitt 
from IS7H to IHait, ttiuiiily fcU tlw lifo of A 



Harcourt'w mrly day WUNJ Hjwni in York 
mid in tho adjoining parish of Wht'kirakit* 
tmdtir a private tutor till tlu* agi of too* 
For th nxt nina yctum (iSa?4l!) Itc 
wan a pu|*il with liva wthur boy** of Catwu 



Har court 



199 



Harcourt 



Parr, until April 1840 at Durnford, near 
Salisbury, and from that time at Preston, 
where Parr was made vicar of St. John's. 
Chief of his friends and fellow -pupils at 
Durnford was Laurence Oliphant [q. v.]. 
At Preston he was an eye-witness of the 
bread riots of 1842, and the poverty and 
misery of the people made him a lifelong op- 
ponent of protection. From Preston he went 
to Cambridge University, entering Trinity 
College as a pensioner on 30 Sept. 1846. 
Already a good scholar and mathematician, 
he soon showed signs of brilliance. He 
matriculated in 1847 and became a scholar 
of Trinity in 1850. Ho took an active 
part in the debates of the Union and was 
admitted to the exclusive ' Society of 
Apostles.' There, as at the Union, his 
chief adversary in debate was (Sir) James 
Fitzjames Stephen [q. v.]. Harcourt 
championed the liberals and Stephen the 
conservatives. Their encounters were reck- 
oned by contemporaries ' veritable battles 
of the gods,' though in ' adroitness ' and 
* chaff ' Harcourt was Stephen's superior 
(L. STEPHEN, J. F. Stephen, 09 seq,), 
Although of magnificent physique he took 
no prominent part in sport. Whilst an 
undergraduate he was introduced by his 
tutor, (Sir) H, S. Maine, to John Douglas 
Cook [q.v.], then the editor of the ' Morn- 
ing Chronicle,' a Peelite organ. He soon 
wrote regularly for that journal. In 1851 
ho graduated B. A. with a first-class in classics 
and a senior optimo in the mathematical 
tripos. On 2 May 1851 he entered at 
Lincoln's Inn and Bottled down to the 
study of law in London. Three years later, 
on 1 May 1854, ho was called to the bar of 
the Inner Temple, and ho chose the home 
circuit. He soon acquired a large practice 
at the common law bar and, later, estab- 
lished a high reputation at tho parliament- 
ary bar, where his work yielded him a 
handsome income. Through the long 
struggle over the Thames' Embankment 
scheme he acted as counsel for the Metropoli- 
tan Board of Works (see his letter to The 
Times of 7 July 1801, signed c Observer'). 
During Nov. and Doc. 1863 public in- 
terest was centred in the court-martial 
trial of Lieut. -Colonel Thomas Crawley for 
alleged misconduct at Mlxow in. the previous 
year; Harcourt acted as Crawley'e legal 
adviser, and his brilliant advocacy gained 
his acquittal, 

He did not, however, confine his attention 
exclusively to his profession. He quickly 
made his mark in London society as an 
extremely clever young man who could 
both write and talk well. On the demise 



of the * Morning Chronicle,' Beresford Hope 
inaugurated the ' Saturday Keview,' in 
Nov. 1855, with Douglas Cook as editor, 
Cook at once enlisted Harcourt'e services 
as one of the original contributors- Har- 
court wrote continuously for the brilliant 
periodical from 1855 to 1859. 

At the general election of May 1859 he 
contested the Earkcaldy Burghs as an 
independent liberal against the official 
liberal candidate and old member, Robert 
Ferguson. The fight* was fierce, and 
Harcourt was defeated by only eighteen 
votes. In the following January, at a 
great public demonstration at Klrkcaldy, 
he received a presentation ' as a tribute to 
his eminent talent, and in admiration of his 
eloquent advocacy of our cause-,' 

Meanwhile Harcourt was studying pri- 
vately international law, which, in a 
letter to Lord John Russell, he described 
as ' my passion, not my profession.' He 
turned the study to advantage in the con- 
troversies over international law which 
occupied the cabinets of Europe after the 
first stages of the American civil war. To 
the ' London Beview ' of 30 Nov. 1861 he 
sent two letters, one on * International 
Law and International Exasperation ' and 
the other ' The case of the Nashville.' 
In c The Times ' of 5 Dec. 1801 appeared 
the first of a series of long and weighty 
letters, over the signature of * Historicus,' 
dealing chiefly with questions of inter- 
national law arising out of tho American 
civil war. The letters were continued at 
intervals till 1876 and covered a wide field 
of political controversy. Throughout life 
ho remained a constant correspondent 
of l The Times ' on all manner of political 
themes, in later years under his own name. 
The aim of the early ' Historicus ' letters 
was to deny tho Southern States the title 
to recognition as belligerents, and to define 
the obligation of neutrality on England's 
part. In 1863 Harcourt collected some 
of the letters under the title Letters by 
Historicus on Some Questions of Inter- 
national Law,' and in 1865 others appeared 
in a volume as ' American Neutrality/ 
The letters, which had a marked effect 
upon political opinion, established the 
writer's reputation. Lord John Russell 
wrote to Harcourt in 1868 thanking him for 
the help he had rendered to the maintenance 
of peace between England and the United 
States. 

He was appointed a member of the 
Neutrality Laws Commission in the same 
year, and signed the report with a qualifi- 
cation deprecating any extension of the 



200 



Harcourt 



to thoHo cangagwd hi 
i*utkUzig for bttiiigorufttH. Ho ulwi wervud 



tliu roynl 



nwl ul 



on 



mi tho laws oi 
(1870) ami 



la 

a Button M tumuHol, munmlmg to 
in rw;u.juitmH oi i.m 



law* But *^ iiioru importnni 



ttitiun of t. ho kiinl VVHM IUH 



in 



for tho City at. Camion fc>Uw.fc 
during tho gonoi'al i'j<!t.:u<w. At tho n 



law at GiwiH'itlgo, wimm hi 
h*<I*l till IHH7* Throughout J-hat jtonmj 
ilriivcm! IfH'iurrB at m*m'iuimgly im.'git 
iiitorval* and umipiiHi ruum* lit Trinity 
UoiU*gn which ho dtH-'oratud with t'!at*raio 



tinuj MJ ugrnMl l tan<i ftir Uxtord in 
th lilwrnl aau*r(.^ti in company with Ktivvard 
Oirdweli, tho tiuor Htiuug iii*'iit!xn iii 
lino aimramuj IMK! mlmiratilw platform 

tin* i'J<isiuir and 
a Jiygo 

?U mwl 

ri, Uti* 
*:*i' 



manner groatiy i 
tho twu ntwmjH 
majority (IK *V> 
in many u.w 
livrmi |i> tho 
at O;i 



lion, Uy 



.^ ho whuJJ 



work tor jwihtivn, and tliorohy H 
Mimnwhilo liaoyri WIIM idmttfyinu him^ il'aauntn/H rni-rv ut iMirliumi'iit 

4r f^f ,. - ^ n * ^ ^s" J T " * ^ " * ~ * " * *- ' * *f 

H**ll with jKiiiticrif tlitiujilt ho wat* HUH R'ltuv iooluHl lor \VUIH! towithmtoroHt* 

fl. * T ,.fl I ' 

l.y luiiyidiifi hit* i*arf*i.ir at I lit, 1 |*ai'.ha 1 **i'ii:.niiiHghii4iiiTtgMV'i"iif.ii^.iis, m 
llo wan gi'iu*raiiy it:'.t'?k*ii4Hl i4> 1 iBiiH *jil.r$'!**i iiui'i 

[' of party (io and J^wraoh, | rail* gonrwl, wlnrh rarn^d \viui it'' a pnvy 
IHI knnv wt-Ji Kiiiuatiy, tiUorrd him in ! *'oUH*'iil.rHhjp Jn.it HfU'OMurt dotMtmnt tiiu 

VV'alt^rt, tthutli | Militir? I,H?OHH^ it prjvy 'i.y.iH'iiirHUiy wan 

% * * I , * 4 4 1'li ' * ' " ' " .4 . , *. 

At lUf* i*U(ni*?i* IHI t^iuoUy fiiii* 

pi^iiiviii in political diMiu^iun 
tho iu^MUitiH <ii * Tho TnnoH '' almv hm tnaitli/n 
old stgnauu'o M| * Jii^tMrt^u^/ 'iln-ro lu* 
urgfd tho riM.*}ft<rat!un *i I with part-ion in 

^* Murt?h HI April, am J 

W*IM 



ul, 



Unit* to dtWr Uio 
l. 
i.*n 



May 



purlta 
ofoniit 4 Jwb,, II April, ^ 

' 



agarmi a 
i^y whtoh 
t+Jh^o tHKlor tlm 



fuiu.f) tin *? May 

i|H4uii)ii v iiiruugh ' Tliti Titiiott/ lur tho 
' 'HI doiUh Mt^uitfiUH! 

tho Fyniim ^>nviote, mid ourly in 



in tlio t{iHt.niHHiui4 ol tim irmh 
w^ion, UiaU.**t4it 
it tl 



thu-ing ih 

' u 

n 



Hut 



thw lhih C 
On 211 Juno 1807 J* ti^livom] Itin fknt 
lit ,L(-tiiiitni* *,l'hf* Mwumuit wan a 

M'^ I lull hthi 
, tho AiUi'ra T 
viniatv. 'I'Jjo ohair w 
by *lyj,tn .Hrjght, imd tltuj^t o| 
idutk*l 'Luttt *|iha : liH**l] p tho 
of Argyll, Jfubn Mtuitrt Mjji, 
mid Uuorgo Thompson 



tho 



H Un 

fit ilio 
*ii olo 



Maruh ho 
IM ih 



thti 



t*.* iwn?*i-o 
On tho 



Urn 



M<xt ywr lio ihnw hijtuiuU with gixiw 



hg tittorgy kiu> this party Ntrito. Ho 

tto diwuKiowmfiKit of tho Qburuii ut 
d t gnmt mating hold yit HI April 
m Bt, Jttmu*ii Uaii tuidor- thu prwi' 
Karl ittiMKll t iuid- gaiu on 22 Juiiu 
i* Htoriay moutiug in tho'UuikiltaU. At 
!>ubiio bixiakfttufcy givua tu 4oha lirlght 
by Uio JLibund- AMuoiittiott| lu> 
ttuoliiimud a now cm of ruform. 
Oou liti tuldroHHud a intmtiiig ol ; work- 
ing mm at JUirttunghiuu, mid m 10 

ilw libu 



kw 



Jm tiurrimi 
iht? 



tHii.itinitUH$ v taut 



'in 



Ujl 



at pitrliiyiu<iEiliiry 



vu*r* bill ui AUty 4H7I. J^unng tiw 



of 



ho tiratM'iMiHi many pmviWuiw ul thti 
'i lnh kntl biil, tutd uf thwir 



ou 



w 



n|mrt irwtti u, r 
, iutun in V'/it 

10 tlutiu}, with tho itmtilt that a 



m 
of 



lurbiciUiug thu um> wi 

ul miy niiiiMUM wiut. llts 



in 



ou tlw uriivornity UI4 biU 
tli*tt 



Harcourt 



201 



Harcourt 



incorporated with the universities should be 
open to persons of all religious opinions.' 

Over the army regulation bill, of 1871, 
which, among other reforms, sought to 
abolish the purchase of commissions in the 
army, Harcourt came into sharp collision 
with Gladstone. While denouncing the 
custom of ' purchase,^ he protested against 
Gladstone using the i&oyal Warrant in pro- 
curing its abolition. The government's 
attitude was strongly defended by the 
attorney-general, JSir Kobert Collier, after- 
wards J&aron Monkswell, and the solicitor- 
general, Sir John Duke (atterwards Baron) 
Coleridge, on two different grounds of 
argument, and Harcourt deJUghted the 
house by asking ' in the language of New- 
market, whether the government was going 
to k win with Attorney -General on Statute 
or with Solicitor- General on Prerogative.' 
Again in July he opposed that clause of 
the elections bill which sought to impose 
election expenses upon the constituencies 
on the ground that 'the people had long 
looked for the ballot as* a boon j they wero 
now going to give them the ballot as a tax.' 
With persistence he urged law reform on 
the notice of the country and the house 
(of. address as president of the jurisprudence 
section of tiie Social Science Congress 
meeting at Leeds, Oct. 1871, and The 
Times, 8 Dec. 1871 and 3, 18, 21, and 28 
pee. 1872), On 20 July 1872 he moved 
' that the administration of the law, under 
the existing yystein, is costly, dilatory, and 
inefficient. . . .' and, after a long debate, 
his motion was defeated only by a majority 
of fifteen. His activity both in and out of 
parliament helped to aJtxape the Judicature 
Act oJ! 1873, in the discussion of which he 
took a large part. 

In discussions on the ballot bill in 1872 
Harcourt carried against the government 
by 107 to 100 an amendment substituting 

4 with corrupt intent ' for the word. 
' wilfully ' in tiie elauso malting it punishable 
for a man ' wilfully ' to diwoioso the name 
of the candidate for whom ho voted. On 

5 July ho moved tho second reading of the 
criminal Jaw amendment bill, which pro- 
vided that picketing should, not bo subject 
to a criminal clutrgo. During .November 
Harcourt attacked aw an ini'rmgoxjrxont oi! tho 
right of public mooting A. 8. Ayrtou'a bill 
for enabling tho oilico of workn to regulate 
public meetings in tho London paries. 

With equal independence and porwisteucy 
Harcourt urged jux parliament aud tho 
country tho need of reducing the public 
expenditure, especially that ou armamouta 
(ct Hansard, 1 April 1 873), At hta i 



Gladstone appointed early in 1873 a 
select committee, with Harcourt as one 
of its members, to consider civil service 
expenditure. In debate on the Irish Uni- 
versity bill, on 13 ifeb., he denounced the 
clauses which prohibited the teaching of 
philosophy and modern history, declaring 
them to be * the anathema of the Vatican 
against modern civilisation. 3 On the defeat 
o the second reading of this bill (March) 
Gladstone resigned, but he resumed office 
owing to Disraeli's refusal to form a minis- 
try. Later in the year (Nov. 20) Sir John 
JDuke Coleridge, then attorney -general, was 
promoted to the bench. His place was taken 
uy Sir Henry James [Q, v. buppl. 11 ], Ear- 
court's friend and companion in the House 
of Commons below the gangway, who had 
been made solicitor-general in tiie preced- 
ing September. Harcourb accepted. Glad- 
stone's oiier of James's post of solicitor- 
general (20 Nov. ). He deprecated receiving 
the customary honour ol knighthood, but 
was overborne by Gladstone, and he was 
knighted at Windsor Castle on 17 Dec. He 
was returned unopposed for Oxford on 6 Dec. 

Little opportunity was ottered of testing 
his changed, relations with a government 
of winch he had been a somewhat rigorous 
critic and was now an official member. 
The dissolution of parliament, on 26 Jan. 
1874, practically ended his first experi- 
ence ot office within three months. The 
liberals were heavily defeated in the 
country. The return of Disraeli to power 
on 21 Jj'eb. placed Harcourt for the ttrst 
time in opposition. 

Ke-electcd for Oxford on 3 Jfeb. 1874, 
Harcourt proved a formidable enemy of 
the new conservative government. But 
his interest in the lirst session of the 
now parliament was concentrated on the 
public worship regulation bill, which, al- 
though not a government bill, was warmly 
supported by jOisraeli. A staunch protest- 
ant throughout his career, Harcourt en- 
thusiasticaiiy elxampioxxed a measure which 
was designed to crush ritualism. Glad- 
stone was no loss vehement ixx opposition 
to the bill, and sarcastically twitted his 
follower with 4 displays of erudition rapidly 
aud cleverly acquired ' (cf. HABOOUBT in 
The Thrum, 11, 1&, 20, 27, and 30 July 1874). 
But there was no permanent alienation. 
Through tho sowaioua of 1&75 and 1870 
Marco urt waw untiring iix criticisms of 
conBorvativo biJuw aud policy, mainly on 
party liuo. By hiw vigorous attach in 
Tho TimoH ' ot 4k and 5 INov. (1875) on tho 
Admiralty 'H fc feiiavo Circular ' authorittiug the 
Burroudor of nlaves taking refuge on British 



larcourt 



II a rcou rt 



{!*$ July 187/5} ho hnt<'nt'd the \vith 



tlw roal tit tan hii.1 of IH7H, which 

ia .KmpwsM of India, Hr* wan 
th<:**mtU'H of tin* mi'ivhimt 
I fill {May). 

flu* wtirfd rvcnta In KnHU*m 
M7tf--K) MHirourt \VH in t.lw f,n> 
front of tit* 1 poliHv/tl ha til*.* at h*"w% dtv 
tin* prohibit 1> 1* * not how to 



nwutfam thi* Tnrki^l* #ovfmriH'nt, I .nil, how 



to n*p 

Ji ,fim 1 877). WlH'U t't 
of wn 



at 



liiipml wutjoritioH, but llnmmrt jul lm 
colicaguo (Sir) *Jowph Willium (Ihitty 
[q, v* BtippL 1] \vtr> I'lru'tfHi. ('I April). The 
n'Htilt of HIM wwt flfrlion WU 



t of HIM wwt 
ri'ttini 

nttd IJO 



on 22 April. .Hi^pifi* tJtrir polif icnl 
' r(*Intio!m 



till 



l H dcatli 



I!* Afiril IHHI, wlitrn Harrourt ittfi*nrii.xi 



tlu* fitncrnl nf 



n 



hi IHH<> of a liberal prim* 
Mon^ hw! 



for 

.. , . Jnrkoy on 7 May, Hammrt, , 
m Ki|irt', dwlnrmf that llw tb* Irwlrrnhip of tho iihmd pnrly in 



. (ikd- 
ton 



ktu'li of" tis*< Ttirkixh rnmint had owtd'd, | and d<Mjito hi?-* 



n, 



, lH7HhHdiW>uiu?*'d fh^^tviM'ttmptit'H j n+uut-ry hud not tvnttiiHHi hm old 
witrliko jirt|mTHtirmH whni it fonfoniM^ for j Ilarroiirt, ^vhilfH^M^^ptitMtihUitfifirtiiMdox- 
fhi'Kt'ltlcijM'nt ff jirut-'p I'^'twiTfi Turkry and I |HHifion of tin* iiJ*rnl pro^ni-miius 

\va-M lit fH'occHH of foi'jnHHoti., iui*I to wht^ dot'trini'H, On 
in tin* year ridi**u!rd thr *i**w tnaly hail written i** <i*m^;i 
of lit'rlin iiMfdrfudv * nioriltt.nd *{7V*f. Tiwr-ft, j Imvi* UT jm'Hchin^ wl 
2 Nov. IH7M), lV> f hi* ^ovi'nnumtVi ron-.- f *imptr ; fhry art' i,v |*rJnri|.?lrj: mtd 
(liU't of /illitirrt in Af^h/tn and Soufh Afrit-a j to wtifk to fliem ^w/r y/n:. n*//f^/ lf.it had 
IH7H and 1H7U Jf'urronrt broutfht tirjinl ou !liiHintttiii in 



', 1H?4 
i* tf>2) * I 



jtow*TH of 



,w.' uf tin* Kiihi war on Kir Bmllo j Although hi/ wuilutl loyally with <,*liul- 



In n- 



v**ry injuHtitvm front whiirh fhn ; 
liaii no Ii.*ng HuiToftit tinder thh tif*rM, 
Nor wiw hi** iwjiivity in thti Hottm* of C.Ji.iin* 

to i<.t4ima! i:H-flitw, in April 



*-f ti 
lh 'lri fi'oni r.*1i*.vtl 



W77 . 

thw H(i:m of *Hlui?it,tlon at CHforil nud 



mwi for i 



. . 

y (Lift: o/ //r.wr.Arw L Jf1), Now 
tHl Itftrtin^lnn fi bimiinit prinio. 
r in virtiii* of hi* foruml [*lm? of 

I!** iwrljn*f'd ho -wroto to him 



$ AjiriJ JKHI.J), thut hirt w*lirk*1y would 



of 



ilw 



of 



: ipinit*n than * all tht.s oratory in 

1 * A j M t A u i' 1 i a * .- # Jf ' : 



to 
in *<owjmH**i tlm nriny 

n^tdHtion bill. 

It w/4M not wily In tlw ilotiHsi of C 
or in iistUirn t * Thtj ^'iriii..*!* * thai J 
bin lnilumi flt during thtM 
iti |*tiblii$ uumtm^. 



of liln attroor* l?or thw immt imri 



Yr, i,''J7l), Hut nviiiW look mnll.?r 

^d to w*ryu in 
tiny .th'r Mttuiiti^n wivr that of chii'f wf 

thn 'iww goVi*mnjfMit and Jin ngitin Imnaiiio 

ut IH.S* ftintitHi ii 
Mnmmrt wan^iviMt tin* jnt of 



of ciigriit'iod 

At liktml d**it)nitmtltm 

SJouihport 



''Birmingham (2(1 Jan 
John Bright ami 'Mr* Cham 

kj o! * blunter 



with j Mo 



privy tMiu*il* {S^H April), On 
riM'itmtion m a inininlrr llar!i.>wrt 
again ttj : ijMirn.Hl at Oxfiini l*y hin pa'viouH 

andt^r WiJUftii* IlaJL Thy 
gttniHuti**n 1-^ft no t*in 
fd to uit;tum tlu* mntt, fMid llidl 

"ti initjt'trity t*f 54 (10 May). 



hwriiy 






oon 



/ arid 

Buj>plaiiioat4id that of Qliwktono* 
lu March 18M(> Pitrliamont wai d 



ami a ganaral olootion immediately followed* 
The oantofc in Oxford wan very koon j the 
ooniidr v*ti ve oonnid^ra hly roduood t ho 



of that 

tog 

moil*, 



in favour, and' ho 

nt on "Ml May, 



for th whulo 
UttrtM>rt w*w ^ not 

froin tho Iloum) .of Com- 

llinmoli j,t|, v* Biippl 1] 
hb want at JDorhy in 

without a 



Harcourt 



203 



Harcourt 



Harcourt' s first legislative measure was 
the Ground Game Act, or the hares and 
rabbits bill, which he introduced on 27 May, 
The object of the bill was the better pro- 
tection of the occupier of land against the 
ravages of hares and rabbits, and it provided 
that the occupier should have equal rights 
with the landlord to kill and take ground 
game. The bill aroused the bitterest oppo- 
sition of a section of the tory party, and 
though the second reading was moved on 
10 June, it was not finally passed until 
27 August. The keen opposition brought 
out all Harcourt's adroitness in debate 
and retort. The eiToct of the bill was 
the extermination of the hare in many 
parts of England, but it went a long way 
towards conciliating the farmers and 
practically killed the agitation against the 
Game Laws. 

Select committees to inquire into the 
state of British merchant shipping and 
the London water supply next occupied 
Harcourt's attention. As chairman of the 
last committee he drew up a report (3 Aug.) 
which recommended thai) a single body 
directly responsible to the people of London 
should take control of all the London 
water supply (cf. Hansard, 15 Feb. 1882), 
In the autumn he carefully considered the 
position of juvenile offenders, advocating 
the use of the birch instead of detention 
in prison. His recommendation led to a 
marked reduction in the number of juvenile 
criminal convictions (cf. speech at Cockor- 
mouth, 29 Oct. 1881). The revelations in 
Oct. 1881 of cruelty and alniHOB at St. Pavd'H 
Industrial School led him to propone a royal 
commission to inquire into the whole HVHtom 
of industrial and reformatory schoolw [HOG 
TAYLOR, HKLEK, HuppL II]. Harcourt 
firmly boliovod in capital puninhment (< 
Hansard, 22 June 1881) and ho admnuHtwod 
the criminal law with merciful lintmoHH. 

But political (liHturbanouH iu Ireland noon 
absorbed tho attention of tho government, 
and on Harcourt devolved tho duty of 
carrying through tho HOUHO of Commons, 
in the teeth of MtromiouM obstruction front 
tho Irish momhorn, tho oooreive iuuuHure 
which tho government deemed msciwutry iu 
tho mterentH of order. A i tor Ion g and Htormy 
debates (1-21 March 1881.) ho (jamud through 
the peace preservation (Ireland) bill, or the 
arms bill, which prohibit.**! for live yearn, 
in certain dwtrusta proclaimed by tho lord- 
lieutenant, the bearing of armn, and em- 
powered the police to wsaruh for them, 
Next year, after the murder of JU>rU 
Frederick OavendiBh and Mr, Burko in tlu; 
Phoenix Park (6 May 1882), Mammrt 



introduced (11 May) tho prevention of 
crimes (Ireland) bill, which empowered 
the lord-lieutenant, at discretion, to sus- 
pend trial by jury, and to substitute a 
commission of throe judges of the Supremo 
Court, and granted an appeal to a court 
consisting of the whole of tho judges. 
Tho bill, stringent though it was, met with 
tho general approval of all parties in tho 
house oxoopt tho Irish members, Tho firat 
reading was passed, after a short debate, 
by a majority of 305, although Mr. Dillon 
described Harcourt's speech as ' blood- 
thirsty.' The debate on tho later stages of 
tho bill proved a long struggle of endurance. 
Tho bill wont into committee on 25 May, but 
it was not passed till 3 July, after a thirty- 
hours' continuous sitting of tho houwo 
(30 June-1 July), in the "course of which 
twenty-five Irish, members woro HUHpendod 
for wilful obstruction. Throughout tho 
proceedings Harcourt showed firmness, 
excellent temper and indifference to personal 
attack Tho bill received tho royal assent 
on 12 July* An autumn session, 24 Oct. 
to 2 Doc., was occupied in reforming tho 
procedure of tho House of Commons. 
Gladstone was absent owing to ill-health, 
and to Harcourt foil the task of defending 
tho government's Irish policy against a 
spirited attack. Tho London campaign 
of the Irish dynamite conspirators in tho 
spring of 1883 greatly increased Harcourt's 
responsibilities. In a circular to tho police 
and local authorities, he urged the utrictoHt 
supervision over tho acquit-dtion of explosives 
by the public. On 9 April ho iutrodncud 
into the JKWHO IUH oxplosivo BufoHtanco 
bill, which mliictod the Hevorent ponalt.ieB 
for the unlawful powsoHWon and illegal UHO 
of oxplowivoH* In the panning of the bill his 
achieved a record in parliamentary legis- 
lation, Hiw introductory upwioh wus cum- 
cio and iwwtorly, and HO well HuiUid to 
the temper of tho hoime that., within two 
hourn of hiH tat rising, tho bill wan oarritjtl 
through all itH ntagt^s. It wan at ou<* Hi.'iit 
to tho HoiiHt.) of Lortln, arul itH j.*rugri.*HM 
was marked by the name celerity thtnu 
Throughout tho troubUwonw moutliH that 
followtul, Hareuurt, who wan uowr without 
police pruUwtion, HUw.HHitH.l in, Htaniping 
out the dynmnitts t:t*UHuira<\y, 

MiumwhiUn Hurcswu't ^ontinti^il in tlu* 
ro<!(!HH to addrt'HH ^n.*at politltutl gatlu*rift^H 
throughout tho country, Uuft-nding with 
vigour tho polky oi' tia govtH'timcnt and 
attacking tht* oppoHition. HW n<H5ption 
wag invariably cnthtwiaHli(\ On 25 Au#* 



of 



At Uurtoii-<m-'IV*Mt 



Harcourt 



fy 



II * 
.1 t 



l 
U 



(22 Jan. 1882), and at tho Brill Hull 
(20 April 18H2), hk Audience** 
many thouwutdH. At l>rhy ho 
a glowing eubgy on GladHU:>m% and whi*n 
tho priiiM) ininint^r at tho end of tho yuar 
cciiom|>laU?d 3W!Hignatiim owing to iiln^KH, 
llartjourt urge.*! hint to hold on, On 
16 Kov* many mfiuential^ UlwralH nifrt iu, 
tho Witmist4r.r .i*alaw; Hot<4 t.i |..riinoti 
thu foundation of tin* National Lilwral 
('iub and Hamurt |>ro|KiHtHi thu wation 
a |>nhtit'iii and liit..jrral library t.. IHI 

* T!ui tiiw.lHton Liimtry/ 
Thy gtimwal i.jgiHlafci)n for wli.it?h liar* 

wius n.M|mri{iibk during tho ivwt ol 
IUH teuurt) of Jto wtu* utiill* " In March tui 

a m^ritiui* tttuunpt to iittjrv*vii this 

otm of iaimur in cotti ittiiw.w, mid did 
much to (i^U'iul th HO oC tho ^I'lMum 
ap|aratvw whorw tlu* i).'Mti* of injuriotin 
gaHim imi (jtmtiitit>nH uniumlthy* Btit 
tht* ideal govomiwont hoard (Hwotland) InlU 
whioh ho tntroductni on J3U lun- and whiwh 
provided a iKiani for Ha*t!untli with full 
unci i. 



17 Aug. IMI, only ta Im njtn?tHl by tho 



On I* April IHH4 !lart?uuxi iutr*'ititii.*<i hi 
'Ltjrult.n g4iv>rnntt!int bill, whit^h hml J.HM..*U 
long in wttUjittfjialumi it i>ughl U tHt 
iMjlidatu tho various govtittung Unlltm ol UIM 
wholo uf Ix^udun into u rnngb mirpuratiiiii 
with lull 4*outrt)i uf ft largo rn'itl dutiiiiKi ^aitt. 
Th dufc&to outiiiaudf with iutorvaiM y til! 
U July> but thu ikvinpUiKitkw f th*j bill iwid 
th utttUitiioHH t)||K}Hitton whiuh it 

ntiuuuuiiiy it* ubtuultiu 
whih* h win* uutivw 
in ittiriiamtmt itnd tlio country in thw trwgglo 
with tiiw HOUKO i*i 1/trdH ovwr thi* frani?inm.t 
bill yt 1HH4, anil wtu* *w titliHjtivis w th 
oiyuumDtiuioo admitted in (litft'nm^ ol tho 
Egyptian policy of _ thu go vommut. Uu'hiui 

lot* war^ isa dp^tohii.ig youorat 'Oortion in 
tho relief of Kimrtoumf On thu 
of Kluurtoum imci tiur duith of dordoii 

ioroe the vote of OEIU oa tfa& .goyom 
meat which wiui movini by Sir 
Northpoto wd brought tb# 
majority clowa to foarteen* .' 
moat did not long survive, 0& m 
1BB <Jhw!tjUm0 axmounoed that ft" 'part of 
Harcourt '! Orimo Aat (tetend) wauM ba 
roaw-od, and ou B June tha Irlitii mem ten 
and tha torbu combiuod on a ame&dwa&t 
to the budget and th govommeat was 
cl^featoi by 204 to 282. Uiadfltoao and 
his govemmaat at onoo r<Migxiod and Lord 

"lr . *^ ,j 



ry iKK'anto pi'Ime miniHtar, Undot 
the titrtv government Humwrt Huceeoded in 
replacing a ttlaufw Htnwk 1y tho lx>rda out 
of" tho JittgiMtmtirw Bill (July 23) f which 
fdMjIMiod tins t'k'ctowi tiiHtjtmUHcation ol 
nnwipt ol iwKliml rvliul. During fin* month 
ho ttwinural tho favoumhlo n^ptum by 
tho gnvmi*m*mt of Mr* 'Pawi'ira motion for 
nn imjuiry into* this twnduct of Lord 
KjM'muTB iKliiiiniHtraiion in ivgNtii lc tho 
M/tuiulrm4j$a iind othrr mtifdcr f?iw(.?H At 
tho Miuaii tinio ho ditt^Iaml IUH wnw 
to Hiij:>p.>i ( t any fwturo unt'/wmro ol twr 

At t-ho goitoral olontion in K 
llur^tiurt'H Mwat at l)i*rhy wtw * 

* ~ '~'"f 

but IHI n^wintsi it wjthwit inui^h diilimdty, 
II clijvrt***i innnt **t hin liliif* to an 



at i-MaiMiord (S!4 His 
from Air. (Jhamlwrlaw'H 
hn Htial r 

thai th uowirvativi'H ant! 
(.matly haiatattui Ji 
ia'tiuji| whidi rniiHwI 
. On ti i*tH% IHHS i* wniltj to 
llarttngtou that h ltmkti * forwiml to 
thn U*r govi'miiMmt 

* iU!iaiu!ti tuul WM 
m ' (Lift 1 , ftf iMkz t*f 
S|it-'iik.iHg at i.jHt*j*t44ft i. i xt day 
iltJjwst!t*u*i an rarly luturii iif tho iilxtraiii 
t>l!HHi# jm.*(f?mng lor l.ii |art that *tho 
nUnv tn tht.i I'lmwllittt juiw, 
il tht^tiUnk in thonwHtrilH wf UuM^uatry* 

HK6)* On 17 iXw, 1885 
lu> iltHjiimHl luiiiHtilf in tin* tJi'.'jith* of dtmfmir 
nt party |.imK|mutM aiitl tlivitlin.! tho hiamo 
fur tht.* 44riHi t'itwtm Mr* CJhiyniHirlaiu find 
UiiMiMtoiitn Mt'iin white 
i.U*n.ul that Ul4Mitonn wuw 
honui rulu inu? th party [irogranitnoit but no 
wurtl t*f that int^iitii*ii win* *H.mtnittwaatod 
Ity (JiiuiH^ua to hw tH4iuugut*M. t>n ^H i>oo* 
Hurouurt mtit llttrting^iit, Mr* Chamlior 
mid Hir CimrltMi lltlki* in JU.M<J<w, 
wrtito jointly to Ol*ulU> 
him to giv. n utritight mmwur 
bin totoiitiuiui ivkmt; hwmo rult% ami to 
fain oaliwiguo* 






mat on 12 !. 1B80, and 
thu o.untttit rumour ol' U 

to iiotijis rule WM 

vunmtmt wm 

ui lite 



f ebruwy, lurd Hartiitgton, Hir 



to 
iii a moaurt o homo rwlo* Mr. 

and Sir Uorgi T 



Harcourt 



205 



agreed to consider its details, without much 
hope of final assent. Harcourt had no 
hesitation in accepting Gladstone*'** guid- 
ance. Party loyalty was a paramount obi Ra- 
tion. He would not desert tho party ship 
and was sanguine of an early reunion with 
former colleagues who refused to join a hope 
rule cabinet. He was very active in helping 
Gladstone to form the new ministry. He 
took'tho post of chancellor of the exchequer. 
He^thus definitely became Gladstone's 
first" lieutenant. He was acting leader of 
tho house in the prime minister's absence, 
with the reversion, according to frequent 
precedent, to tho headship of tho govern- 
ment whenever a vacancy should arise, " 

Early in March Harcourt, while announc- 
ing the government's refusal to deal that 
session with diseatabltehment in Wales, 1 
treated the proposal with benevolence. On 
8 April Gladstone introduced his homo 
rule 'bill, Harcourt supported it in a 
powerful and impressive speech. All other 
methods of restoring tranquillity to Ireland 
had failed. The apparent suddenness of 
his conversion exposed him to bitter attack 
from the opposition and from dissentient 
liberals. He retorted that he had re- 
pudiated in tho previous year tho policy 
of coercion, and that homo rule was the 
only alternative. 

Harcourt's first budget, which ho intro- 
duced on 1.5 April, waw unoxc'-it.ing. A 
deficit of two and a half willionM wan to 
bo supplied by existing taxcw. Tho only 
innovation abolished, at a <uwt of 



the tax upon boor brtnved in oottag^H with 
a rental under 8. 

On the Hoeond muling d<*1>ato of tlw 
homo rules bill* which (Jlftdntono mowd 
on 10 May, Harcsourt mat'Io one of tlw hwt 
Hpeochen in dof<m<;c% but tlm diviHmn, whmh 
was taken on 7 Tuw% gavo tin* govirww*nt 



only 311 vot< v M agahmi J.M1. 

At the gonoral diction whwh follows! 
Harcourt retained Inn neat at Porby with 
difficulty, but outwdo \m own <toiwl,itw*ny 
ho profloenttnl a vi#own wunjtaitfn, With 
his aggn-BHtV(^ tt*w : por thorp wi*nt it miriotm 
scmsitivtmoBB to attack by hm funw<r col 
leagues, and when Lord H'ur 
npxwood (in .luiw IBHfl) tti 
him ixt Derby, Haw wrt wroto it* |*rotrM 
with tho mwlt. thai Lord Murfm^w 
cancelled htn (nigagMiHuti. Tl> t^'ihK^rvn 
tives, howovor, r^tnriMHi to jwnvrr tvith u 
working majority of IKi Huri''Mti.rt*H it-nit 
of office au ohiuuH-tllor of th*> i5Jt*^ifnanr 
ended on 20 July, haviri Imi*^ 
six monthn. Ha WIIH 
Randolph O 



Harcourt 

hen rnereih'HHly erituriMwl the nwv 
it's Irish program mo at ih< r*pt*n- 
of tho now parliament. 

Still hOpOrl to 



tion 



and at the <md of IBBfl 



:,ho liberal jiarty. 



conferanoa with that oiwL On Kl Jan. 
Horaohcll, Harisourfc, and Mr. 
Visootmti) Morli\y, r^pwon<irig 

mot Mr. Ohamhorlam ami Hir 



at 



Th.s il 



tions oontiwuofl at frwjwwt interval* for 



two monthrt, whon 



Hound l!atil<> 



ferenco broko up wif,hout tangible 
During tho 8aliHhwry parliament, 



in 



did more than any man i:y ^ 

the Hotiw* of CoinntonH and tho country 



to koop up the H|>iriiH of ih^ lilmm! party, 
oiioHH n tt.taok *>* <-H* <H'*rtn^ 



Ho was 

policy of ihti 
mtlamt 



1HB7 



governntiMit' in 



Farnt^ll atul hin 



of fin* 
H l> * 



Ihw 



corwtitution of the royal tiornirnjwton 
inquiry into the* ehargew. At tlw 
time he fought hard for a rtxliuitfrw _in 

national f^innidittire s Iw ehiittipioijiMl 
social reforms of tho party pntj 
Brilliant PJIHMM|/I*H of urms with Mr. 



horlatn 



tho 



Hut 



waw no hlirtd parttMan. H 



prf>v<i the i 
and 
In 



Ht s rni laud 
n A^t, Attfr. I 
1KH1* ltitrt f iurf 



to im- 

i.dniv, 



no 



niI drtnoiiMlraf.it 
tho tuitiniry. Itm wrvi^H t<> t 
aluabti^ at id tlw n*fati*.ti-trt 
twi. noon grow vory *?!.** 



him. at Mahvood. 



f.1 



i* 



in fbinlwr, Oi tin* 



i.* 



< n 
hut 



it 



n 






\Viitrii. r 



>! 



ttUwid<*i 



I. 1 ifWk. ** ** lr 1 ****. 4 1 jfc.* T' J 
1*11 cou 1 1 



Harcourt 



*^ at Shc*fFmId, and. afto 



tlw tWKrtlng thi'.y informed (tl 
of th> <lU'gat4?H** opinion that the con 
tinuation of Parm'trw IradorHhip of th 
would Iw dmn.HtmtJH to 



rule* - Harvourt 



tin.'. point with 



fhwlrttm% Mr* Arnold Morl^y. Mr, John 



again 



veto, 
ment. 

Morley.and Ix.ird Uranville at I^ord 

in tawdon on 24 NWv, 1H!IO* In the 
<'{!ad.t<f.om.' repudia.ted i'urnel.l a 
lender of the Irinh jwrty. A Hplit among 
the mtfitmalbf-s followed, nrul the liberal i the demand of one tenth of flu 

in the H*:wHt of CotitmoUH wan vofern in any borough or \van! a vot* 

<a.ke whielu by H mujorit-y of two*tIiir<}H 



primis HHW(.^I* tvith Har- 
i'lior of th : . txmf'rmt*r, 
rn^t on in ,!an, IB?KJ, and tho 
>roKrammtMmhnfcCi*<t 'notmily 
nil*' hut hillH for n*gtdating a local 
M' Iinlilil\% and local grmirn- 
?tnd infirnutios 
i ii*'Uf.4^nant a 

hari' *.f 111** ivork *f leading I hi* ht*tio. 
*. 1 * hm i.*ud.t?rf. lw took i'liarg** *.f tho 
vrto hill, \vhirii ftrovidcd tliat, on 



During tl 



of IHOt (ladk.n** 



of 



votri)u: 



(*xtinguwh 



htmith often kept him away fmm the j iv'i\y p ! ul4ie-4ioiiHi* lieewe itHlmt area for 
itouHt% and Mamwrt, lillinl hin plmwi iw j ajw*riod of three ywtrn, Themoiwnroawoko 
lemler of the rtntmHttiott. 8iH>aktntf in \ bitter uimumfion, and \VH,M a}nim1nntH;t. 



pptwttiott. Hj 

dillerent piifln of the wmnfry, he urgent I t*> be rrintroriured i*rly in 1805 
legislation in the inter+^t of the ugriculturai M'ourt 'H }judgef. f whieh he introdueefi cm 
iahourfr, tin* t?*mj.wJHury p'ttreluwn of land ; 2-t April, avoidtnl HurprineM for kek nf time*. 
for HmuH holding loe^l power to retriet j A deiieii of l,571JH)t>/. w# utet by mining 
tho Hale of litjuor, dwii.tring that horn** rtde j th* iiuromo ta* Ivnm M, t.4*7/. f fhe wKHioii 
Itneif was inHJillleiefit to bring the tibi'mta j wa mainly fteeupie^d fiy ibn home rtild 
baek t*> oflim*. il'ojue; nd*\ dhietftablmh* I bill, whi^h pawMi.^1 the | bird reading iu iho 
men!* of the elttireh in Waien, IORH! e*itfi'Ml j HoyHeol O-mtmonHMn t Sepf, by a mujurity 

r) I t it .r . I Jt' H Ji I . **- !*#-' * * 

Itrfnor tniih% 



iiftt and 

of thi* !!t*H ol J'^irdH fi*rtin*d 
> jiro^rtunii'M^ of thti 
WIIH forimuittwi hy lh National ' Li 
I\*i1irmtiii at Mf*wc!iiHtlt* on 
when Cllmkt4*iMi gavii it hm l:w*ntHijtiti*.*n At 
C*la$gow in Oatolmr Hanuiurt ahtyn|il 
with vigour tlw [>mnimntmt*ut whit?h 
*i*rit*tl thu jn>Uy f tliw jHirty for il* n**xt 
four y^uix. M(* WUH iml*Catigail^ in proving 



upon if, twenty *tw<i 
n*xt yi'ar. lit tin* lltmw* 
(>>nnu>iw hi* w*w not II*HH n^livis In t 



Mf BftKourV irinh lanul gim'rmmwi IH, 
'wkiah piwmt*ii ii mwHul rtuiiiiftg on 24 May 
and win* shortly afkfrwardw withdrawn 
From thu btginniiig ttf Ihti yoar till 
the* JtHm)ltio of fmrlkffiiml on 211 
iHU2 f Ifurcourt unght to hwitl. 
within the* party and Ibid ntjvciral 
at hi priv&ta houuws with inoiutx^m of tiu* 
oxtrome radioai wing, At iho oriel of Jurio 

, and at tht (jnnuittg 
3fi5 Utwralii and nationaliti 

and 



gorwrol 

woru wturu(J ami f$I5 



HlHjral-iiniowtH, "thus giving t* majority f 
to hoiuo rub. To Haroourt'm 



oJlortn tin* roBnlt waw largely duo, but though 



returned at tho hetwl of tho |H> n 
' oonatltuenoy, it waw by a tioi 
reduced majority. On 10 Aug. (J 



own 



of 3-1 and wtw iinrrt^d hy tl* i.iiniH^ of 
Lord** on H S^jif., by 4 Hi u^ainnf, 4L 
bill wiw Jl'ii*MjHiii (or t-lii* iinit* ^rlutita 
dropfrd by tltt* ^:ivrrnm**nt, .During tho 
autumn nw*wm Harct.ntrt win* 
i in tfiM dt*batw on tht* |*amh 
hill, whu*li tvtrrit.*d thf wmion on 
10 Jan. 1H!H, At thf b^ghtniii^ of Fwb 

rdH !4jiii:<ndf*d th pariah 
ill and gr*u*Hv alt^ml itn |mwi*ra. 
^ at fin* attntia! <?onf.wri<H* 
.UJ^ral 'i ? <s.ii?nttio*'t at 
1.4 1*Vb.Mtmngly *i* 4 itonnoixl 
mttion of flm ttpp^r horiw% wliifh IMI 



and tho 



*>f all reform.* On 1 March 

iH liWt M;*H-Hll| 111 tilt* 



of (JoiuinMim* uiiil o*t tho 






<H.it4titnl 
a fww \vtmlw of * 

!!, 1 of wlii^h OliulH^no \vrUt t^ tho 
that tfiity wtw * wndtw^rviHll * kind* 
wodayn latter |mrtiiUHtn)t w 
attti on thi* Matiui day (jliuiM 
Tfu* QutH'ru 01* ljr own mi|!OftmbiUty 
without aottHultiit^ 
Ijjrd ftoNt4.H*ry f Hwwititry for 
and Im oonMtmtcn! to form a 

wiw a 



Haroourt. Ho hmi wi41 (tarmnl tlw* . ruvor 
mm of th 
Ufa wh0n l 



ptiblio 

wan at JEUm, ho 



had homo tho brunt of a long 

aw! hml natmimt a wld.0 t>xixrino<j of 

'MM .,, 'i * .^i+ . *' V BU 1 4 ''4 

ho had 



Harcourt 



207 



Harcourt 



fought with untiring energy the battles of 
his party in and out of parliament. To 
the liberal cause he had been a pillar of 
strength. The majority of the liberal party 
regarded him as their champion. But 
Harcourt' s loyalty to party and his con- 
viction of its value were (in Lord Morloy's 
phrase) ' indestructible instincts,' and he 
consented to serve under Lord Eosebery 
in his former office. When parliament met 
on 12 March 1894 he took his place as 
leader of the House of Commons. 

The next sixteen months were the most 
strenuous period in Harcourt' s political 
career. As leader in the House of Commons 
of a party with a small majority and a large 
and contentious programme, he exhibited 
unexpected skill, tact, and patience. His 
opinions did not always coincide with 
those of the prime minister, and, though 
for the most part they worked together in 
harmony, the cabinet councils were not 
free from friction. Both announced before 
the opening of parliament (12 March) 
adherence to the Newcastle programme, 
and Harcourt promised early legislation 
on the subject of temperance, to which he 
deemed himself personally pledged. 

On the day after parliament re-assembled 
with Harcourt at the head of the House of 
Commons, the government suffered defeat. 
Henry Labouchere's amendment to the 
address, praying her Majesty to abolish the 
veto of the* House of Lords, was carried 
against Harcourt' s advice by 147 to 145, 
On 16 April Harcourt introduced his famous 
death duties budget. The estimated deficit 
for the year was 4,502,0002. The main 
principle of the bill was the abolition of the 
existing probate duty, the account duty, and 
Goscheh^s addition to the succession duty, 
and the imposition of a single graduated 
tax called the estate duty, chargeable on 
the principal value of all property, whether 
real or personal. The tax was graduated 
from one per cent, on estate of a value be- 
tween 100k and 500k to a maximum of 
eight per cent, on estates over 1, 000,000k 
It proposed that the logaoy and miccoHBkm 
duties should bo made identical in their 
application to realty and porwonalty. The 
income tax was raised from Id- to Bck, but 
the limit of exemption incroaHcd from 
150k to 16()k The abatement on incomes 
up to 400k was raised from 120k to 160k, 
and a now abatement of 100k created on 
incomes from 40()k to 500k An incroaMO 
of sixpence per barrel on bow and 
sixpence per gallon on spirits was im- 
posed for one- year only. A determined 
opposition was offered to the measure, and 



for three months it was subjected to every 
form of attack. But Harcourt had made 
himself familiar with every detail, and he 
met all criticisms with a firmness and con- 
ciliation which robbed the debate of much 
of its bitterness. Despite resistance, he 
carried his budget through the House of 
Commons on 17 July practically unimpaired, 
though by the narrow majority of 20, and 
without having once employed the closure. 
The bill was the most important legislative 
achievement of the year, and established 
Harcourt' s reputation as a financier. 
Its results fully realised the expectations 
formed of them. Its main principles were 
not disturbed when the conservatives re- 
turned to power in the following year. 
During the rest of the session Harcourt 
helped to pass an evicted tenants (Ireland) 
bill and a local government bill for Scotland. 
The former bill was rejected by the House 
of Lords. The session closed on 25 Aug. 
During the recess, Harcourt abstained from 
platform speeches. He made a holiday 
tour in Italy. Consequent rumours of 
resignation were emphatically denied in a 
speech at Derby on 23 Jan. 1895, when amid 
scenes of great enthusiasm he denounced 
the House of Lords. 

The session of 1895 opened on 5 Feb. 
under exceptional difficulties for the govern- 
ment, whose original majority of forty had 
fallen to less than twenty, mainly owing to 
the defection of the Parnellite group. The 
party programme included Welsh disestab- 
lishment, control of liquor traffic and 
plural voting. On 8 April Harcourt intro- 
duced his local liquor control bill, which 
mainly differed from that of 1893 by re- 
ducing the number of licences on the vote 
of a bare majority, at the same time as all 
licences were prohibited by a majority of 
two-thirds. The bill was read the first 
time before the Easter recess. On 2 May 
ho introduced his fourth and last budget. 
Ho applied a realised surplus of 776,000k to 
the reduction of debt and re-imposed the 
temporary tax of 1894- of Hixponco per 
gallon of beer (yielding 500,000k) in order 
to meet arx estimated coining deficit of 
310,0002* and provide a Hurplus of 181,000k 
At the conclusion of hit* Hpeeoh ho declared 
that a continuation of the rise in national 
expenditure which had marked the last 
few years munt inevitably load to grave 
ombarrasfimontH. No Borioun opposition was 
offered to the measure, and it was finally 
paHHcsd on 10 Hay. 

Mont of May and June was devoted to 
tho Welsh disestablishment bill But the 
unexpected defeat of the government, 



Hnrcoiirt ^ 

hy a majority of wvcn, on 31 .funi's on iv j 

motion *1<aHiiir with tin* wnpply nf wrrlifis j 
htl to thoir itium'flwff* rf'Mi#nnHon; On 
24. JtiTU*. whi-n Ifiwonrt nmumniTrl hm 
rHtroitiwt. ht* dtwrihw! fh* <fFjrf % nf Irjnl^r 
nf thf^ lltiH<* of Ot'ititmonH aw * ono *f 
^n*nicT ffHf'X'jrjHihilitv n-tul htrficr n' 
* i v*jt than itnv nffiro unrlcr fho 



^ Harcourt 

Mnully in .Inlv HarrnttrtHik'nH thi majority 



Th< hitfhnHf nf ht 



well \vith Mi*' HntiN** nf f'ntiMnnn*/ If. \v 

UK a miniHt*r of thr* frown, 
I'lH'tion thnt follmmt wry* 
for tht* Ii!x<ml party, llrttwmrf* 

whtlr* ! ap|K*a$wt In hw mwHtitwwlH for 

n nmndittt* In fli^tl with 

niw! to uww t.hi 



t4.in|H*rniK?i.' If^iMlivtwm. Thf pica wan 
. Cln 11$ iTnlv fh** fwn !i? : fal 
nf. 1>rrl>y* HnrmitiH nnrl Sir 
H\ wiTf* }Mih tlnfi/al***!, Ttu* 
final r**Hii!f nf flu* fli*rtnrttl r 

i fit*' fniiM(rvaftvi*H itifft pti\v*r wiflt 
nf 152, For t! 
to w.i*k a w*w 

nnrl Wr-Hf. MnnntniitH wa** jyi'm'n*1 
^nN*d in IJJM favour f < ; ?nn 



t lh* 



iuul 

of \m wn part 
nf 



fmnt Iwnifhf^ r*f a 

ami *l*^lr*tl lhat fin* 

ilii* muf{4*r tt 
lrvj tin* **wmmtl4*i* 
tin* nnly nm> that fhc 
, Imf tn* fjiilfMf f 

r. nn 20 1'V!., 



two 
n^^ 

had 



nn 



high, hi* #wppnrt*s1 an 



wan 



n 

y f- 
wmt**t<xl, lint 



ill** 



tho mitjoriiy. 

nwnt int n 12 Aug. for tlm |mwlfj^ 
mififily, urn! wmi jimro^iwi nw 5 
Hanmiri |ir>nt UK* gr^af^r fmrt nf ilw 
four month* in fr*tirrm*nt, nf. Mitlwnwi 



on 11 Fi*!i. 
Tfftn?f!iirt, ottco mom Iiil ih** opprwitinn with 

SfK'kiit$r nf, 
on 11 Maroh IBiWI !JM pl 
liiwntl party U* tb** prtii|ik"* of H 
tmmt for In'htmK to a rcfnrin of WHtruti 
and of tlia HoiiMt* nf I/titln. iimJ tn 
aauuft of tDmf^mtKnt*. DuHnK th w*Hitm 
he attokfd tljp mlvmiw nf tho 
KlKyptian army Into th Houdun, wtd 
tor an Inquiry into tho lmmmnt,tmm of 
Jamcwon Raid. After tho trial of l)r. 
Tamewojfi, Mr, Ohamberfain mmml for a 
wtoot oommittoo to lnqu!rrt into mwmt 
wontu in Africa (SO July)* -and he woiwtol 
Karwnirtffl amondmont th oxtnnd tha In- 
quiry tn tho rafc! itwlf. Ho wiw apiwint^l 
a m^mlwr nf tho aommltte*, but only m<s 
mooting WOH hold Iwfora Parliament WM 
prom^ww!. From Fab, to July 1S97 tho 
ooromitteo tmntinuod itn work at hnrt 
intoryate* Huroourt WI.IK prominent In ox 
smlninflf vitnottm^, and hi* examination of 
Oaoil ' Rhodiw* though novom and 
tag, wan univonwJIy wlmltted to to 



raid with H, vi*nv fn 
of flu* ruim-mr thnl 



the 



1>int-Jrtn nn*l. fht* f*n-*. 



had 

In 



^ 

mimntr -.p|w.Hitin f* mowt nf flu* 
mwmm^ nf th** ttnirmiM}. ^i*v^rnniHht. The 
tv1ut*nitnn Hll, wliii*h wnw inirr)!iid<y) on 
rtt Mitn*!* IHfW nd wlf.hilrn.wti on 1H iTtmo, 

tha 



with 

tho iy:ri*Mtitim1 ruling liilL w 
onl Kfur lnn und 



Intern id li 

,ff f,fir* 

in iihli^ t 



t!in in- 
raroly 



ar i 

fur llumwrt. Thn hmanh wan 
hy <i* Arntmian fnawiiuimi in 
Stpt, IMfttl, UhulHUtnh oattM* f*.rth from hl 
t* *w on Knjfhtnil a moral 
l*> 

ht*r wfMmtiwl Amtmtlan 



with CilriiiHf:oii in 

lit Khhw V<il*i on n Oai 

promptly avoww 
from 0!mli*t*mtt*H ant! i.?ftroriurt*H vlow* 
l*y rrwigriincr tho Ii9x>ml li^I^rwhi 
njpnofih itt Ktlinlmrgh |i Oat,) hw ,,. 
that th internal trouble of tf m party * 
not l*m than thfl f*xt**mal. f No immftflat 
*tn{iN warr* tak^n dfinftoly to elont a naw 
liwlar. ( Mr. Morloy awwrtmi at Glai 
on II Nav. that it wa* at prevent 
for tho party that Sir Williatn Haroowrt . . 
thim to admiratbn In tho Hmino of Gom* 
mom* But Mr JlorloyV applauno wa* not 
univor*al!y nhared within tho liberal rank*, 
and thfl wound* left by I^ord Ronobary* 
withdrawal falltvl to hoal* Through tho 
of 1807 'Haroourt $0nto*t!y oom* 



Harcourt 



209 



Harcourt 



mented in the house and in the country 
on the attitude of the government towards 
the war between Turkey and Greece. His 
sympathies lay with Greece, and he urged 
the annexation of Crete to that country, 
In the result Crete was liberated from 
Turkey, and a Christian administrator, 
Prince George of Greece, was made high 
commissioner. A political tour in East 
Scotland followed in November, in the course 
of which he addressed large audiences. 
Harcourt stayed with Sir Henry Campbell- 
Bannerrnan at Belmont Castle, receiving 
the freedom of Dundee (25 Nov.), and he 
revisited Kirkcaldy, the scene of his first 
parliamentary contest. During 1898 he 
constantly discussed the position of China. 
There at first he supported Lord 
Salisbury's policy of * the open door ' 
and the preservation of the integrity 
of China. But he opposed the lease by 
the British government of Wei-hai-wei 
(5 April) and attacked the government 
(29 April) for accepting the principle of 
spheres of influence in place of a recognition 
of commercial freedom and equal rights of 
all nations. In the House of Commons 
on 20 May, the day after Gladstone's 
death, he paid an eloquent and touching 
tribute to his old friend and leader, and at 
Gladstone's funeral in Westminster Abbey 
(28 May 1898) he acted as a pall-bearer. 

Shortly afterwards he turned from 
current politics to ecclesiastical controversy. 
In stubbornly opposing the government's 
benefices bill through June, he resumed his 
early role of champion of protestantism 
and alleged a conspiracy in the Church of 
England to overthrow the principles of the 
B-ef ormationl After the passing of the bill, 
until the end of the year he continued the 
controversy in letters to * The Times ' on 
* Lawlessness in the Church,' which he 
collected in a volume called * The Crisis in 
the Church.' He accused the clergy of 
violating the vows under which they were 
ordained. Harcourt's attack on ritualism 
excited a wide discussion and led to the 
prohibition by the bishops of some ritu- 
alistic practices which were current in 
advanced, churches. The decision of the 
two archbishops against the ceremonial 
use of incense and processional lights 
(Aug. 1899) brought forth a triumphant 
letter from Harcourt rn. * The Times,' 

During the parliamentary recess of 1898 
Harcourt's public appearances were rare, 
but at Aberystwith on 26 Oct., where he 
opened the new University College buildings, 
and at the City of London's banquet to 
Lord Kitchener on 4 Nov. he commended 

VOL. LXVIII. SDP. ii. 



the handling by the government of the 
Fashoda difficulty. Meanwhile Harcourt's 
relations with the imperialistic section of his 
party who continued to regard Lord Bose- 
bery as leader were growing increasingly 
strained. His authority was questioned 
through what he called the ' sectional dis- 
putes and personal interests ' which divided 
the ranks. 

.^On 8 Dec, he startled the public mind 
by announcing in a letter to Mr. Morley 
his resignation of the leadership of the 
liberal party in the House of Commons and 
his resolution to 6 undertake no respon- 
sibility and to occupy no position the duties 
of which it is made impossible for m to 
fulfil' His retirement was followed by 
that of Mr. Morley, who, in a speech to his 
constituents at Brechin on 17 Jan. 1899, 
announced his withdrawal from active 
participation in the policy of the front 
opposition bench. At a meeting of the 
liberal party in the Reform Club on 6 Feb. 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was elected 
Harcourt's successor in the leadership. 
Fine tributes were then paid to Harcourt, 
and, in addition to the formal resolution of 
regret, the meeting expressed ' its continued 
confidence in him. But experience showed 
that there was small likelihood of his main- 
taining the unity of the party. 

As a private member Harcourt showed 
from time to time activity in criticism of 
the government. He condemned the sus- 
pension of the sinking fund in April 1899 
and scorned an imperial policy which failed 
to pay its way. At the beginning of May 
ho supported the church discipline bill. 
At a dinner of the Welsh parliamentary 
party (6 May) he vehemently advocated, 
in opposition to advice which Lord Rose- 
bery had lately tendered the party, the 
old programme of reform, and on 31 May, 
in a speech at ISfantyglo, he urged England 
to develop her present possessions rather 
than increase her obligations by the addition 
of new ones. 

Of the difficulties with the Transvaal 
Harcourt took a judicial view. He allowed 
the need of internal reform, but on the 
outbreak of war (Oct. 1899), while he con- 
demned in the House of Commons the 
Boer ultimatum, he declared that he was 
not satisfied that the course pursued by 
the government had been ' in every respect 
most conducive to peace,' His prophecy 
that the war would cost 100,000,0002. 
was received with derision by the tories, 
On 30 Jan. 1900 h supported the vote of 
censure on the conduct of the war and 
blamed the government for basing their 



Hareourt 



3IO 



llarcourt 



jin*jmration on a {wntompt-uoita tmtitmito 
l tho ehartMJU*r and tvwwrcu'H oi tho Boor**, 
tnit ho uxproHHod hin mrdkioww in tho. ulti* 
sniUo- HUm-HH of tin* .British troupe, wlto.no 
valour ho <*uing(Hi<d. Boyoml norno c'uUHtio j 
of tho govornwont'rt fuwwiiU ; : 
ho figured liHio in tho HOUHO of j 
df'hairri for ill** I'omatwior i t-ho ] 
t, HOW*IOJI of l!Hifi, hut during f-!:io gononil , 
in Nopt... untl Out, ho ooudwMi'd a ! 
ranitmign lit hi foiiMituonoy of . 

t f ' 14 1 lit 

fijuiiiHiif w*hif'*% Hi' ji^jioiiJM'Hl tlu* 
govt<ntiito}tt*H * iMuirtoiouH * Htloinpt ff* oon 
lifio th<* t*loi?lit*n I*.* tho IHMUO of tho war* j 
and *Iis*iUi>w*tl Hot'.ittl pn>l.ilotnM omphuwirt" 
-ing t-iio $"H-*iH:I of wotnprohonHivo oil 
ro'forni, with ihiM'linfcinntktn of nil 
iHlfm.n*ti^ und of iogiihit-ioii ii* ' 
of l**tiijMriu4W% M.f \viw in hw 
thirti y*'r hut hi** iwrgy un| 

rof-u-inod hiw nt^it ly n 
Sy, 1 1. ivinh I <-*n*!d joti* y*-u 
*ni IK Or I., HH*0 tn 

cr in 



atttondniont- (drfontwi by JJiM t. 18H) t<> the 
fiuiiiK't* hill inking tho iunino t<i * ih^lino 
to ijiijmNo ouHUntiH ilutioM on grain* flour, 
or nthrr Hftif'Ir'H ,fl lirnl ni'^oHHlly for the 
fond elf tho p'tpSo," .During lln Hnmowwcm 
ho t.ppwHf.'.i Mr. ^ I'toUmtr'M fx.lu^at>un bill, 
wiiH'h lio lii^rlurod. dirl nothing for the eauae 
of oloinonf-ary Hluoatitin huti thniaUttiod 
n tHlurt.ttir.XMit rivil war; tho Itill imt only 

vlunlary *ohMMj from popular eontral 



Mr. rfmiui*rIiiii-rH lulvoiruoy of a ro 
in f ho liM'iil **ytriu in I1.MIIJ I^VI^M! Kanmurt 



Country HiHi in lotf<TH to ' 1*ho limcsn * 
3 ,!>% 1 amUW Aug Mi iui*l !? Nfv. 1TO) 
ho roitoraUtl hin fnith in froo riw:I<t Al 
wnyrt loyui to I ho f.'rown, iCnirourt- w 

with th l*fit*oo of 
viutl Vif, On *><) Manili 
i.tt 



with 

yjil 
In 



war 
* 



i"rt, Hf!t*rd it, .Miu* IN tv.* M 
| Hj'UU'r ii Millet** Jiiau ill t:!ir rM 
-w |ai*itaii^'iit .'HariMiiirt. wat 
hti t**urH** *;*!.' fV**nti* irt JS 
fJw.'lari.Hl ihnt tho t<wl 
him? It* !H birt by thi? JIHtmh 
atul Umi it wit* idfo fr th* 
U **}H3t a t*ittri.lititi.i*i from 
(Mmtmrti, IJI 

atut 

I by Ibt* N 

Ufttoti, liaftiuurt ii*moutH'rt|. ilu^ 
HI id t'HKiwrmt * nml 
u]Ku fill Ht>rtH il' Cuint^ 
bill wax I<*.HH v<,*Iii*iiM'til m 
U than !tm ^>l!**iti4ts On 



vitlatu* ol tht< 



tttWN thu ndttiin of 



tht* 



uf t 



10 

tlu m>i.)Mtitutitii 
Throughout 11*03, i both 
lottDrN tp 'Tho Timcw * (5 luiti 18 

ami -i.-April} he vigora 

againit tho lit trod uoilon of fortxxi 

ittt0 South -Afrioa.'- In a lottor to Lord 

'C JiwritiMtoii wiiioh wnyi- ^'H-Hfd (10 JB*iVb 11104 \ 
ill t* larjjtt prottMtt mating, in Queaii'n Hull, 
3ioribi$d tho projuctt- m * titiwing back 
tnora'i Htauw of . the nation ft ' whole 
ry HJIKJO tho Ihml emauoi|mtion of tho 
'* Otlior quofitiottK winch ongn|;od 
ii at thift period- wore Bir 
' 'hudgot propoHaln of 
i whan hit ruHiutod tho pfiii'HjjiiHl. tax ott 

P ^ 

ixuporUd corn, Oit 12 Mtty 1m moved an 

IW *f 



otnt 



hy ,\lr, 1lal!o}f in favour of 

I'tatioiMtt in*tiiujnni f<* tjuoou Viotoria 
front of Burktfighiiin l*tthttro t At the 
iim til K*fw*ml VI! in HH)S hn wm. 
it j.t* i ^frtg*% Iiut thin ho roMf*tt'ttilly 
hut lirjiiJy tiooitnt.Hl. II*.* \\n iniy.ii* iumo* 
riiry follow of 'Ijiniiy O:It- i g*.% <^tnl-ridgo f ' 

^ f in HMll i*k kmlt-h 



to 



* '' 



|'Jn 



j*wg*VHn 

j 
4 



hm intcin* 

, fit thw mittta 
ht* uuitod' 
tt hin part to 
ni* In * T.h: 
umltvr thit htwlitig 
l* hit wi-Mi* with hi* 



hill, 



th 

M.^ *+f th** Hplit iu Hu* t*>ry 
.y tht* fwi'it-l reform 

On 17 Mii Jw .M>k<<- in lh< l:I*nimi of 

hw*r i:*ti t-ht* iimutot} 
*w <h*liytwl at the 
uf th-* KittitJiml Ulxi 
Cluh on il Juty, whet.* ii 
* rtiwiiig wmit of 
tow^nlw tho 

|iloyjiit,iit' of v 

th * guillotimi * *w thw * daily 
dram/ By tho duath, on 23 March IfltM., 
of !dn- nii|'ihitWi Aubrv Vi^rnott Ha;r<.m 
ilia mdy wwt al hk Ult?r !i4h*r 'Edwa 
WilUwn Haroaurt, Sir Willkm 
to tlio family wtnttw at Nuiuthami Oxford- 
iliini* -Thitit) hk lwt diiy w*>w wjmitt in 
full pofUMMwioit 0f hh fttijultim aiiil of health* 
Tim 't*vmiti|c Inifow liin doath lu* apjniared 
in hif umm iutnltli* fits wtmid U* st at 
hk aoouHtojtiHHl hour on Friday* 3 
and uii'tJ twwKl ttw^ in hi 



Harcourt 



211 



Harcourt 



In a message of condolence from King 
Edward VII to Lady Harcourt the king 
described Harcourt as ' an old and valued 
friend.' He was buried in the old church 
within the grounds of Nuneham on 6 Oct. 
The funeral was attended only by the 
tenants and the immediate relatives. A 
memorial service was held at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, on the same day. 

Harcourt was twice married: first, on 
5 Nov. 1859, to Maria Theresa, daughter of 
Thomas Henry Lister [q. v.] of Armitage 
Park, Yorkshire, and of Lady Theresa 
Lister, sister of Lord Clarendon. She died 
on 31 Jan. 1863, leaving two sons, of whom 
one died in infancy, and the other, Lewis, 
born on 31 Jan. 1863, after acting as private 
secretary to his father from 1882 to 1904, 
became first commissioner of works in 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's govern- 
ment in 1905 and colonial secretary in 
Mr. Asquith's administration in 1910. On 
2 Dec. 1876 Harcourt married secondly 
Elizabeth, widow of Mr. J. P. Ives and a 
daughter of John Lothrop Motley, historian 
and sometime United States minister in 
London. Lady Harcourt survives with 
one son, Robert Vernon (b. 7 May 1878), 
liberal M.P. for Montrose burghs since 1908. 
The figure of Justinian, in the fresco 
* The School of Legislation ' at Lin- 
coln's Inn Hall, is a portrait of Harcourt 
at the age of thirty -three. It was painted 
from a sketch, now at Nuneham, which was 
taken by the artist, G. F. Watte, K.A., in 
1860. The best portrait of Harcourt was 
painted by Mr, A. S, Cope, E.A., and was 
just finished at his death. It was intended 
as a gift to Harcourt himself ; after his death 
it was presented to his son, Mr. Lewis Har- 
court (in Feb. 1905), by a subscription of 
the liberal party, and it now hangs at Nune- 
ham Park; a copy was at the same time 
subscribed for by the National Liberal Club. 
A bust by Mr. Waldo Story was modelled 
in Rome in 1899; the original plaster 
cast was presented by the sculptor to the 
National Portrait Gallery in 1907. A life- 
size statue of Harcourt, wearing the robes 
of a chancellor of the exchequer, stands in 
the members' lobby of the House of Com- 
mons. It is also by Mr. Waldo Story and was 
subscribed for by the members of the House 
of Commons; it was unveiled on 14 Jan. 
1906 by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. 
There were portraits in c Vanity Fair ' in 
1870, 1892 (by 4 Spy '), 1897, and 1899. 

In his youth remarkably handsome, Har- 
court assumed, later in life, robust pro- 
portions which were eminently suited to 
his vigorous and aggressive temperament. 



He sprang from a stock essentially conserva- 
tive and inherited an immense respect for 
tradition ; as soon, however, as he was 
convinced of the necessity for change, no 
man was more courageous or more earnest 
in his advocacy of radical measures of 
reform. Perhaps his greatest achievement 
was the passing of his death duties budget 
in 1894, a measure which almost revolu- 
tionised the existing system of taxation. 
Essentially a House of Commons man, he 
was a zealous guardian of its traditions, 
and he preserved to the twentieth century 
the grand manner of the whig orators of the 
eighteenth century. He was one of the 
last and one of the greatest of the old 
school of Parliamentarians. 

Harcourt ranks with the few men who could 
talk as brilliantly as they could write. He was 
an indefatigable worker, and his speeches, 
which were monuments of closely reasoned 
arguments, teeming with facts and illumin- 
ated by witty epigrams, were generally most 
diligently prepared and delivered by the aid 
of copious notes. He was at his beat, how- 
ever, when suddenly called upon to debate, 
and was never so happy as when he was 
fighting a hopeless battle against over- 
whelming odds. Imbued with the spirit 
of the gladiator, he possessed the gift of the 
advocate and could quickly concentrate 
his powers of picturesque invective, sar- 
casm and paradox. Instinctively an aristo- 
crat and living in an aristocratic atmosphere, 
he never hesitated to express his contempt 
for every form of meanness or pretension. 
Unable to suffer fools gladly, and impatient 
of mediocrity, he earned the reputation of 
irascibility and haughtiness. But beneath 
his aggressive manner he possessed a large- 
hearted tenderness which endeared him to 
those who knew him well, and he was one 
of the few who preserved his friendships 
intact through the home rule split in the 
liberal party. Valuing old associations, he 
delighted to treasure up souvenirs of his 
friends and colleagues. His wit and good- 
nature made him a favourite in society. 
Nothing delighted him more than to gather 
round Mm a few kindred spirits, irrespective 
of party or creed. In his home in the New 
Forest he was the happiest and merriest of 
men. There he pursued his favourite 
hobbies of gardening and dairy farming. 
A devoted husband and father, he found 
in the affection of his family a haven of 
rest amid a life of strenuous fighting. 

[Herbert Paul's History of Modem England, 
1904-6; Morley's Life of Gladstone, 1903; 
OEarl of Selborne's Memorials Family and 
Personal; Holland's Life of the Duke of 



ardwicke 



J>ov0nithirt% 11111'*; 'KUiot'a Li!*? rif Lord 
, 10! J ; ' Hir Knbwt A 



liar 



% Kghiyn j <*i 



.^ of 



1 twoMiiIy/'JlJuby'H.fiirthdH.y' JIHB7) and* A 

f* : 11 It 1 ; .1 . ., I ^ i i i i * 4 ,. i j i , . . *, *. 

' k ; Mil 

"* I fill 

, 11107; .hiHim Mi<.WUiyVHi*hirv<f Our : * Wrumwlv * /fun* 

. ., . -. ..... . . ., .j! * t _, w . j. * _ ^ I .1 1 i ^%' '*..' f 11 T M I * 



y^lilorHuktifOfl^ ^|H77) nrc* diiiiii, 'ui UKJ Muri- 

.......... j l/*if *. . ji . . t j> ..,.<! * '1 ' i . .. * ^ !, ... ! *" 1 *|**** **i. W 



IWamfriHH^ 1t'J\''Jm!^,m^'1^ulir M ^^ i ri imtM "* lhl ' lm ^ * lf l4 ' ti-'ftt-^(lH0)"at 

' '* ' * . i .' '.... '. (( i .1 i *.* .AH''! I itllfitf'V* ' 1 wi'si'filiJ 

18H, 1'hi SttJi.t.hur,v rarliiitiw'**!., 181*2, tunl ; ' ,i; 7 l : '.* tit.-, .f 



Tim 
(Yw 

O'f 



iWiuuw<nt t liKHJ j T. F, . | 

*> 
rf 



.tU'g,. IHUMWJ j 11m 
mid juuuiim * |*rivnt* 
Mr* i.*<wi* ifffcwmtrt.') 



1 *M,/HM, i hm 



n 



Un Ifii-viiig Wiiid**<r ftbiwtM852, Harfy 
|V I ?ifli"t\ it KhnH n?Hidrt.t* at 8imlf Wood, 

:, JKM ai l^mtibrufik, Knit, 
% II, A. " """ 



A* U A* 



'|, who \v 
<.'allis*l..t 






\vitr, "1 



ittt.it 

of 



Q. ; B.. 



, F 



I Urn* AJi.A, |i|, v* SH.J(J|,' !!], 
f*r ! <^Xi-?iil iifw \vi.trki.*ci* ,'y.lc*? '1 

I hiul ii hititlitt In thi:-? IIMUH( kttttwn an 

iiiKRtC :i>AN f l'i')f- (IH87 ! * ( i h ! t s *-"^'w % / *'' MJ. ^tm^t, About 



at Wm'fior nn 1! I'Vtb. 1H87, mm 

n 

s unt 

for fjii'itin, f !*h* 



J 



wmii 



lor 



, n 



J8t*3, 11 1^ died 
M t:*lan*i ("Jrwuhntokf 
H.*H i ai**1 wi'w* htiri^i hy tiiij H 

wjft' in St. HunHifiii'H ^hvirt>h t viml, 

inarrttxi on 11 Manl! JH5i5 l ; ii!'Kooft 
ia {/, i!H)l!} dHitRhfi^r of Wilfi'M 
, >! (Jhorloy Wtmd, !:*y wltotn ho 
hiut fivi* wtiiM and OHM daughter* 
['l:*riv**i*i itiftrriiiniJtin j A. U, 

Art rf I%iiitiig* W ^*5 

y, A*w 

ti, Art 



th*t i<.*yfii Atmiiitftiy Htwl .Hrithh 

mttail bwi highly Htitabwl liil4rlnrK 'j 1 *"^ 1 ^! 1 /***" l | l j 

with Jlgaim, MmM ilntai! wi^ miitiblimi ] ^ .^ ^J^ uil ' ilMI |(i ; { a> 
wtih brotulth tinti itiln>imnt. Ha ax4IiMi * A ' 

HAttlrY 



n 

*if w*ilk mut hriok iuuns with 
tiottihki t^f*t?l llin 



Ii B. U 

THOENl*, 
{1HJ4-40P6}, 



tHUH llvi! at Uw British 

ii 
id for hi* irltit 

l 



1817* 



H, 

HIO .^urniw at 
KcuuUtig tho Wit! * 
' wo 



MARK, AUiiimTOH JOHN' CUTH- 

.HKKT (im^im^ aiilhun. twm oaa 
13 Miiruh 1H*J4 at tin* Villa Htimfti, Iiom0 
wiw you.!ig<Ht Htm in a largtt fmitUy of f ranolt 



\vtm 



*Th Late Arrival 1 (187), 'Ffttherlwwi* 

' " Tbo 



* 



pot 'tamb * (1SB8) tin alio^ painlndl & 
fow tibrtraiti. 'Htlll Lite* { 

* BuntUy t Af tentoon * (outtage 
ttt tho' Victoria "and Alltsrt 
M.*hilelrcm Flaying ftt Dooton 

tlws Btsthntil UKHin Muoum ; vl Ury "Shin 
Pair ' and * Little Hrfpow * at . th6 ' : 0orpo- 
ration Art l*albry '0uildhal! f London ; 

* Interior of a 8Hcx Funuhouno. * at tho 

Arfc Ualicry 5 *J3x 
a cK>ttatf( with mother 



by hi* wlfti Ai.i Friiitii0M diiiigiiter of Sir 
' I'ttt*.! of .Ut.tdhoroiighi ' Augwttun 
v] twitl thiMtiw -llftrti j,q, v. 
i "in August IH35 ho w*w adapted 
by bin godniotht)r 'linria, dftughto? ' 

o 



rn t BHn)pnbir and widow of hii unoto 



'Haiti, i'tin 

ufKm"'him. 'Kdueated tot. 
ttjry (184JJ ...... 0) ho WM wsnt 

147 to Hiittiw* liut ilMtmith oompeltod 



private tuU^rn till IS6S 

*'j .1, -., - t *'* 4t 

y- 

7, 



.to England* In tho fallowing ymur he 
and ohildreni'lB04)ibt tho iteyal Holluway : took 'for John Murray handbook of 



Hare 



213 



Harland 



'Berks, Bucks and Oxfordshire ' (1860). A 
( Handbook to Durham,' in the same series, 
followed in 1863. His adoptive mother's 
failing health then made residence in a 
warm climate necessary, and, except for 
occasional visits to England, he remained 
abroad, mostly in Italy and the Riviera, 
from 1863 till June 1870. In November 
of that year his adoptive mother died, and 
he sought to perpetuate her memory in 
' Memorials of a Quiet Life ' (3 vols. 1872-6). 
The book subsequently ran into eighteen 
editions, and inaugurated a series of bio- 
graphies written by him in the same 
mildly deferential key. 

Hare mainly devoted his literary energy 
to the compilation of guide-books, material 
for which he gained in foreign tours. He 
sought to avoid the habitual conciseness 
and dryness of the ordinary guide-book, and 
mainly aimed at gathering up ' what had 
already been given to the world in a less 
portable form ( Walks in Rome> p. 3). The 
fruit of his own observation was combined 
with extracts from other books, often 
more copious than was justifiable. Free- 
man charged Hare with appropriating in 

* Cities of Northern and Central Italy' 
(3 vols. 1876) articles of his in the ' Saturday 
Review. 3 He was accused, too, of copying 

* Murray's Handbook to Northern Italy,' 
and was involved in consequence in legal 
proceedings. But despite these complaints 
Hare's practice remained unaltered. 

Hare was also an artist of some power 
in water-colour, and he illustrated many 
of his own works. An exhibition of his 
water-colour sketches took place in London 
in the autumn of 1902. 

In the latter part of his life Hare acquired 
a residence at Holmhurst, St. Leonards- 
on-Sea, where he collected books and 
pictures. He was a devotee of fashionable 
culture, and when in England much of his 
time was spent in visiting country-houses, 
where he was well known as a raconteur of 
ghost stories. His large circle of distin- 
guished friends included Oscar II, King 
of Sweden, who decorated him with the 
order of St. Olaf in 1878. His ' The Story 
of My Life \ (6 vols. 1896-1900), a long, 
tedious, and indiscreet autobiography, owed 
its vogue to its * stories ' of society. He 
died unmarried on 22 Jan. 1903 at Holm- 
hurst, and was buried at Hurstmonceaux, 
Sussex. 

Hare also published: 1. 'Epitaphs for 
Country Churchyards,' Oxford, 1856. 2. 'A 
Winterjm Mentone,'jl8G2,?12mo. 3. * Walks 
inJRome,' 2~vols. 1871 ;" 17th edit. 1905. 
4, * Wanderings in Spain,' 1873. 5. 'Days 



near Rome,' 1875; 4th edit. 1905. 6. 
'Walks in London,' 2 vols. 1878; 7th 
edit. 1901. 7. ' Life and Letters of Frances 
Baroness Bunsen,' 2 vols. 1878 ; 3rd edit. 
1882. 8. * Cities of Southern Italy and Sicily,' 
Edinburgh, 1883. 9. * Florence,' 1884 ; 6th 
edit. 1904. 10. 'Venice,' 1884; 6th edit. 
1904. 11. Cities of Central Italy,' 2 vols. 
1 884. 12. ' Cities of Northern Italy,' 2 vols. 

1884. 13. Sketches in Holland and Scan- 
dinavia,' 1885. 14. 'Studies in Russia,' 

1885. 15. 'Days near Paris,' 1887. 16. 
* Paris,' 1887; 2nd edit, 2 vols., 1900. 
17. 'North Eastern France,' 1890. 18. 
' South Eastern France,' 1890. 19. c South 
Western France,' 1890. 20. The Story 
of Two Noble Lives, Charlotte, Countess 
Canning, and Louisa, Marchioness of Water- 
ford,' 3 vols. 1893. 21. 'Life and Letters' 
of Maria Edgewqrth,' 2 vols., 1894. 22. 
'Sussex,' 1894.' 23. 'North Western 
France,' 1895. 24. e Biographical Sketches,' 
1895. 25. 'The Gurneys of Earlham,' 
2 vols. 1895. 26. ' The Rivieras,' 1896. 
27. V Shropshire,' 1898. 

[The Atheneeum, 31 Jan. 1903 ; The Times, 
23, 27, and 28 Jaa. 1903 ; The Story of My 
Life, 6 vols., 1896-1900; Who's Who, 1903.] 

QJ TJT ITI 

HARLAND, HENRY (1861-1905), 
novelist, born at St. Petersburg on 1 March 
1861, was only child of Thomas Harland, 
a lawyer of Norwich, Connecticut. He re- 
garded himself as heir to the baronetcy of 
Harland of Sproughton, co. Suffolk, which 
was not claimed by his family on the death in 
1848 of Sir Robert Harland, second baronet 
(G.E.C., Complete Baronetage, v. 155) because 
under the laws of Connecticut they would 
lose part of their property in that state. 
Brought up mainly in' Rome, he studied 
in the University of Paris, acquiring a 
knowledge of the life of the Latin Quarter 
which he afterwards put to literary use. 
Subsequently he studied in Harvard Univer- 
sity, though without graduating, and after 
returning for a year to Rome, where he 
wrote letters for the e New York Tribune,' 
he entered the surrogate's office in New 
York. 

Harland commenced hie literary career 
with ' As it was Written: a Jewish Musician's 
Story,' which was published in London in 
1885, under the name of 'Sidney Luska.' 
It was a sensational novel, dealing with 
Jewish- American life. Many stories of 
the same type followed under the same 
pseudonym, and although of no high 
literary merit they brought Harlandj both 
reputation and pecuniary profit in America, 
' Grandison Mather ' (1890), one of the last, 



liar I and 



Harley 



in UK* 'Athrmmim' *w *aj HARLKY, 

lively ov**l by an author \vh ! gri^flmmi wmiMU'r ami ..,, ,. 
hp letter known In Kn^htmL* ; Imrn in Liwrjwvl n*i &i JJIIL lH28,wa third 
8o0naftor28lH) Hnrlund rtw^vt*! Uinhnmlttn i mm of Unb^rl HrtH**y by \m wifu Mary 
fK*tt.Hfitiohti! itaittm, mul wmiing in Kntflnwl : ; tiiuightw of WiiJwm 'tSt<v* iwoii, rind niece 
art himai'lf cliiHtitTiifHv t<> ^-vdonalikTarv N>f Utiwra! ^fwrmoit tf Avr Nil IUA 

i * mt r it * f * i* i * ft ','''" ' *%?** *.i *.?* A 110 

niyw* iwtiimririh ri** H{-t mtiwt of HIM ; fHtlu*r luU'r Hnijti HW^HI^H tn< n niorchftnt 
HUM* in i/*iirln ,' f.www H itniiinf^r n[ ilif Wiwhn'Hn Mctho* 

Unit two Iwmkn which ftpfH'unnl iiwh'.r ; *!iMi v\H^*fMi*m* itmi hit fnrt'miji. 
own iuu<*, *'l\vo WnwHt i.ir Om ! * - : tiriw *m t-irruif, KUVI< hiri mm Hrthrrt lii\\* 

** /'fifT' 1 *i^"i "*%? ftB^^VwW 

Hit itt^tMnMtiH f*f*ry tJ tifitiriin ; f*jt|Kfrfuiv 
ly 1'iMri * ,M**a I'ttlpfi ; it W<.*MJif)Vi ; umtirui 
Word* (!H?i!), hw on ft:turki.*l bri'm^h : Ulorc hit 
of nlltnity with hi* i.?ftrli*ir wtirk. Iltif^ in k 14, t 

1, Itt * IIiMl**tn4H!^|i^ Mi &tif! oth^r ; nr*nr 

* th* Rrt If imti*rf*'t' : . mfr raimtritv ul 



inn* But !iw mathe- 
v^lHfutl miiidl, and 
fi h* \v 



* 



Ihr. 



* 



wnti*r' 



( 

lit IHt*7 lit* 



u-t- Mrijh*:tttw*i y*ifkMhlris until 
in : iHtiH, lilli in iMli.it(i*m tip* *<iwir of timtho* 
;i'H whirh jprMVi'tt tlu^ .' lurtf.it'H n.mj Itigir it Aimtnl** ("itth'gi* during. 
of th art **f tin* nhftrl : lh< hitler |w*tiiMn i*f llw titnt*. 

o! 51r, ilfinry l*f*H 1 JVi iKHM l<.i IH72 hi* w*w mMt*r o 
vinibl** in llrirlniwrH wvirfc, IH'i- <; oMi'Ht r* 
tirifiim nt oiitjp wknmviwigfti IUH : ntMl fr*-.*n.i 

ii in JWM nf il M.M ' Mill Hill St*h*.iMl \v 
tifi'mry *M:li!.ir -f ; rhn{M>|, At Mill Hill 

.^i/iiH\ whit^h rwkNHwl UIUMI^ ultHfhiMirt* \VHH iwlvt 
itn ifMiili'ihiUotx tutthuM 1 * itntt urtiHt^ *if uu ; {ji.ifuu<?tilH WITI* Iwhl, nrl 

l. in 11HH>, tim.iMKii : ^[iv^, Kn.ni tHH2 to JHH5 ho WAN |>ri; 

fit** CurdiftttrM Hntiil llti*, 1 A ftt)i*l^tjf(tit | of H.iti.Wnn*ftt*-| (>illr?o. And'fmm'iH86*to 
iif urtlntb ohiirm* it'iiriiuui llwt kt- tU0 mittini^r tif t-l* 



of 
in the 



hull whoni ttital 



own to ihn 



, Himtinr 

tintil iliM'iiuuV* tti*il* nt 
titno on D 'i)s. MHlft, It** mwrriwi 
Alinw Hi>rrinm uf Frtmch 
bad 



At Oxfrml. 



In 



ilavin^ 



n miitml^riai ap 
wi ! witn jwrntor 



iho kmk iilr^mly 

th* 



wh*'n hr* 



1* : UtU) 



Hilt, HUH? 



York, mil 2. 'Tlwi Ynkii of tht ' 
^k UHI, H, * My 

nnd utter HttirirM/ IBfM), 

own jcuuno ho . Abo wroi s 8, * Tim lady 
FftrtinounV 1008. 0. * My Fritm4 "" 

<% Di *it Jfit, j MA J **** j'ff'.it ft i** 'Si tt a 

pam, s 1904* .7* *Thn Royal .End, 1 ton* .. f ,... 

thumouijy fat. 1MB. Hd tranlAtd MtttiM | fifth 

nitrod notion to a tnurud&thm o 



it* .I'^mitMi) n*! tiw 
ut)^an)ii|{ in 



of 
ra- 



. 

Pauvre* (1902)*'- Mm Hariand 

* I 



d*uii Joune Honim 



A Akatoh portwdt of Hurtod 'it mpro- 

Iin tho * Early Work o! Aubrey 



** who abo oiuioatared Hwrlanci 

in iitts fmntinpi^ to John 

in 



The* Times, 22 Doo. 1005 ; Athrnium r 

"- 



t hif<hi f r iilgaiini* i*M|MH3liIly to 
*f tti tfwwmt t 4 riuatiin of iha 

whi*h ware 

in * Momoimitf th<* Munoht^itar Lit* 
Phil Hoc,' 181)0, *v, i72'2ll), wart In- 
. rotuihftti ni tiio Minw tirno by Sir 
Ckioklo t<| y/J, Ji&rioy 1 * two further 
on the ' * ThH>rv 0f 'Qviintioi 1 (in 



Quarterly Jounial <f MaOwnnation 1 IH60-S* 
iii' 343-60; v, 24H-eo) v and an oxpcwition of 



i*i mothod of ivymmatria pmduot in 
* PWL Tmna. 1 (I860) attrateKl tho attention 
of .Arthur Gaytay'fq, v* Huppl. 1], who 
aanied tha rewaroh furtber*' In 1803 



Harioy iva rfmlttad F.R.8. Heaotfid-fti 
oorotary of Ui6 A eotion of the British 



Harrington 



215 



Harrington 



Association at meetings at Norwich (1868) 
and Edinburgh (1871), and was a vice- 
president of the meetings at Bradford 
(1873), Bath (1888), and Cardiff (1891). 

He failed to complete the treatise on 
quintics which he had begun, but con- 
tinued to contribute papers of importance 
on pure mathematics to the transactions of 
various societies. A masterly sketch of the 
life and work of George Boole appeared in the 
'British Quarterly Review' (July 1866), and 
a memoir of his friend, Sir James Cockle, 
is in the * Proc. Roy. Soc.' vol. lix. 

Harley died at Rosslyn, Westbourne 
Road, Forest Hill, on 26 July 1910, and 
was buried in Lady well cemetery. In 1854 
he married Sara, daughter of James Stroyan 
of Wigan ; she died in 1905. 

[Private information ; Biograph, vi. 1881 ; 
The Times, 28 July 1910; Harley's Memoir of 
Sir James Cockle, Proc. Roy. Soc. lix. Men 
and Women of the Time, 1899 ; Memoir of 
Robert Harley by Prof. E. B. Elliott in Proc. 
London Math. Soc., ser. 2, vol. ix.] M. B. 

HARRINGTON, TIMOTHY CHARLES 
(1851-1910), Irish politician, born in 
1851 at Castletownbere, co. Cork, was son 
of Denis Harrington by his wife Eileen 
0' Sullivan. Educated at the local 
national school, he subsequently became 
an assistant teacher there. At twenty- 
six he joined the teaching staff of the 
Dominican School, Holy Cross, Tralee, co. 
Kerry, but withdrew almost immediately 
and engaged in journalism. With his 
brother Edward he founded the * Kerry 
Sentinel' in 1877, and edited it during the 
land agitation in the south. He finally 
handed it over to his brother. He found 
time to enter the law school of Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1884, but did not 
graduate. He was in full sympathy with 
the nationalist movement, and at the 
invitation of Mr. Parnell, who recognised 
his organising power, he accepted in 1882 
the post of secretary of the Land League. 
The success of the organisation was largely 
due to Harrington's ability and endurance. 
He suffered two terms of imprisonment 
under Coercion Acts, once in 1881 for 
three months, again in 1883 for two 

t^ 

months. When the Land League was 
dissolved and replaced by the National 
League in 1882 Harrington became secretary 
of the new organisation, and in 1886 was 
mainly responsible for devising the for- 
midable ' Plan of Campaign ' which greatly 
stimulated the land war (cf. DAVITT'S 
Fall of Feudalism in Ireland, pp. 514 sq.). 
In 1883, while in prison in Mullingar 



under the Coercion Acts, he was re- 
turned unopposed as nationalist M.B. for 
co. Westmeath. In 1885 he was elected 
M.P. for the Harbour division of Dublin, 
and retained the seat till his death. In 
1887 he was called to [the Irish bar, and 
during that and subsequent years he 
defended many of the political prisoners 
in the Irish courts. He had already made 
a strong stand in the press against what 
he believed was the unfair administration 
of justice in Ireland, and was specially 
prominent in asserting the innocence of 
Miles Joyce, executed for the Maamtrasna 
murders in 1885. He attended the trial 
and published in pamphlet form ' The 
Maamtrasna Massacres, Impeachment of 
the Trials' (1885; reprinted from the 
'Ereeman's Journal'). Much feeling was 
aroused by his denunciation. His most 
important brief was that of counsel for 
Parnell in the Parnell commission in 
1888-9 at the law courts in Dublin. 
His knowledge of the country was of 
the greatest service to Parnell' s leading 
counsel, Sir Charles Russell. While the 
commission was sitting he was fined 500/. 
for contempt of court for an article which 
appeared in the Kerry Sentinel.' When 
the split in the Irish party took place 
owing to Parnell's condemnation in the 
divorce suit, Harrington broke away 
from the majority and supported Parnell, 
with whom his relations were always 
personally close. On Parnell's death in 
1891 he served under Mr. John Redmond, 
Parnell's successor. In 1901, being then 
a town councillor of Dublin, he was 
elected lord mayor of Dublin, and 
held the office for the exceptional 
period of three years. His conduct in 
the chair was eulogised by men of all 
parties. While lord mayor he took part 
in the land conference of 1902, which 
resulted in the Wyndham Land Act of 
1903. It was largely due to his efforts 
that the disunited Irish party was re- 
constituted under Mr. Redmond in 1900. 
He filled many offices in Dublin with 
honour and dignity, and was appointed 
secretary of the Dublin committee under 
the Old Age Pensions Act of 1909. His 
health was at this time precarious, and he 
died on 12 March 1910 at his residence in 
Harcourt Street, Dublin, and was buried 
in Glasnevin cemetery near the grave of 
his famous leader. 

Harrington never had full scope for his 
abilities. He showed first-rate capacity 
as a barrister, but his political sentiment 
was too strong to permit him to concentrate 



arris 



2t6 



Harris 



his powers on his profession. It is mainly 
on Ms record as secretary of tho Land Loaffuo 
that Harrington's reputation reste. HIM 
refusal of government positions when he 
was in sore financial Btraitfl proved lu 
thorough diflintcsrestcdnoHH. lie WM held 
in hicK esteem by his political opponent**. 



He 



* alfto in prono, and 



(May 



18f)7~AngnHt 1801) the 'Herald of ........... 

AHj.riritttli8torptt' ( Ho (same to England 
in 1H50, preaohing in London, Manchester, 
Edinburgh, and 'OIiu^wv, Ileturnmg to 
America, with Home KnglMi followers, 
in tho autumn of l.H(H. ho bought a 



to liiH own family* t By th rntl of 1803 he 
JIIM! acquired a mill, <?Iw to tlto village 
of Ainonia, 



Hit up 
of Attwma, with 



* 
18 Mnroh 



He^rM in 1892 "Elizabeth; Meeomi hill farm nwtf thn village of 

dauaXTf Dr. Edwwd OWdl of Dublin, Ditcher county, ISew fcork nt^.imd 

S? with fiwj Children, mirvivod him. hew w-t j> a *mumnty, Htyk'd tlm 

BiiS Srtho'pampMot almniv oiul, ho mmHhit,,i of iwrfvii. p.^w jn 

published * A TMary of Coercion * (1888). '" ! - 

[DaviU*H Fall of Foudalim pp t\U & ; ; 
O'lipicn's Lifo of Pamoll, frnHHim 5 OX?niK.- ** 
Parnoll Movement, pasHim : D'Alt.in'a Hi- 

,^1 Inland, p. 34B; 1>V^ Cmi- jj;-^, ( ; tll1ims HJ H r-ciminimity. now 

ntiinlH'riiig Mbout nixty, \vujs known f^ tlm 
* brotherhood of HM* new life ' ; it iiMjltukxl 

HARRIS, THOMAS MKK(18Sri HN)n), j wwyral |-^ri.nj Mf p-^H KJU ^"^ ^ 
mvHlie wan born of pfinr parentH a1 . hmny | well m AwerM'iui, H. *.ui^vin.n, jwiu 
wfej Bu<kinluimHhU on IB May j two ? ^ P""^. I^ ^ '" *"*' 
182?" In 1.H28 hi pawnt-H ominaiHl to tad m IHtJ^-O, awl i lw{i 
"Utiaa, New York H<a(e, He wan an t.mty 
child/ an<I It^Ht, hin mother in hm ninth year, 
Before lie wftfl neventeen he lie^an in writ* 
for the preww, and hin vernew uM rneled notim*. 
"";, no iw a (JalviniHlIts bnptint. ij 

* . II. t j 1 J J I ** 



v, 



abmit 
jwwtor of i\w * (Mirth 



huwh f of Ntw Y<rk. In 1^15 ho timrriwi 



hm * Pio- 

' in wlm*h tbt>rt:* in a rovort alhrnion 
(Apri, p. fiO-i) IT* llurriH iw * im ajirtHtl^ of a 
ii(*w i'luirrh " j but it I'M not till thi< r^tubli0n 
lion in 1H70 that iSitrrin i *,*tt.:ll*d (p, H4) 



* tho 



ft.mil 



Mary Von Araum (rl. IBHO), ly whi ha 
had two non. A vWt In 1841 to Andnnv 
Jaokion Davis, tho Bmahkwiinitj wM;r, 
aonfirmcd him in * H|iiriiaaliHm ' ; Uwnnng 
a ' medium,' ho tirotl, along with J amw 
IX Soott, anothor * mwlittm,' U> Mountain 
Cove, Aulnmu Now Ytrk ntata ; thtw 



(p 



in 



in !H7 j'iiH.i tin 



on 



a 

with Hcofcf,, and in JfW-H 
Hw(*cl<mbrgian prineij>l<'M an 
ChriHt'mn cwwgalion' in Ni*w 

*th Chumh of tl 
csrd*), Ho WAH what in 
^.* inspirational f prciwhor ? ih< 
of hfa nwrnon (I860) on Imhttlf < 
dron WM tho founding of- tlw Nw York 
Juyeniio Aaylam. With 1B60 teigiw WH 
claim to bo tho 'medium* of toigthy 
pooms* * An Kplo. o! tho Starry H 
tho flrot of thow, wa' *Bti^wteti 
Maroh 1850 'diotatod* betwuon 24 
and B T>oo, 1853, nd t Wkm down 
w^, liarrm being In a 

bo 



on 



<>f 



w:tiniy, Nwv York 
t"<* of l^iUi* Kri*' s !.* 
t' wiw known iw S.iIi'Mi*tjn* 
fitrmw ht*ns piirobimH'.! \vith to 
nt*i>y itiul th' i*rot*t*^lH of 
holding wi^* dfvot4H! to 

nnd 



condition ; othwr pimH wf 
4 dictatwl T by Byron, ShoBoy, 
Coioiidgo, Poltok, ' or Poo ; aintrng 
warn Cot Partrido 



tt. mv 

or *.vn nmpiriiti>n/ \v.hit?h wiw U* n 
imtnunitv from *iufh, l.n virtut* f 

tli'h^ IfHrrinV win** iuid iiiytio 
ttK it from ill fjflfl ; liwiwohe 
it* M*W (and. Mint of tohwxso) U 
iM fol!(iwi*nt, iitirf t*ii+Mwi a tnvtsm for thwir 
i* C)ti{.mnt b^ *Hitt1li*hiHl aa- 
*w*ty, 'wswling him twk to 
in 1870, *wt} ri|(uliaig WH mwrmge 



with bin wilt? and mother toft PiiriH In 1873 
for Brtttttm and wrw wtiil<*tMly *Btavod 
by HiirriN. Thn * tmtlwiriwtP wnow 
in !B7^ to Fwmlftin fSrwvo, wiir HimU Rona* 



CnlUorni*, wlwrti Marrw luul 1200 ot 
under vino-euit\ire. 
of oditial 



in IHTOt h 



H,fi-^((r W^ 1 * ff Wf-7* FT 1 * W v* "'" " " W IH| ftfl' ^^ |t a 

'BT"Bifittftn"hiH puWihoffl. About IBM Juno Lem Wng who boaamo|hiii third 
mani<sl Emily lialwIlaWat^w (A 1888). iwifo in 1SP2 In dcmwqwrw t ourtain 



Harris 



217 



Harrison 



alleged ' revelations ' by Miss Chevalier. 
The spell which bound the Oliphants to 
him was broken in 1881 ; legal measures 
compelled the restitution of Oliphant's 
property at Brocton ; Oliphant's final 
estimate of Harris is given in * Masollam * 
(1886). Though he published nothing 
between 1876 and 1891, he privately cir- 
culated many effusions in morbid verse. 
There was always the cunning of the char- 
latan about Harris's mysticism; latterly 
he abounded in ideas on sexual matters, 
sugar-coated for the modern taste. In 
1891 he proclaimed that he had attained 
the secret of immortality ; a partial 
rejuvenation of his powers was pleaded 
in confirmation. He came to England, 
making a long stay in Wales. To America 
he returned owing to his wine premises 
having been set on fire by a mob. Ho did 
not go to Santa Kosa, but remained in 
New York. In 1903 he was in Scotland. 
He died at New York on 23 March 1906 ; 
the fact (concealed by his followers, who 
professed to believe that he was asleep) was 
not made puMc till the following July. 
His remains were cremated. His widow 
his third wife still (1912) survives, in her 
eighty-fourth year. 

A striking and not unkindly picture of 
Harris, drawn by Oliphant under the 
designation of David Masollam, portrays 
his ' leonine aspect/ his Semitic cast of 
features, his waving hair, overhanging and 
bushy brow, his eyes c like revolving lights 
in two dark caverns,' his * alternation of 
vivacity and deliberation,' with changes of 
voice and expression making him by turns 
* much blacker and brighter than most 
people,' and ' looking very much older one 
hour than he did the next.' OHphant 
holds that Harris was honest at the start, 
but gave way to greed, unrestraint, and 
love of power. His personal fascination 
was much akin to that exercised by- 
John Wroe [q. v.]. His gift of language 
and power of dramatic utterance wore 
remarkable ; but he had nothing new to 
say, nor had his theology any distinctive 
mark, unless his doctrine of the fatherhood 
and motherhood of the divine being be so 
counted. To an unbeliever most of his 
verse appears to consist of echoes and high- 
pitched twaddle ; he reminds the poet- 
laureate of Shelley ( ATJSTIH, The Poetry of 
the Period, 1870, p. 227, .. * supernatural 
poetry * )* He attracted a few like OKphant, 
of more wit than wits, but most of his 
worshippers were of the class that mistakes 
conceit for culture, and is agape for novelty. 
Apart from numerous sermons, Harris's 



publications in verse and prose include: 
1. *'* Juvenile Depravity and Crime in our 
City. A sermon,' &c. [Mark x. 14], New 
York, 1850. 2. 'An Epic of the Starry 
Heaven,' New York, 1853; 4th edit. 
1854. 3. ' A Lyric of the Morning Land,' 
New York, 1855; Glasgow, 1869. 4. 'A 
Lyric of the Golden Age,' New York, 
1856 (dictated December-January 1854M5) ; 
Glasgow, 1870. 5. 'The Wisdom of 
Angels,' part i., _New York,' 1857- 6. 

* Hymns of Spiritual Devotion,' New 
York, 1858, 12mo. 7. * Arcana of Christi- 
anity,' part i., New York, 1858 ; Appendix, 
1858; part iii., 1867. 8. ' Regina : a Song 
of Many Days/ New York, 1860. 9. < The 
Breath of God with Man : an Essay, . , of 
Universal Religion,' 1867. 10. c The Great 
Republic : a Poem of the Sun,' New York, 
1867; 2nd edit. 1891. 11. 'A Celestial 
Utopia,' ]BYome, 1869 (account of the Brocton 
community, from the * New York Sun ' ; 
authorised but apparently not written by 
Harris). 12. * The Lord : the Two-in-One/ 
Salem-on-Erie, 1876 (by Harris and Lily C. 
Harris). 13. 'Hymns of the Two -in -One ; 
for Bridal Worship in the Kingdom of the 
New Life/ Salem-on-Erie, 1876 (by the fore- 
going f under the pseudonyms of Chrysantheus 
and Chrysanthea). 14. ' A Wedding Guest/ 
1877-8, 5 parts (privately printed at Fountain 
Grove), which was succeeded by many 
similar works from the same private press 
until 1887. 15. ' The Brotherhood of the New 
Life : its Fact, Law, Method,' Santa Rosa, 
1891. 16. ' The New Republic,' Santa Rosa, 
1891; London, 1891. 17. 'Lyra Triumph- 
alis,' 1891 (dedicated to Swinburne). 18. 

* God's Breath in Man and in Humane 
Society/1892 (photographic likeness pre- 
fixed). 19. * Conversation in Heaven/ 1894. 
20./TheDawnrise/1894. 21. 'The Marriage 
of Heaven and Earth/ 1903 (written 1866). 

22. ' The Triumph of Life/ Glasgow, 1903. 

23. 'The Song of Theos/ 1903. Posthumous 
was: 24. 'Veritast a Word-Song/ Glasgow, 
1910 (written 1898-9). 

[Apploton's Cyclop. Amor. Biog., 1887; 
Oliphant, Life of L. Oliphant, 2nd edit. 1892; 
R. McCuUy on Harris, 1893, 1897; W. P. 
Swainson, T. L. Harris, Mad or Inspired, 
1895 ; J. Cuming Walters, Athenseum, 
28 July 1906 ; Annual Register, 1906 ; A. A, 
Cuthbert, Life and World- work of T. L. Harris, 
1908; private information,] A. G. 

HARRISON, REGINALD '(1837-1908), 
surgeon, born at Stafford on 24 Aug. 1837. 
was eldest eon of Thomas Harrison, vicar of 
Christ Church, Stafford, by Mary his wife. 
Harrison was educated at Rossall school, 



Harrison 



218 



Hart 



and after a short period of probation at 
the Stafford general hospital, ho entered 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, He 
was admitted M.R.O.S. England on 15 April 
1859, and in the same year ho obtained the 
licence of the society of apothecaries. Ho 
was then appointed house Burgeon at the 
Northern Hospital, Liverpool, and shortly 
afterwards moved to the Royal Infirmary 
as senior lion BO surgeon (I8f>0~2), a pout 
which carried with it the duty of attending 
the city lunatic asylum. Ho was Burgeon 
to? the Cyfarthfa iron works at Mertliyr 
Tyclfil (1862-4). 

Returning to Liverpool in 18(54 as assist- 
ant to Mr. IS. R Bickorstoth, ho practised 
as a surgeon, first at 18 Maryland Struct, 
in 1868 "in Rodney Street, In 1864 ho 
was appointed both surgeon to the Liver- 
pool Bhxocoat school and demonstrator of 
anatomy at the Koynl Infirmary school 
of medicine, becoming in 1805 lecturer on 
descriptive and surgical anatomy in the 
school, and in 1872 lecturer on the prin- 
ciples and practice of wn'gnry, On 13 Dec. 
1806 ho was admitted FJt'.CIH, England ; 
was surgeon to the Northern Hospital at 
Liverpool (1867-8); quarantine ollicer to 
the port of Liverpool j aswiHtant Mirgeon 
to the Royal Infirmary (1807-74), and full 
surgeon from 1874 until ho removed to 
London in 188& In October 1880 IKS 
was elected surgeon to St. Pot/art Hospital 
for stone and other urinary ditieaaoB on the 
resignation of Walter Oomson, 

At the Royal Collage of Surgeons of 
England, Harrison wa member of tho 
council, 1880-1002, and vto-presidcmt, 
1894*5* He was Huntorinn prafomor of 
surgery and pathology 1800-1, when ho 
delivered a COUFBCJ of leoturea on Htoms in 
the Madder, enlarged prowtato, and urothral 
stricture* In 1896 ho was BrudHhaw 
lecturer, taking m }m subjwjt vmoal Btono 
and prostatio disorders, In 1903 ho vwitod 
Egypt officially, on behalf of the college, 
to inspect the school of medicine at Cairo, 
Ho was president of the Medical Society 
of London in 1890, having delivered thero 
in 1888 the Letteomian lectures, on the 
surgery of the urinary organs, 

He ceased active professional work in 
April 1905, when h resigned his post at 
St, Fetor's hospital ; ho died on 2$ April 
1908, and was buried at Highgate cemetery* 
He married in 1864 Jane, only daughter of 
James Baron of Liverpool, and loft one son 
and two daughters. 

Harrison was one of the small band of 
teachers who raised the Royal Infirmary 
school of medicine at Liverpool to the posi- 



tion of tho well- equipped medical faculty 
of tho University of Liverpool In IBBI) the 
private school of tho infirmary became a 
joint-stock company, mow\y was raised, 
and now laboratorioB worn built Harrison 
an socrotary-managar nought to supply each 
lectureship a it fell vacant with a young 
and energetic man who was unhampered 
by tho dminndn of private jmiotico. Tho 
school, thus i in proved, bimame University 
College, \vhicli existed iw it, separate body 
from 1882 to 1 .1)01), when it wa morgod 
in tho univcrHity. 

llarriHoii alno took part in establishing 
tliti wyHtcm (on a plan already in voguo in 
Arnonca) of street "am bulaifiH which long 
mado Liverpool rcinarkubh* amongst tho 
towns of (<r<*at Britain, lio was active in 
promoting tlw Htreut Ambulanco Asnooia- 
tion for diwolopirjg f-h( Hyntnu throughotit ' 
TOnglawl, and was j)r(*Hi<l(mt at hi daatlu 

HarriHou'H workn iiu^liidi* : L * CliaSeal 
LoottireH on Htrkturo of tho Urethra and 
ofchor DinordcrB of tlio Urinary Organs,* 
Loiulon atul !I'Jv>rjKj<)I 187& 4 I^aturm 
on the Surgical DinordorH 0f tlio Urinary 
Organs,* End <*dit IBHO,* 4th wilt, IBfKI, *i 
*Tluj UHO of tho Al>ula-no in Civil 
J'raotHio/ Liverpool, 1 881. 4, * Sul<*otd 
PapcrH on Htont* rroHttttts utul oth<?r Urinary 
,DiBt)rdorH UK)!)/ 



, lilOB, vol. i. j>, HSJ2 (with pnrtmit); 
Brit M.t, tlovmml, 11HIH, v<4, i, p. 001 
(with portrait) ; Livr^rpoo} Mmii(?o-(.'hirurgiai 
ifournul, .July HiO, j>. 251 s informiiiion 
kituUy giv<m by Mr, litiginald 



HABT, Km KOBKHT, iirnf, baro.mit 
835-n*.U), ittHpootor-gon^ra! of ti8t<UH 
in China, burn on 20 F<b. 18IJH at Porto- 
down, ao, Armagh* ltt.*lfw.ul wan uldmi of 
tho twolw ohildmi of Mt*nry Htirt v a WH 
l^yftn mi.U"(wnfr and lanc!(..nl |>rt>priutor' 
by hiw wifo Ann, w^oml daughtiir of ,)ohn 
Edgar of liallylmmgh* Hiw" iuu*Htor on 
tho' father^ *d, Oa^t&in Van Hawlt, 
oamo over from tho Niti'ioi'Ian<lH with King 
William 111, diatrngutolwd hinii>U .t tho 
battlo of the IJoynci &nd wan gmnU4 tho 
township of Kilmoriarty. Wh0n Mart WOB 
twelve .'months old, lm paa'ritH inv(jd 
to Milltown on l^iugh Nfaagh, Mid al.>ut 
a year later . to Milkborough, Hart was 
sent to school at MilWwmugh, thtm for a 
year to tho Wewloyan ichool at Taunton* 
and afterwards to the Weteyan Oonnexional 
school in Dublin. He veaohod tho top of 
the last school at the ag of fifteen, and 
won a scholarship at Queen's Collage, 
Belfast There ho was a younger oontem* 

V v<tr 



Hart 



219 



Hart 



porary of Edwin Lawrence Godkin [q. v. 
Suppl. II], and he graduated B.A. in 1853 
with honours. He was always interested 
in the affairs of Queen's College, where he 
proceeded M.A. in 1871 and was made hon. 
LL.D. in 1882. 

In the spring of 1854 a nomination for the 
consular service in China was given by the 
foreign office to each of the three Queen's 
Colleges in Ireland. Hart received without 
examination the nomination which fell to 
Queen's College, Belfast, and he left for 
China in May 1854, being then nineteen 
years old. 

Starting as a supernumerary interpreter, 
Hart after three months at rfongkong was 
sent via Shanghai, which was then in the 
hands of the * Triad Society,' to Ningpo. 
He was at first supernumerary and in 
1855 assistant in the vice-consulate at 
Ningpo, and acted for some months as vice- 
consul* In March 1858 he was transferred 
to the consulate at Canton, and from April 
held the position of second assistant, act- 
ing also for some time as first assistant. 

As the result of the Chinese war, which 
was temporarily concluded by the Treaty 
of Tientsin, Canton was in the earlier part 
of 1858 jointly occupied by an Anglo- 
French force. Hart was made secretary to 
the allied commissioners, serving in that 
capacity under Sir Harry Parkes [q. v.]. 
Subsequently his official chief at the con- 
sulate was Sir Rutherford Alcock [q. v. 
Suppl. I]. 

In May 1,854, when the walled native city 
of Shanghai was occupied by Triad rebels 
against the Manclm government, the Chinese 
custom-house re-opened in the foreign 
settlement of Shanghai, It was resolved 
to collect there imperial revenue under the 
joint protectorate of Great Britain, the 
United States, and France. Each country 
was represented, by its consul, the British 
consul being (Sir) Thomas Wade [q. v,]. 
It was thus that the imperial maritime 
customs of China were inaugurated, 
Tho American and French representatives 
soon resigned from the triumvirate, and 
wore not replaced ; and Wade was succeeded 
in the sole charge or superintendence of 
the imperial customs at Shanghai by 
H. N, Lay, vice-consul and interpreter in 
the Shanghai consulate. 

The success of the new system at Shanghai 
led the viceroy of Canton to invite Hart 
to undertake the supervision of the customs 
at Canton. With the permission of the 
British government he resigned the con- 
sular service in 1859, and joined the new 
Chinese imperial maritime customs service 



as deputy-commissioner of customs at 
Canton. He remained in Canton till 1861. 
After the war of 1860 between Great 
Britain and France on the one side, and 
the Chinese government on the other, and 
the conclusion of the convention of Peking 
in Oct. 1860, the imperial collectorate of 
customs at the treaty ports was in 1861 
formally recognised and invested with 
regular powers by the Chinese government. 

During 1861-3 Lay, who had become 
inspector-general of the customs, was on two 
years' leave in Europe owing to injury in 
a riot. In Lay's absence Fitzroy, previously 
private secretary to Lord Elgin, and Hart 
acted for him as officiating inspectors - 
general. Fitzroy remained at Shanghai, 
while Hart organised the customs service 
at Foochow and other treaty ports. He 
also visited Peking at the invitation of 
the Tsungli Yamen, and stayed there with 
the British minister, Sir Frederick Bruce 
[q. v.]. The advice which Bruce gave 
him stood him in good stead in future 
dealings with the Chinese. On Lay's return 
in May 1863 Hart took up the duties of 
commissioner of customs at Shanghai with 
charge of the Yangtze ports. But Lay 
resigned a few months later, and Hart was 
appointed his successor. Thus at the age 
of twenty-eight Hart became inspector- 
general of the imperial maritime customs ; 
and, although he tendered his resignation 
in 1906, lie nominally held the post till his 
death. 

When Hart became inspector-general 
the Taiping rebellion, which on his arrival 
in China was at the floodtide ofj success, 
was succumbing to the influence of Gordon 
and * the ever-victorious army.' Hart met 
Gordon, with whom he formed a strong 
friendship, in the spring of 1864. He was 
largely responsible for recoiiciling Gordon 
and Li Hung Chang at Soochow in that 
year, and he was present at the taking 
of Chang Chow Fu. The rebellion ended 
in 1864, and Hart had much to do with 
the disbandraent of the ' ever-victorious 
army.' In the same year he inspected the 
Chinese customs houses in the island of 
Formosa, and normal times having returned 
to China and its government, he was sum- 
moned to live at Peking, which thence- 
forward became his headquarters and 
permanent dwelling-place. There he ex- 
ercised a genial hospitality, indulging a 
taste for music by maintaining a private 
band. He rarely moved from the capital 
during his long residence in China. A 
perfect master of the language, he wrote in 
Chinese, after his visit to Formosa in 1864, 



Hart 



220 



Hart 



suggestions on Chinese affairs under the 
title of * What a Bystander nays.' 
f. Until he finally loft China nominally 
on leave in 1908, ho only twice rovimted 
Europe, the first time for six months in 
I860, when he took with him soma Chinese 
to see the world, and again in 1878, when 
ho went as President of the Chinese com- 
mission to the Paris Exhibition. 

Though not fcho first originator, Hart 
was the practical creator of the imperial 
maritime customs service of China, l one 
of the most striking monuments over 
produced by the genius and labour of 
any individual Englishman ' (The 2 r $WM, 
10 Jan, 1899). The working of the system 
was largely dependent on his personal 
exertions* To his labours he brought groat 
power of work and organisation, a strong 
memory and mastership of detail, thorough 
knowledge of OhmcsHo methods and modeH 
of thought, together with tact and Irish 
kindliness. As more ports were opened 
to foreign trades, tho seopo of Hart'B 
duties ox tended, and owing to the* 
efficiency of the sorvioo other than CUB* 
toms dutien pnased into itn chargo* Tho 
service Included tho lighting of tho coant 
and inland walerwayN of China- The 
imporial poHfc*ofBoo, which wn$ formally 
established in 1806, became, too, ono o 
its branches, and Hart/H title wa ttaa 
changed to. inspootor-general of ChinoHO 
imporial customs and post**. Hart's de- 
partment proved tho ono branch of Ohinoao 
administration which followed Wo&tom 
lines and was at once efficient and honest* 
It was worked Bcsrupulounly for tho bonofli 
of China. Hart*H European officers wore 
not drawn oxolumvoly from British nub* 
jccte, and he never Bubordinated OhinoHO 
to British intorostw* 

Barely absent from Poking, and taking, 
in the opinion of somo> too bxoluHivcly 'a 
Chinese TOW. of affair^ especially in later 
years. Hart long on joyed tho confidence of 
the OhinoBo government, and waw entrusted 
by it with many negotiations affooiing 
China's relations with other countries In 
1878 ho, acting with Li Hung Chang, 
Bottled at Ohefoo with tho British minister 
at Poking, Sir Thomas 'Wade, the difficulty 
between China and Great Britain wising 
out of tho murder in 187$ of Augustus 
Baymond Margary fa vj, the result bing 
the Ohefoo convention of 1876* To Hart'0 
.co-operation was due the settlement of 
China's troubles in Formosa and on the 
Tongking frontier with afeuaoe in 1885* 
iteno aotoaowlodged his -serrioes by 
making him grand: officer of the Legion 



of Honour, Hw wan no ICMH arfive in 
dealing with dillimiUk'B ovi?r th delimita- 
tion of tho Bimnt^o frontier and China's 
relations with Thibet* In Mity 1BH5 ho was 
appointed by tho Englwh foreign B(^cnjiary, 
Lord Grarivilte, Briiinh ininiMior at 1'eking 
in succession to Sir Harry I*Hrkc, but 
ho rocogniHcnl that the ChitK'Ho wlnhtul to 
retain Inn HorvieeH an in|-K^to 
and in August ho rr^ignod tho 
without taking up tlio dtiticK. in Itad 
indeed itlentiiicid hininelf km fully witlt 
Oliineno ittkmwt-8 and point H of viow to 
lit him for dit>loia<.io work on l*half of 
another cotinfry* 

Hart did not anticipate i!w aollapno of 
Cliina in tho war with tlitpan of 1H1J4-5; 
but after i.hat; war hod Imm eonitludod by 
the Treaty of Hhimonosokt, Jui ntl all hi 
0-tTortH in iiuluoo tho CJhineHe 
to introduw* nwtt'HHiiry rofonn 
wiw tho Box(?r outbreak in HK.K), but he 
hold that i he tw> Yemeni WIIH * a pur(^y 
patriot io vohittt ; et*r iiutvoimmt, and itw 
object is to tn>n#t!w. Oliina and for a 
Ohirw*H pn^rantiho * (Tfaw fwm llm 
f/tmtl of AVwiw-, jj* f*2), 1'h< ariniH wuno 
sooner thu-n he hail etJiileiupIatetL lie 
Hhowetl gallantry and wuiurumm when tlm 
reb(4n tHunipied l-'<*Uig Init hin hoy HO 
and papern f inehidiiig IJIH diiiry <:f forty 
years, wore burned (June), and* hi* had it* 
take rafiige in Urn BntJHb legaf iwu Wl^n 
tho legation wtw heniegetL falne report 
of JH death were eiretikted in Kngland 
(*TuIy), bub ho wan unhurt, AH w.>u as 
tho i*of'K>llion wan wij*jwHnod Jy ntt inter- 
nationivl forc^e (14 Aug.) Hnri rem*mo<i hin 
ofliee (21 Aug,) f itml 'l.'wuo i.w tjfon 
tho Miml mid iuivi<r of t-ho Chmw 
gavemirietvt.* lit.* orgiuuHetl in 1901 a 
native fmHtoniH werviet^ at tlie treaty 
and he played a largo part in Iho ro 
JiHhtnont of tho Man.hu dvrwwty with fcho 
enipi'mw dowager at Itn head* Although 
it wan an * alien gov0mnu<nf< R ' Iio inHiMUni 
that it had Imm * |art and }>an*ol of tho 
nation for thmi huiuirm! tam (tV; 



In 1901 ha puhHuhttf* imdw tho title 
* Those from tho Land of Biriim,* t*muys on 
the Chinese quoation, part of which ho had 
written, during' tho ifoxor rfemg. Thro, 
while d welling" oloau'tmtly 01* tho 'poptiimxtt' 
neia and fertility of iha country, ha ttxpl&inn 
tho people's exelusiyenowii and dintntJit of 
foreign raoov. He optJwtoticaUy looked for 
reform, ha had written .to a private friend 
In 1800, not from any individual aetiou but 
from * the healthy interaction of the force* 
now coming Into play. 1 

Hart's unchallenged authority ww rudely 



Hart 



221 



Hartshorne 



and without warning terminated by the 
Chinese government in May 1906. The 
customs service was then subordinated to 
a board of Chinese officials under the title 
of Shui-Wu Ch'u. A remonstrance from 
the British government was disregarded. 
As a consequence Hart tendered his resigna- 
tion in July 1906. It was never definitely 
accepted, but in Jan. 1908 he received 
formal leave of absence, and was accorded 
the title of president of the board of customs. 
He returned to England for good. 

During his long sojourn in China the 
government had been profuse in acknow- 
ledgment of his services, and his Chinese 
honours excelled in number and distinction 
those bestowed on any other European, 
They included, brevet title of An Ch'a Ssu 
(civil rank of the third class), 1864 ; brevet 
title of Pu Cheng Ssu (civil rank of the 
second class), 1869; Red Button of the 
first class, 1881 ; Double Dragon, second 
division, first class, 1885 ; the Peacock's 
Feather, 1885; ancestral rank of the 
first class of the first order for three 
generations, with letters patent, 1889 ; 
brevet title of junior guardian of the heir 
apparent, 1901. 

European governments, to whom he 
rendered a long succession of services, were 
also liberal in recognition. In 1870 he 
was made chevalier of the Swedish order of 
Vasa, and other high distinctions came 
from the governments of France, Belgium, 
Austria, Italy, Portugal, Holland, and 
Prussia, and from Pope Pius IX. The 
British government made him C.M.G. in 
1879, K.C.M.G. in 1882, G.C.M.G. in 1889, 
and a baronet in 1893. 

A north of Ireland man of retiring disposi- 
tion, Hart, while he thoroughly assimilated 
Chinese influences, combined business capa- 
city and courage with untiring patience 
and tolerance, habits of deliberation, and 
an Eastern equanimity under good or bad 
fortune. Ho had a fine memory and a 
stock of varied learning in oriental and other 
subjects. He was Forderer of the Museum 
fur Volkerkunde, Leipzig, 1878 ; hon, 
member of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
Shanghai, 1879 ; of the Oriental Museum, 
Vienna, 1880; and of the Institut de 
Droit International, 1892. He was made 
an hon. fellow of the Royal Statistical 
Society in 1890. On his retirement from 
China he lived for the most part at 
Fingest Grove, near Great Marlow, where 
he died on 20 Sept. 191 L Ho was buried 
at Bisham on the Thames. On 23 Sept. 
1911 an imperial edict was issued at 
Peking which, after reciting, his services 



and enumerating the various Chinese 
honours already accorded him, added to 
these as a posthumous distinction the 
brevet rank of senior guardian of the heir 
apparent, 

On 22 Aug. 1866 Hart married at Ravan- 
net in co. Antrim, where his parents were 
living, Hester Jane, eldest daughter of 
Alexander Bredon, M.D., of Portadown. 
She survived him with one son, Edgar 
Bruce, his successor in the baronetcy, born 
in 1873, and two daughters. 

A caricature appeared in < Vanity Fair' 
in 1894. 

' [Sir Robert Hart/ The Romance of a Great 
Career, told by his niece, Juliet Bredon, 1909 
(with photogravure portrait as frontispiece) ; 
The Times, 10 Jan. 1899, 17 July 1900, 21 Sept. 
1911; Foreign Office List; Who's Who, 1911.] 

C P 3J 

HARTINGTON, MAEQTJIS or. " [See 
CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, eighth 
DUKE off DEVONSHIRE (1833-1908).] 

HAKTSHORNE, ALBERT (1839- 
1910), archaeologist, bora at Cogenhoe, 
Northants, on 15 Nov. 1839, was the eldest 
survivor of the eight sons of Charles Henry 
Hartshorne [g. v.]> rector of Holdenby, 
Northamptonshire, by his wife Prances 
Margaretta, youngest daughter of Thomas 
Kerrich [q. v.] of Denton, Norfolk. His 
education, which was begun at Westminster 
school (1854-7), was completed in France 
and at Heidelberg. "Until 1865, when 
his father died, his home was Holdenby 
Rectory, and he soon developed the passion 
for archoeology which he inherited from 
his father and grandfather. 

Between 1876 and 1883 and from 1886 to 
1894 he was secretary of the Archaeological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
from 1878 to 1892 editor of the ' Archaeo- 
logical Journal.' He was elected P.S.A. on 
8 June 1882, member of council on 4 May 
1886, and local secretary for Derbyshire on 
2 Dec. 1886. 

His splendid monograph on ' Old Eng- 
lish Glasses,' published in 1897 (4to), called 
attention to a neglected subject. Harts- 
horne was an authority also on monumental 
effigies, and published in 1876 * The Re- 
cumbent Monumental Effigies in North- 
amptonshire, 7 a folio volume of 128 photo- 
graphic reproductions of scale drawings with 
historical descriptions. Valuable also was his 
* Portraiture in Recumbent Effigies, and 
Ancient Schools of Monumental Sculpture 
in England, illustrated by Examples in 
Northamptonshire' (1899), An excellent 
draughtsman, Hartshorne illustrated his 
worka with minute fidelity. 



Hastie 



222 



Hastie 



Hartshome, who resided chiefly at 
Bradbourne Hall, Derbyshire, died at 
7 Heene Terrace, Worthing, on 8 Deo, 
1910, and was buried in Holclenby church- 
yard. He married in 1872 Oonstanco 
Amelia (d. 1901), youngest daughter of 
tho Kov. Francis MacCarthy of Bally- 
neadrig and Lyradano, but left no ISBUO. 
A portrait-sketch, made in 1888 by 
Seymour Luean, R.A,, bolongw to Mr, Hugh 
R. P. Wyatt at Cisabury, Worthing. 

Besides tho works aliove mentioned and 
contributions to the * Archajoloflical Jour- 
nal J (xxxix. 376, on ' Collar of &S.,' 1882, 
and xlv* 238, on * Monuments in Bt Mary'n 
Ohurcli, Warwick') and to ottosr publication^ 
Hartshorn published : L ' On Kirtatoad 
Abbey, Lincolnshire, Kirkwtuad Uhapwl, 
and a Eamarkablo Monumental Effigy 
there preserved,' 1883, 2. 4 Bradbourno 
Church, Derbyshire; 1888. 5. '.Hanging 
in Chains,' 1891, 4. 'Tim Hworcl-Wtn of 
the Middle Ages/ 1891. C. ' Oxford in 
the Time of William ill ami Anno, 1691- 
1712,' 1010. To SSome Minor Arto an 
practised in England/ fol, 1894, by A, 
H, Church and otherw, HartHhorno con- 
tributed * BnglMi MigfoH in Wood,' Mo 
edited 'Memoirs of a .Royal Chaplain, 
1720-1763, tho Corr<sHm>ndnoo of Edmund 

Tf!i.*>.f .u. IV I i >it *- . ui * % , i , i s 

Kemeh. ]>,!)' 



Boo* Antiquaricw, xxlii, 436 ; Who'** 
,' 1 SS 7 ; Athoniaum, 3 Sept. and 17 Doe. 
1010; The TinaoB/10 Doo, 1910j Cat. of 
ijibr. of Woe. of Autiquarlofl; private In 
formation,] 0* 



HASTIE, WILLIAM, D.D. (1842-1903), 
profeaBor of divinity at CliaB&ow, third won 
and fourth child in tho family of four mm 
and three daughter of Jainon HwUo by hi 
wife Catherine Koll t W^B bom on 7 July 
1842 at Wanlockhead, Dumfrionnhiro, wWo 
his father was a manager of Itnul imm* 
After education in tho looal sohool ho taiutht 
m the neighbourhood, and studied priYately. 
Lntenng IMInburgh University in 1859, 
he dwtm^uwhed himself in both Im arts 
and divinity OOUWOB, graduating M.A. with 
"^SJ*? 8 honours in philoBopfiy in 1807 
and B,B, in 1869, Ho supplemented Mi 
theological studies at Glasgow (1870-1), at- 
tending the ota of Dr. fohn Caird [q, v v. 
Suppl. I]., professor of divinity. After be- 
coming a licentiate of the Church of Scotland, 
no was for some years a wandering student 
among continental universitiesin Ger- 
many, Holland, and Switzerland mattering 
foreign languages and widening Me theoloaC 
cal knowledge. In the intervals passed at 



home he took occasional work an it univer- 
sity deputy, or m tiHwintant to parish 
ministerw, among them Paton James Gloag 
[q. v, $uppL II], at GalawbiwlH,, 

In 187H HaHtio was appoinUni principal 
of the Church of fteotknd College at 
C/alcutta. 'I'horo he nhtwutl /tal and energy 
aliko UH atjad( 4 miti or^anim.T, an niinBlonary, 
and an wrikT. In '188.1 lie publwhtHj'tiia 
firwt part of ' Tho Kl*iapnt*i ( Fhikwophy/ 
and in "188^1 h inKUtni an enlai'jyjwl verHion 

i*"K\ flit J'^l * -j-1* 1^ i'% 1 '^ * iM. b 

to tho Jloathrn/ Jn IHHIJ hm * Hindu 
Idolatry and Knglmh KnligliU'niuont ' (a 
reprint of Hix lotttTH fniu" tin* Cu" 
SStatoman') gavo Uu(mt'fI nativ**H 
oifenao* Com plaint -H, toti, oi th^ dint 
(f tlio colbg<i Ivd UK* KortMgn Mi 
Oomtmtton to rdiovo lum of "hm jHwt of 
principal in November 1883, nnd hm able 
appeal to thwgoiirralMHHMJubiyut Kdinlmrgh 
on $ti May 1881 wiw rfjoc'tr^l by i||;| to 1H)* 
A jnrriod of xlu8im from *cckHiaHtial 
ollleo iV)llowt:H.l, utu.i IliiHtii? rtcuupiijtt hint* 
Helf iti traiJHiatitig front iJmrwn, Italian, 
and .Krtr!h wurki o theology, philo^oplty, 
and Jaw* Ho gwo proof, u*o of a jxwtw 
t**m|>oram(*nt In a Hotmot Ht.'qtu."Mct tnititkxl 
* La Vita Mia,* whksh h puiiliMliml in 
189(1 after ontributi.ng mu of tho poomy 
to tho * Bcoteman * ami uUuir nuWHpup< 
In 1.8112 HaHtio WIVH diown to dolivi'r in 
JMdinburgh thu Crrmll 2cotim\ I!IH coumu 
of philoHOpIiioal lt*aturt*H on * 'f 
of tJio IiDfnH.l <,'hurh in jf I 
l*riji.oiplt* * (publiHhtl poHthymoiwIy at 
Mdinlmrgli in 19U4) prowi viUuabli?. On 
13 April 18114 Hftwttt! ri?at*ivtHi tho honorary 
dogreo of IXIX from Ktlinburgh UnivtTMity, 
and in iW5 mioifdtHi William Pimlio 
J.)ickon [({, v. HuppL II | iia pruftwMor of 
divinity at <jiawgow* 'J'htjro ho wtu* popular 
witlt hm tudcnt* whom tut iitipn?imi with 
hi.s attainment* ami mutluxl. Ho dimi ud* 
d^nly In Edinburgh on 81 Aug. IU03, and 
waa intonwxl in tho family burying-grownd 
at Wonlookhead* He mm unmamod. A 
memorial * Itotio :Le0twro ' Urn bwn 



liihod in Glaigow Untvondty. 

Betidoi hb Crcmll leoturcv Hiuiiiu con- 
tributed to learned dogmatic theology * The- 
ology as Scienoe, and it IVoiwnt Position 
arid Prospeotn in tho Rofonnod Ohiwoh- 1 
(Glasgow, 1800), a compact und philonophic 
iuwey and amumtnt. An intwitionht* he 
treated tho divina imxnanenco M a funda- 
mental conception (Tlmk^j m Sefaiet, 
p. 08). In 190B he gava a freih iUufttration 
of . pootical power md oritioal acuuton in 
The Festival of Spring* from tho Bivtm 
of JelUeddiu : Renctorea to MngMi Oa%ols 



Hatton 



223 



Hatton 



after Riickert's Version, with an Introduc- 
tion and Criticism of the Rubaiyat of 
Omar Khayyam.' The trenchant discus- 
sion of Omar is virile criticism. Other 
experiments in verse were a group of son- 
nets written at Oban, ' The Glory of Nature 
in the Land of Lorn ' (Edinburgh, 1903) 
and * The Vision of God : as represented 
in Riickert's Fragments' (Edinburgh, 1898). 

Hastie's principal translations are ; * The 
Philosophy of Art,' by Hegel and C. L, 
Michelet (1886) ; Bernard Punjer's 'History 
of the Christian Philosophy of Religion 
from the Reformation to Kant,' with a 
preface by Prof. Flint (1887) ; ' History of 
German Theology in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury,' byF. Liohtenberger (1889); 'History 
of Christian Ethics/ by Luthardt, with a 
useful introduction (1889) ; Kant's ' Prin- 
ciples of Politics, including his Essay on 
Perpetual Peace' (1891) ; Pfleiderer's Edin- 
burgh Gifford Lectures on the * Philosophy 
and Development of Religion,' 2 vols. 
(1894-1904) ; and Kant's * Cosmogomy,' 
with an elaborate introduction (1900). 

[The Aberdeen Doctors (introductory 
chapter), by the Rev. D. Macmillan, D.D. ; 
The Curator of Glasgow University, by J. L. 
Galbraith; Scotsman, and Glasgow Herald/ 
1 Sept. 1903; private information; personal 
knowledge.] T. B. 

HATTON, HAROLD HENEAGE 
FINCH- (1856-1904), imperial politician. 
[See FINCH-HATTON.] 

HATTON, JOSEPH (1841-1907), 
novelist and journalist, was son of Francis 
Augustus Hatton, a printer and bookseller 
at Chesterfield, who in 1854 founded the 
1 Derbyshire Times.' Hatton was born at 
Andover, Hampshire, on 3 Feb. 1841, and 
he was educated at Bowker's school, 
Chesterfield. Intended for the law, he 
entered the office of the town clerk at 
Chesterfield, William Waller, but marrying 
at the age of nineteen he engaged in 
journalism, publishing in 1861 e Provincial 
Papers,' being a collection of tales and 
sketches. In 1863 he was appointed editor 
of the * Bristol Mirror,' Ho held that and 
other provincial posts until 1808, when he 
came to London. Pushing and energetic 
(TINSLBY, 'Random MecoUeGtions, ii. 86), he 
was entrusted by Messrs. Grant & Co,, news- 
paper and magazine proprietors, with the 
editorship of the * Gentleman's Magazine,' 
the * School Board Chronicle,' and the 
* Illustrated Midland News.' Mark Lemon 
[q, v.]> editor of * Punch/ was among his 
early London acquaintances, and ha pub- 
lished in 1871 a volume of reminiscences of 
Lemon under the title of * With a Show in 



the North,' and subsequently in * London 
Society ' wrote a series of articles called 
'The True Story of Punch' (of. SPIEL- 
MANN'S Hist, of Punch, passim). In 1874 
Hatton retired from his editorship of 
Grant's periodicals and acted as London 
correspondent for the ' New York Times,' 
the ' Sydney Morning Herald,' and the 
Berlin 4 Kreuz-Zeitung,' besides editing for 
a time the ' Sunday Times,' and making 
some reputation as a novelist. In 1881 the 
' Standard ' sent him to the "United States 
to establish on its behalf an independent 
telegraph service (HATTON, Journalistic 
London, 144 n.), and he recorded his im- 
pressions of the country in a series of 
articles afterwards collected as * To-day in 
America' (2 vols. 1881). It was during 
his visit that president Garfield was shot, 
and Hatton, who had early intelligence 
of the outrage, held the fine for three 
hours and cabled the longest telegraphic 
message then recorded from America to 
the * Standard.' That paper thus gave full 
details of the tragic event on 3 July 1881, 
a day before its London contemporaries 
(People, 4 Aug. 1907). A member of the 
Garrick Club, he was an intimate friend of 
(Sir) Henry Irving and of J. L. Toole, and 
accompanied the former on his first visit 
to America in 1883, which he described in 
'Henry Irving' s Impressions of America, 
narrated . . . by Joseph Hatton' (2 vols. 
1884). In 1889 he 'chronicled' in like 
fashion Toole' s reminiscences (2 vols.). In 
1892 Hatton became editor of the ' People,' 
a conservative Sunday newspaper, and con 
tributed to that paper (and also to a syndi- 
cate of provincial papers) his * Cigarette 
Papers for After-dinner Smoking,' a weekly 
medley of reminiscences, stories, and inter- 
views. He died in London on 31 July 1907, 
and was buried in Marylebone cemetery. 

Hatton married in 1860 Louisa Howard 
(d. 1900), daughter of Robert Johnson, by 
whom he had an only son, Frank Hatton 
[q. v.], and two daughters, Ellen Howard, 
wife of William Henry Margetson, the 
artist, and Bessie, a novelist. His portrait, 
painted by his son-in-law, was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1895. Hatton, who 
published in 1882 6 The New Ceylon,' the 
first English book on North Borneo, issued 
in 1886 a biographical sketch of his son, 
who was killed in 1883 while exploring North 
Borneo. 

Hatton' s industry and fluency were great 
Among his numerous novels, which suited 
popular taste, were *Clytie' (1874); ' By 
Order of the Czar' (1890); and 'When 
Rogues Fall Out' (1899). He made several 



Havelock 



224 



Havelock 



attempts at the drama, His dramatised 
version of his"novol * Clytie,* which was first 
produced at the Amphitheatre, Liverpool, 
on 29 Nov. 1875, and ww transferred to the 
Olympic, London, on 10 Jan. 1876, proved 
highly successful A dramatic version of 
his novel 'John Nccdkam's Double* fol- 
lowed in 188>. His dramatic version of 
Hawthorn's ' Scarlet Letter ' proved popular 
in America. Other works by hint were : 
1. * Journalistic London/ 1882. S. * Old 
Lamps and New: an After-dhmer Chat,' 
1889. 3. 'Club-Land, London and Pro- 
vincial/ 1800. 

[The Times, and Standard, 1 Aug. 1007? 
People, 4 Aug. 1007; Who's Who, 1900; 
Matton's Old Lamps and Now and JoimitiliHtk 1 . 
London ; private information.] JU M, 

HAVELOCK:, SIB ARTHUR ELXBANK 
(1844-1908), colonial governor, born at 
Bath on 7 May 1844, was fifth surviving 
son in & family of six HOHH and wwm 
daughters- of Litnit.-oolonol William Have- 
look [<j/ v.] and Carolina Bliscaboth 
(d. I860), oldest daughter of Major Acton 
Chaplin of AyloBbury, Ho wan a nophow 
of fair Henry Havolock |q* v*]. In 1846 
Arthur wont to India with tho rtswt of tho 
family to join Ma father, who wa th<w in 
command of tho 14th light dragoons at 
Umballa, After the death of Im fathor 
at the battle of Rammiggur on 22 Nov 
1848, he and MB family -oamo baok to 
England, but returning to India in August 
1850 settled at Ootaoamund in tho Nilgm 
hills. Ho attended Mr. Nash*s school 
there, but completed his education in 
England at a private Hohool at Loo, ntar 
Bltwkhoath (1860-00). 

In 1860 he paused into tho Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst, and on 14 Jan, 1802 
was gazetted ensign in tho 32nd Cornwall 
light infantry- From 1802 to 1800 ho 
performed garrison duty at Plymouth, the 
Ourragh,- Cork, and Colohesto, Promoted 
lieutenant : on ' 10 April I860, ho wan 
stationed with his regiment at Gibraltar 
(1866-7), at Mauritius (1867-8), and at the 
Cape (1868-72), In August 1872 he returned 
to Mauritius, where he acted an paymaster ; 
promoted captain on 1 Feb. 1873* ho was 
suoeessively aide-de-camp to Mr* Newton, 
the acting governor, and to Sir Arthur 
Gordon (afterwards Lord Stanmore), tho 
governor. From February 1874 to 1875 
he was chief civil commissioner in tha 
Seychelles islands; from 1875 to 1876, 
on Sir Arthur Gordon's recommendation, 
colonial secretary and reoeiver-generlal in 
Fiji On .his. return to England in 1870 



he definitely joined tho colonial civil service, 
and retired from tho army with tho rank 
of captain in March 1877. In tho name 
year ao wont out to tho Wot Indies as 
president of Noyin, and in Augunt 1H7B waa 
transferred to fcJt, Lnaia, whro ho uorvod 
for a yoar tw utlminiHtraUjr. In 1B70 ho 
rottmitsd to tho tStiyeJu.^h^H m chiof civil. 
comrnisHionor, and in 1880 waa made 
C-M.Q. 

In February 1881. Muvolook became 
govoror of tlm WuHt African mMkmmt m 
HiicooHHion to Sir Hamuoi Kowo jq v,l 
IJoforo aHHtamiiig ofllw hw tioU^i an JlritiHii 
eommiHHkmttr at a onfiniHH? in PariM for 
tho proviHional <l4.Jinart f .atitm of boundaries 
botwiHHi Sierra Iwf*on iuwi Fi^uah (Guinea* 
During Im Mirmiktraiion ho wtw atJtivoly 
onagtkl in a frcmtwr tliHj.Htlo with tho 
> n^publio of .Lil:H>rifU On 20 March 
by ordor of th*i cu>loi)lnl of!iot% ho pro- 

to Mt>nt'(>viri with four gunboats, 
HIM (lumiwitlH for tho iiiwimliftto nxU*n8ion 
of tho Jiritinh pn>t*oU.rttt< to tho river 
Mala and for an indemnity of 8500/* for 
in<*robiint waro niluotntitly oon- 

by tho 'Lilwri&n govt:riont- A 
troaty -wiw HigfMHl to tlitn tiAxvt, Htipulating. 
that Havolfidk Jthouldi itttturotulo -with tho 
IBntiHh govornmont to i\x tha lino of tho 
river Maho m tho frontier, and that Liberia 
should to ropjtttl all th HUIWH nho luul M|Kmt 
in acquiring tnrriUmM won! pf iho M'ano* 
OH tho rwfuHtU of tht Libi*riau Hnnato to 
ratify tho truaty llavijlouk rwlununl to 
Monrovia with i-ho guuboatn u 7 Hopt 
IB8SS- A hoHt.il.< coliiHkm won it 
thankw U> HavolcHtk^ toot. But th 
porHiHttHt in itn op|.K)iti<m U> tho txmty 
m Marah 1883 ilavolook quiotly atKiupftd tho 

i<.^ botwoon tho rivwrw HhiTOn^and 

whiidi won* olaimtMl by thw JMiMi 

it (KluHAIiUV JoKNHTOKi IM&m^ 

IIHXJ, 1 277-D). Tho 1'KHiiitlary batwoon 
Hicsrra Ixsonts tuid UlHiria was ovimtualiy 
doilnod lit 1003 by a mixoci uammMon* ; ' 
In 1884 Uavoiooic waw on^itod 1CO.M.*0* 
for Mi aerviotw, and the fallowing yoar 
^orvod i4!j governor of TriuidiKl. In 1880 
lies aiwiumoa the roapomii>b |x>t of govornot 
of 'Natal* Tho oobny wau puling 'through 
a p0rf0d . of Himncjia! dtopa^oiit *nd tho 
dilfioultto of iwiminktmtion wwo inowMWod' 
by tha anpaxatlon of Zulul^fid In May 1887 
and X>it)tolu ? a uiiucwi^fwl reboilioti in 
1888. Batuming 'to Engbntl In 1SB9> 
Havelook aorvod'on tho intoniatioaal anti- 
slavery oommMaii at Braiiok ; and in 
1890 wan appointod govomor of Coy ton. 
There ha aodod to Im reputation m on 
blfootive administrator* He carried out the 



Haweis 



225 



Haweis 



railway extension to Kurunegala and 
Bandarawela, and acquired popularity with 
the natives by his abolition of the obnoxious 
* paddy ' tax, or levy on rice cultivation. 

Nominated governor of Madras in 1895, 
he travelled all over the presidency, 
and proved himself a vigilant champion 
of its interests. In defiance of orders 
from the Calcutta government he firmly 
refused to allow the Mecca pilgrim ships to 
touch at Madras. His action was subse- 
quently justified by the comparative im- 
munity of the Madras presidency from the 
plague of 1899 and 1900. He was made 
G.C.M.G. in 1895, G.C.I.E. in 1896, and 
G.C.S.I. in 1901, when he left Madras. 
Long residence in the tropics had under- 
mined his health, and in 1901 he refused 
the governorships of the Straits Settle- 
ments and of Victoria. Eventually he 
accepted the easier post of governor 
of Tasmania, but resigned in 1904, 
before completing his term of office. 
He retired to Torquay, and died at Bath 
on 25 June 1908. A competent and pains- 
taking official, he showed practical sym- 
pathy with the people under his rule and 
anxiety to mitigate the rigours of the law. 
He married on 15 Aug. 1871 Anne Grace, 
daughter of Sir William Norris. She died 
on 6 Jan. 1908, leaving one daughter. 

[The Times, 26 June 1908; Army List, 1874; 
J. Fergxison, Ceylon in 1903 ; addresses 
presented to and replies delivered by Sir 
A. E. Havelock on his fifteenth tour in the 
Madras presidency, 1900 ; Madras Weekly 
Mail, 2 July 1908 ; private information from 
Col. Acton Havelock.] G. S. W. 

HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD (1838- 
1901), author and preacher, born on 3 April 
1838, at Egham, Surrey, was grandson of 
Thomas Haweis [q. v.], the friend and 
trustee of Lady Huntingdon, and was son of 
John Oliver Willyams Haweis by his wife 
Mary. His father (1809-1891) matriculated 
at Queen's College, Oxford, graduating B.A. 
in 1 828, and proceeding M. A. in 1830. From 
1846 he was morning preacher at the 
Magdalen Hospital in London, and from 
1874 to 1886 rector of Slaugham in Sussex. 
In 1883 he was made Heathfield prebendary 
of Chichester Cathedral. He was the author 
in 1844 of * Sketches of the Reformation,' a 
work of considerable learning. 

Hugh Reginald, the eldest son in a 
family of four children, showed great musical 
sensibility and aptitude for violin playing 
from early years, but delicate health pre- 
vented systematic education. He suffered 
from hip-disease, and at the age of twelve 
Sir Benjamin Brodie pronounced his case 

VOL. LXVIII. SUP. ii. 



hopeless. He was iaken to his grand- 
mother's house in Brunswick Square, 
Brighton, and recovered, although he 
remained almost a dwarf and had a per- 
manent limp. At Brighton he practised 
the violin assiduously, receiving instruc- 
tion from several masters and finally from 
Oury, a pupil of Paganini. He obtained 
orchestral practice as a member of the 
Symphony Society that met in the Brighton 
Pavilion. He also wrote much verse and 
prose for the Brighton papers. By the age 
of sixteen he had so much improved in 
strength that he was put under the care 
at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, of the Rev. 
John Bicknell, who prepared him for matri- 
culation at Cambridge. In 1856 he matri- 
culated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
quickly became a notoriety. He was the 
solo violinist of the Cambridge Musical 
Society, and formed a quartet society which 
met in his rooms. He read German poetry 
and philosophy with enthusiasm, and along 
with some friends of kindred tastes started 
a magazine called the ' Lion,' of which 
three numbers were issued. There was abi- 
lity as well as originality in the magazine, 
but its extravagance laid it open to ridicule. 
(Sir) G. 0. Trevelyan issued a rival sheet 
called the 'Bear,' which parodied all the 
eccentricities of the 'Lion.' Haweis says 
magnanimously that the greatest success 
of the * Lion ' ' was in calling forth the 
"Bear" which slew it.' He continued to 
contribute voluminously to any newspapers 
that would publish his writing, and he 
made the acquaintance of a French violinist, 
J. G. R. R. Venua, who interested him in 
the history and art of violin-making, a 
subject upon which he began researches. 
He graduated B.A. in 1859, and then 
travelled for his health. His father had 
wished him to avoid Italy, but falling in 
with Signer Li Calsi, a professional musician 
whom he knew at Brighton, he went with 
him to Genoa, whence Calsi was proceeding 
to join Garibaldi. Haweis followed him to 
the seat of war. He arrived when Gari- 
baldi was besieging Capua. He incurred 
without injury many risks and privations 
from bad food, bad weather, and insanitary 
conditions. He made the acquaintance of 
King Victor Emmanuel, and was present 
at the peace celebrations in Milan. He 
described his experiences in the 'Argosy' in 
1870. 

Before leaving Italy Haweis read the 
newly issued 'Essays and Reviews,' and 
decided to seek orders in the English church. 
He had been for some years ' an irregular 
student of theology.' In 1861 he passed 

Q 



Haweis 



226 



s 



tli Cambridge examination in theology and 
was ordained dcacoiff becoming priest in 
1862 and curate of St. Potor, Bothnal Green. 
In East London he threw himself ontlniBi- 
astically into pariah work. Ho was much 
in the company of J* R. Green [q. v/(, who 
was insole charge of Holy Trinity, Hoxton, 
and Green greatly influoneod hw VIOWH on 
social questions. After two yoarn in Beth rial 
Green lie wont as curate to St. JamoN-tho- 
Loss, Westminster, and then to St. Peter, 
Stepney, In 1866 he was appointed 
incumbent of St. Jamcss, WoHtmoroland 
Street, Marylobono, boing, according to hin 
own account, the youngest meumbont in 
London. Ho found the ehuroh nearly ompty 
and in need of immediate repair. By hiw 
energy, ability, and somewhat nonaatumal 
methods he quickly filled hiw church, and 
kept it full and fashionable for tho thirty- 
five years of his miniHtry, Ho remained 
at St. James's till death, 

Hawois exorcised groat power in tho 
pulpit. Ho alwayw proaehcd in a block 
gown. His theatrical manner and vanity 
frequently exposed him to clwrgw of 
charlatanry and obweurod hin gonumo 
spiritual gifts. But ho won oaniowt and 
sagiieiouH in hm olfortH. Ho organiwod 
in his ehuroh 'Sunday evenings for tho 
people/ at which orchestral muHio, oratorio 
performances, and even exhibitions of 
saerod pictures were made ( to form, portions 
of the ordinary ohjiroh services. 1 His 
success encouraged him to use St* James's 
Hall, Regent Street, for Sunday morning 
services of a similarly unconventional 
character, and Dean Stanley invited him 
to preach at a course of * Horvicos for the 
people ' in Westminster Abbey. Ho ww 
one of the first promoters of tho Sunday 
opening of museums and picture gallwioH. 
He interested himself in tho pwvwion of 
open air spaces in London and in tho 
laying out as garden of disused church- 
yards. Haweia s literary activity mm at 
the same time largo, Ho wrote inuoh for 
the magazines, for *The Times ' and tho * Pall 
Mall Gazette 'and was on the early stall of 
the 'Echo,* His first boofc 'Music and 
Morals; published in 1871 (18th edit 1801), 
was a revision of magazine articles j it 
mingled pleasantly theories about music 
mth biographical notices of musicians Mid 
criticisms of their music. There followed 
in 1884 ' My Musical Life ' (4th edit Sn 
and ' Old Violins ' (1898, with a bibliography) 
As musical critic to * Truth ' Hawais 
helped to introduce Wagner's works to 
English notice. His soundest and moat 
ongiaal literary work was on music, although 



hia theological writings worn bulkier* In 
1 Thoughts" for tho TiiwV (1872; 1 4th 'edit. 
1801) ho attempted to * wtrikn tho keynotes 
of modern theology, religion, and life'; in 
'Speech in Season* (IH74) ho s applied those 

ecob8.iHti.cl niHtitutiwiH,' Ho amtirwed 
bin propaganda in 4 Arm WM in tho Air ' ( 1 B7B) * 
' Winged Word* ' (1885); and * Tho Broad 
Church s or. What in coming * (with a 
rrefaoo on Miu Humphry Ward'n novel, 
Robert Etauws* IBM}/ Hn attempted 
a Btutly of tho origin** of (Jhrint imtity, which 
ho publiHhwl in 1880 7 in fivn vofumos as 
'Christ and Christ iitttify.* Tins nqmrate 
volume wore * Tim .Light of tht* Au<% * Tho 
Ktory of tlw Four.* * Tlw -piotun. of J^'us,' 
4 Tho Piotim>of Paul,* and * ThMJonquwring 
OroHH,' Throughout thin work llu^iro was 
niuch that wan aouto and vivaoioun, but 
littlo that \va original or ntnv, 

Hawt^H^H (shi{*if Httf5fH'HH wan luihiovodl 
m a popular hctuw*r iti Kngland and the 
oolimww, and in Ani<triht t pnnHiipally on 
muHial thimtH, In IBB5 hn gavo tho 
Lowell ItwturoM in Bimk^n* IL8.A,' During 
tho Chioago Rxprntion in !H!:i lit? leotuitd 
boforo tht^Parhiwncntt of ii^ligiotw, and in 
tho following yoar lu* viHii4>d th PmnHo 
coiwitt |>roaohing to crowdinl congregation!* 
in Trinity (nntmln Snn Franco, Thmioe 
ho toured through C/imtwln, tho Bouth 



lecturing and pnwshing, ll. prrtaolMHl in 
nines colonial ettthtnlntlH, In 1 ml ho vWtod 
; Komo for tho thirti ( tittus U> lxjtn on 

Mavi'/jni and Ctoibuldi* Hw diBarilM^d hi 
Amorman and colonial ox^rionooM in 
Travel arid Talk* (S vob, 1890)* 

For ^ Homo yearn aft<*r 1>, (1 KoHHatti's 
doath in 18BS Hawoin omjupiwi th |H)^t* 
hou(? in Ohym* Walk* C'lwka. H" died 
suddenly of htiart mmw at IM roniil^noo 
in lator yoar, in i'tavontthiit* Htrwtst, on 
20 Jan* ll)01 after prooohing momorial 
eprmcma on Quoon Viotorla on tho wwjvioun 
Sunday. His body wan oromatod at Woking, 
and th romainu interred Uefido Im wife* 
Thore m a tablet to lii memory iti M^iry- 
lobono parish chureh. Two soiw and a 
daughtw survives him* Kto portrait in oik f 
jaintod by Folk Ko0oholG*i bobmgH to his 
daughter. A cartoon portrait by *Apo' 
appeared In * Vanity Fair ' in 1888. 

BoBides the worki above mentioned and 
many sermon, Hawaii, who was general 
editor (1886) of Rout lodga'a l World library, * 
and for a year of * QwolFi Blagassino/ wrote : 
L *Pet; or Pautimas and Pimaltfoi,' 1874, 
2, Ashes to Ashes, a Cremation Prelude,' 
1875* 3. * Poets in the Pulpit; 1880. 



Haweis 



227 



Hawker 



4. * American Humorists/ 1883. 5. * The 
Dead Pulpit,' 1896. 6. 'Ideals for Girls,' 
1897. 7. * The Child's Life of Jesus,' 1902. 
8. ' Realities of Life: being thoughts gathered 
from the teachings of H. R. Haweis,' 1902. 
The family of Sir Morell Mackenzie [q. v.] 
entrusted Haweis with the delicate task of 
writing his life, which he published in 1893. 
Haweis married hi 1867 Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Musgrave Joy [q. v.] the artist. 
At the age of sixteen she exhibited in the 
Royal Academy, and contributed also to 
the Dudley Gallery. She illustrated her 
husband's books as well as her own. She 
was an enthusiastic student of Chaucer, 
and compiled in 1877 * Chaucer for Children, 
a golden key ' ; with coloured and plain 
illustrations (2nd edit. 1882). The book was 
educationally valuable. It led to * Chaucer 
for Schools' (1880; 2nd edit. 1899), which 
was equally original in plan and execu- 
tion, and to ' Chaucer's Beads, a Birthday 
Book ' (1884), and 6 Tales from Chaucer, 
adapted by Mrs. Haweis,' published in 
Routledge's 'World Library.' Mrs. Haweis 
was a copious writer of articles upon 
domestic art and dress for the magazines. 
Endeavouring to establish some sound 
canons of taste in the minor arts, she 
embodied her views with vivacity and 
piquancy in 'The Art of Beauty' (1878, 
with illustrations by the author). This was 
followed by ' The Art of Dress ' (1879) ; 
6 The Art of Decoration' (1881) ; and finally 
by * The Art of Housekeeping : a Bridal 
Garland ' (1889). All were illustrated by 
the author. She published also * Beautiful 
Houses : being a Description of certain well- 
known Artistic Houses ' (2nd edit. 1882), 
and * Rus in Urbe : or Flowers that thrive in 
London Gardens and Smoky Towns ' (1886). 
She accompanied her husband in his tours 
on the Continent and to America, and 
interested herself in many philanthropic 
causes. She was a director of Lady Henry 
Somerset's Mercy League for Animals 
and a strong supporter of the women's 
franchise movement. Shortly before her 
death she published a novel, ' A Flame of 
Fire ' (1897), * to vindicate the helplessness 
of womankind.' She died on 24 Nov. 1898, 
and after cremation was buried at Boughton 
Monchelsea, Kent. 

[There is much autobiography in My Musical 
Life and in Travel and Talk. See also The 
Times, 30 Jan. 1901 ; Men of the Time, 1899 ; 
Crockford; H. C. Marillier's University 
Magazines and their Makers (Opuaculum 
xlvii. of Sette of Odd Volumes, 1899). For 
Mrs. Haweis, see The Times, 29 Nov. 1898; 
Men of the Time, 1899.] R, B. 



HAWEIS, MRS. MARY, [See under 
HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD.] 

HAWKER, MARY ELIZABETH, 

writing under the pseudonym of LAtfou 
FALCONER (1848-1908), novelist, born on 
29 Jan. 1848 at Inverary, Aberdeenshire, was 
elder daughter of Major Peter William Lanoe 
Hawker (1812-1857), of the 74th highlanders, 
of Longparish House near Whitchurch, 
Hampshire, by his wife Elizabeth Fraser. 
Her grandfather was Lieutenant-colonel 
Peter Hawker [q. v.], author of * Instructions 
to Young Sportsmen ' (1841). Miss Hawker's 
education was desultory, but she read 
assiduously for herself. Her father died in 
1857, and after her mother's second marriage 
in the autumn of 1862 to Herbert Fennell, the 
family lived for some years in Jrance and 
Germany, and Miss Hawker became efficient 
in French and German. She was also an 
admirable pianist. 

Miss Hawker early began to write, and a 
few stories and essays appeared in maga- 
zines and newspapers. Success did not come 
until 1890, when there appeared, as the 
initial volume of a series of novels issued 
by Mr. Fisher Unwin in the 'Pseudonym 
Library,' a story by Miss Hawker entitled 
'Mademoiselle Ixe, by Lanoe Falconer.' 
The manuscript had been previously re- 
jected by many publishers. The heroine was 
a governess in an English country house 
who was connected with Russian nihilists. 
The mystery was cleverly handled, and the 
artistic treatment showed a delicacy and 
refinement which were uncommon in 
English writers of short stories. The 
' Saturday Review ' declared it to be c one 
of the finest short stories in England. 1 
Success was great and immediate. Glad- 
stone wrote and spoke the praises of the 
book, of which the circulation was for- 
bidden in Russia; it was admired by 
Taine. Over 40,000 copies of the English 
editions were sold, and there were also 
continental and American editions. It 
was translated into French, German, Dutch, 
and Italian. Subsequently she published 
in 1891 * Cecilia de Noel,' an original and 
cleverly told ghost story, and * The Hotel 
d'Angleterre.' But failure of health inter- 
rupted her work, and her mother's death 
on 23 May 1901 proved a blow from which 
she never recovered. 

She died from rapid consumption on 
16 June 1908, at Broxwood Court, Here- 
fordshire, and was buried at Lyonshall in 
that county. 

Other works by Miss Hawker are * Old 
Hampshire Vignettes * (1907) and two short 

Q2 



Hawkins 



228 



Hawkins 



tales, * Shoulder to Shoulder' (1891) and 
'The Wrong Proscription' (1893), 

[The Times, 20 Juno 1008 ; Who's Who, 
1007 ; Burko's Lamlocl Gentry ; Oornhill 
Magtts&ino, Feb. 1912, urtido by % NLm March 
Plrillipps ; private information*] E. L, 

HAWKINS, Sai HENRY, BARON 
ON (1817-1907), judgo, bom at 
Hitehm on 14 Sept. 1817, wua'flon of John 
Hawkins, a solicitor with a cxmnidwable 
* family ' practice, by IUH wife ftunanna, 
daughter of Thoed Poarao, ohsrk of tlw 
peace of Bedfordshire Aftor education at 
Bedford school, Hawkins wan employed in 
his father's office long enough to takes a 
dislike to legal work of that character, and 
with the reluctant consent of his parents on 
16 April 1839 entered liimsdf at the Middto 
Temple, and took out a special pleader's 
licence oa Boon m ho wa qimliliwi In 
1841 ho was tho pupil of Frederick Thomp- 
son, a special pleader, and later of Uoorgo 
Butt, who eventually became a Q,(t On 
3 May 1843 Hawkins' wan called to the bar* 
and forthwith joined tho homo circuit and 
the HtTtfordshire Hessions* It appuarn that 
owing to IUM practice under the bar he was 
never quite without btimnosa, and although 
his earlier progress was not exceptionally 
rapid it wa unbroken from tho time of 
his call until ho took Bilk in 1858, For 
tho noKt eighteen jrears- Hawkins occupied 
a place of'incroamng importance among 
tho leaders of the bar. His lively intelli- 
gence, well-chosen language, and admirable 
manner made him exceedingly suooessf ul 
in winning tho verdicts of juries, and lie 
was tho equal of his contemporaries, 
Sorjeants Balkwtme [t|, v, HuppL 1] and 
Parry, in tho ixmmwe arts of which' they 
wore masters. 

Hawkins was engaged in many cases of 
groat ephemeral importance. In 1852 ho 
was counsel. for Simon Bernard, who was 
acquitted on a charge of complicity in tho 
Oraini conspiracy against Napoleon III, 
As junior to Serjeant Byles [q, v.] ho de- 
f ended Sir John Dean Paul [cj, vj, who 
was convicted in 1855 of fraud and sen- 
tenced to penal servitude, In 1862 ho 
was junior to (Sir) William Bo-fill [q. v J 
in Boupoll 0. Waito, in which Eoupell con- 
fessed himself guilty of forgery and was 
subsequently sentenced to penal servitude 
for life. He also appeared for various de- 
fendants In the prosecutions instituted after 
the failure of Messrs- Overend and Qumay 
in 1866, all of them being acquitted. lie 
was largely instrumental' in securing the 
establishment by secondary evidence of the 



will and codidln of Lord 8t, I^onards, 
a crwo in which, with Fmioriok Andrew 
Indorwick [q, v. 8tn>pL I! j and Dr. Honry 
Bakor TriHtram m nm juior ( ho appcmrod- 
for Mm Sugdon, and ww ahlo to hold his 
judgment on appeal (187!>B), Ho apjxntrod 




prn 

cipal %iro (1871-2), When h WOH origin- 
ally rot-uimul for thrult^tuunn tho action of 
ojoot riu^nt, it wan IH> doubt ink?iuiod that 
ho Mliould tiroHH-^xiunino tlio plainilfT, 
Ixrforo tho oaMtMiatno on for trial flohn 
Cobridgo [cj. v. Nuppl. 1], who luul l.KH.n in- 
Htmttol an ono of tho Uwlm of flio wi^tern 
cirouit, IxHtatito M<-)lnt4')r-gnu^ral* and an 
uoh th(^ Iwwlor in tho dufeujt*, In dl tho 
rhetorical art of oroHH-oxaminulioii Hawking 
wan thogroatwt liuwtt-r, aitd ho niaintaintxl 
hiH reputation in Im m>HH-(*xi.immalujn of 
Hovoral intporlnnt witnt.'wwm, but tho a<j 
which i(*priv(xl him oi tho right to 
oKatniiio Ortott mm probably om* of the 
bitk^t diHnpjM>tnim<*nt of hm Ufa Whm 
tho trial at bar for jwrjury followed tlio 
oollrtf^o of i\w * olaiwttttfc'H * wititmn, Hawkins 
lot! for th wwn (2^1 April 1872). Hi 
opoiiiitg HfMic^li JiwttHi m% dayn and lim reply 
mno dayn, whilo th pmHooution Iwtid IBS 
days and (bokburtt'H uiiningwj> dghtcx^n 
dava (Feb. 1874) j in Uu* iwiitm at nitii prius 
Colmdgn hivl oGoupiwl twmxty-tlm.*** <lay 
in opening tho <HIM for tho ri(f)nca* 
Thoro in no doubt that llawkww'H humlling 
of tho whoto matter wa worthy of tlto 
oxtrmmliiwry oootwion. Front tho tiwio of 
hiw taking Hilk In IS5H la tho <*nd of tho 
Tiahbomo aiwe in 1874 ho had no mtf^ri(ir 
in tlio public (wtirnation im a fighting 
fulyooato/' 

3bHidm hi pro!<"mp(<xl and lut*rativo 
praotioo in th court**, Hawkins mm mm* 
tinually employed in oum|H.^iation wwm t 
bofom oithor .juruM or itr'bitratorw* In 
particular ho app^artd for tho royal <x>m 
missionors imgag<jd in th** pur<jliw* of tho 
site whore tho lioyal Oaurtj* of Juticro now 
stand* Ho hiul ultio a o<ntMicltral>Ii |>riutioo 
in 01ootion ptiiionn, losing |Krhap tho 
most oonnpiououn ooujwol aviulablo for 
tho purpose' whan, aftor thr* gtmoral ^laoilon 
of 1808, thoue diHpu"ttii wow firat triod 
befbra judges and 'dcxddod indopwndontly 
of political consideration*, Hawking hod 
stood aa one of two liberal oandidatca for 
Bamntaple in IBM, but had not been re 
turned ; hd made no other effort to on tar 
tho House of Commons. 

In November 1870 Hawkini was 
appointed a judge of the quocn'i benob- 



Hawkins 



229 



Hawkins 



division, and being knighted was almost 
immediately transferred to the exchequer 
division. He was the first judge appointed 
to the exchequer division since the Judi- 
cature Acts had superseded the court of 
exchequer. Hawkins and Chief Baron 
Kelly deeply resented the provision of those 
acts by which every judge of the high 
court was to be styled ' Mr. Justice ' and 
the old style of baron of the exchequer was 
dropped. Hawkins, who made vain efforts 
to secure the appellation of ' Baron 
Hawkins,' invariably called himself for 
private purposes ' Sir Henry Hawkins,' 
instead of 'Mr. Justice Hawkins.' The 
exchequer division was absorbed in the 
queen's bench division in 1880. 

In Sept. 1877 Hawkins tried at the 
Central Criminal Court * the Penge case,' 
when Louis and Patrick Staunton, the wife 
of Patrick, and a servant named Alice 
Rhodes were jointly indicted for the murder, 
by ill-treatment and intentional neglect, 
of the wife of Louis. The case was on 
th wide borderland between murder and 
manslaughter, and the sufficiency of the 
evidence of complicity against Alice Rhodes 
was open to question. All were convicted 
of murder and sentenced to death, Rhodes 
subsequently receiving a free pardon and 
the sentence on the others being commuted 
to penal servitude for life (cf. J. B. ATLAY'S 
Trial of the Stauntons, 1911). Hawkins 
tried at about the same time many other 
murder cases which attracted public atten- 
tion, and this circumstance, together with 
the alliterative attractiveness of the phrase 
4 Hanging Hawkins/ gave rise to a loose 
popular impression that he was a judge of 
a peculiarly severe or even savage temper. 
For this idea there was no real founda- 
tion. Hawkins was an admirable criminal 
judge. Extremely patient and thorough, 
he took care that both the case for the 
crown and that for the accused person 
should be exhaustively stated and tested to 
the utmost. His summings-up in which 
in his later years it was his invariable 
practice never to open his note-book 
unless for the purpose of reading to the 
jury some fragment of th evidence in 
which the actual words used were of great 
importance were models of lucidity and 
completeness. His manner, while dignified, 
was considerate to the point of being 
almost gentle. He had a strong hatred 
of cruelty and of any serious and deliberate 
outrages against either person or property, 
and in the gravest cases he did not shrink 
from deserved severity. On the other 
hand the period of his judgeship practically 



covered the great change in the direction of 
leniency to criminals. In this movement 
Hawkins was one of th more progressive 
authorities. He greatly favoured the 
lightest punishment for first offences, even 
where th offences themselves were serious, 
but he never went to the lengths favoured 
by the more extreme reformers. 

As a criminal judge Hawkins had very 
few equals during twenty -two years. As a 
civil judge he failed to convey the impres- 
sion that to do justice between th parties 
was his single aim. Innumerable stories 
were told some of them with substantial 
foundation of the ingenious devices where- 
by he contrived that the case before him 
either should be referred by consent to 
arbitration or should not b tried out to a 
clear determination on the merits. These 
devices, usually extremely adroit, could 
hardly be described as otherwise than mis- 
chievous. Of the current explanations of 
this peculiarity that which was least want- 
ing in plausibility was that the judge's 
principal motive was to avoid the reversal 
of his decisions on appeal. The author of 
e The Life in the Law of Sir Henry Hawkins ' 
states that Hawkins said to him c I have a 
horror of adverse criticism, to which I am 
perhaps unduly sensitive.' 

In another respect Hawkins's judicial 
character presented a strange contrast. 
When, while doing the work he liked, he was 
summing up important or complicated evi- 
dence in a criminal case, he had a command 
of excellent English, accurate, forcible, and 
dignified, which would have stood the test 
of absolutely literal reproduction in print. 
On the other hand, in delivering a con- 
sidered judgment he was verbose and 
tautological ; he failed to grasp the prin- 
ciples of the law and to deduce from them 
th true effect of the facts before him, 
and h involved himself in contradictions. 
Two of his judgments which establish 
these facts beyond question are those in 
Hicks v. Faiilkner (8 Q.B.D. 167) on th 
law of malicious prosecution, and in R. v. 
Lillyman ([1896] 2 Q.B. 167) on a ques- 
tion of evidence in criminal cases. Th 
latter judgment of the court for crown 
cases reserved was so unsatisfactory that 
for nine years, while it remained a leading 
authority, it was invariably construed as 
meaning the contrary of what it said, until 
in 1905, in the case of R, v. Osborne, in th 
same court, it was substantially overruled. 

Hawkins resigned his judgeship in 1898 
and was sworn of the privy council. He 
was created a peer on 27 Aug. 1899 by the 
title of Baron Brampton of Brampton in 



Hawkins 



Hayes 



Huntingdonshire* From that time till 
August 1902 he mit occasionally in the 
House of Lords or the judicial committee. 
Hie judgments in the House of Lordg in 
Allen v, Hood, the famous Tail Valo railway 
case, and Quinn v. Leatham, exhibit to 
some extent the namo eort of weaknctm m 
characterised his earlier performances in the 
mime claan of case. Ho died at hw IIOUBO 
in Tilney Street on 6 Oct. 1907, and was 
buried at, Kenaal Green cemetery. 

Hawkins waw a Hmail man * of slender 
build, but hi leattirea \vcsro handmmus and 
imposing and hia aBjjeet eminently judicial, 
Ho was extremely fond of horno-raring. 
He never ran horsog himself, but WEB ebeted 
an honorary member of the Jockey Club in 
2878, and an ordinary member in 1880, 
Ho instated to an unusual extent in onforo- 
ing Ian personal tastes upon thone who did 
butuncHB before him. He hut of! all acccwH 
of tho outer air tohis wmrt awl maintained 
the atmospheres at the liigheHt temperature, 
He not infrequently sat while on circuit for 
exceedingly long bourn, although in Lontkm 
he habitually rowo quito jnmatually, In- 
numerable anccdoten wero ouwwt 'ilhiatnv 
ting thc-JHO peouliantieH, To tho outHi'do 
public he waH probably the beat known and 
tilwo tho moat popular "of tho pianno jurlgtw, 

Hawkins was twioo wrriodL HIM second 
wife, who survived him live weekw, mm 
Jane Louisa, daughter of H. F. Beynoldw 
of Hulme. ' He had no children by either 
marriage. Not long after hi* retirement 
from the bench ho was received into the* 
Boman catholic communion, and in 1JK)JJ 
with hiB wife presented tho Ohapd of BB, 
Augustine and Gregory to the Koman 
catholic cathedral at WoHtmhiBtor. 

Several portraits exist. One in oils of 
Hawkins in judge's robes, by John Collier, 
was exhibited at tho Koyal Academy in 
187B, and was left by Lady Brampton to 
the National Portrait Gallery j a ocwui 
* Justice Hawkins mim u$ by Robert 
Barnes, A.R*S,A,, was exhibited -at the 
Royal Academy in 1801. Two portraite by 
J- A, Innes, one in crayons (1879) and tho 
other in oils, belonged to the family, but 
were sold after Lady Brampton's doath. 
There is also a bust presented by Lady 
Brampton at the Old Bailey, A caricature 
by ' Spy' appeared in * Vanity Fair * (1878). 

t [The Times, 7-12 Cot, 1007 ; Law Boports j 
information from Messrs, Weatherby & Bom ; 
personal knowledge. In 1004 Lord Brampton 
caused or permitted to bo publishod a 
book in two volumes entitled ' Tho Be- 
mmisoences of Bir Henry Hawkins, Baron 
Brampton, edited by Richard Harris, K,C/ 



Thin book I'M written in tho firf. IH 

in undoiihi^dly tJio wnrk <>f ilirhiml Harrm 

(1841. ..... 100ti} wliD hiMl practiHJMl fir many 

on tho inidJand nrmiit, and wan tho 
of " HiiilH on Advorn^y ' ami oihor 
lt.jgftl and literary workn. It hm no ^n'tuH3 
of arrimi^mont and in a ruiHiM'lkneotm (!olkt?- 
t-ion of aiUH'dotrw wholly larking in literary 
nlull and in vermhitilittifii% many of tluun 
fwinj< dcmonHlrably intuu?ural.^ and none of 
thoiu in any dtfwi f runt worthy, A pnmphl(t 
(uifiticd *Thn Lifn in thn Law of Hir Hisnry 
Hawkinn/ by ' H/ <L(ni!m, li>07), pulilinhod 
after MawkirmV death* in an aeefHint of Im 
lej^al career tiuiu piled )>y t hn nut hor fur publitstt- 
t ion in a tnaga/ani? Hubnt ant iaily from Hawking 
dkftation* It< wHMju.it. publihml inring Im 
iifis befiaviHO wh^n it. wan (joinjtlytr'd ho wrote 
to tho anonymoiw auf hm* thai In* * would not, 
after foriouM redentioin allnw if to be publinlu'd 
an it. Htood,* I( eiuinot, lhert.ifi.n% J.K eon. 
Hidered ivny mum atiihinitativo than 



[q 



HAYK8, EDWIN (18IJK-WO-I), xourino 
painter, born at llmtol mi 7 Juno 1819, 
wan Hon of Clmrlen H.ayi'H im Inhinan. 
After ocluoatkm at u |mvato nehool in 
Dublin* 1m Hlu<liwl nrfc fit tho Kiklara 
Street iSohool of Art, Dublin, wht^'a ho 
a folJow \m\nl of John Henry Foly 
tlw) Htmlptor, aixl hi* Htitmequtintly 
an appn^ntitseBtim to T?lWn t iho 
painter, In London. From tho 
j howwvtjr, Im ambition \vm to bo a 
marim* painti>r* Ilts Hjw-iit much ihm in a 
10-ton ymjht in tlw IriNh Channel drawing 
and nkotahing. A littU* lat-ur l> improved hia 
knowlwdgtt of th o<sw t*y taking a trip 
an utowttnl in a bftrquti oallwl tliw Mary 
(Jamplwll iJioroMH iho Atlantic to Mobile, 
Eoturning to Dublin to ptimyo bin art, 
ho *)xJii'WUd IUH iimt pictwro, * A Hmmo at 
Jiycle/ at tho BritiMh InHtit-ution. Tim 
piettm? WIIH wt*ll hung and quiekly Hold. 
In 1845 ho Hhowwd I'm iimt jminting at 
tho Hoyal Aoathutty, London ; iiud ho 
oxhiUtod tto( ovwy ywiir until HHM 
cxoopt 1864, J.B(l7 f 1H2, and 1887, Ho 
was clootod a monibwr of tho Royal 
Hibornian Aoodomy in 1870, and wow a 
member of tho Royal 1'natituto of Buntos 
in Wattsr Colours,, His imbjwln wora ttlways 
maritlmor tho moat noteworthy of hfa 
pioturos being * OH Dovor, 1 'Saved* (1801), 
and * Crossing the Bar * (I8D0), Ho is 
repreeanted in tho Tato flallory by * Sun- 
set at Boa,' from Harlyn Bay Cornwall 
(1804), bought by tho Cliantwy Boquoat 
Trustees in 1896, and in publlo gallerioa at 
BriBtol, Liverpool, Melbourne, and Sydney. 

Tho < fcfomet at Saa ' in tho Tato Gallery 
is Hayes's only picture in wWoh tho sub- 



Hay man 



231 



Hayman 



ject was simply sky and sea and nothing 
else. It was his habit to introduce shipping 
or boats. His work, which reflected 
elements in the style of Stanfield, was not 
strikingly original, nor was it fine in colour 
like that of Henry Moore, but Hayes 
painted with the vision of a sailor and 
possessed a sailor's knowledge and experi- 
ence. He died on 7 Nov. 1904 at Bays- 
water, London, and was buried in the 
Kensal Green cemetery. He married in 
1847 Ellen, youngest daughter of James 
Briscoe of Carrick-on-Suir. Of his eleven 
children, Mr. Claude Hayes, R.I., a well- 
known landscape painter, has exhibited at 
the Royal Academy since 1876. Hayes's 
portrait was painted by John Parker. 

[Mag. of Art, May 1901 ; M.A.P., 19 Nov. 
1904 ; The Times, 9 Nov. 1904 ; Graves's 
Royal Acad. Exhibitors, 1906 ; private infor- 
mation.] F. W. G-H. 

HAYMAN, HENRY (1823-1904), hono- 
rary canon of Carlisle and headmaster of 
Rugby, born on 3 March 1823 in Surrey 
Street, Strand, London, was eldest son 
of Philip Bell Hayman, clerk in Somerset 
House (himself son of Henry Hayman, 
rector of Lewcombe and vicar of Halstock, 
Dorset), by his wife Jane, daughter of John 
Marshall. A brother was Marshall Hay- 
man, barrister-at-law and a member of the 
staff of the ' Saturday Review,' who was 
lost on the Alps near Zermatt in 1876. In 
October 1832 Hayman entered Merchant 
Taylors' School, and becoming head monitor 
passed with a Sir Thomas White scholar- 
ship on 28 June 1841 to St. John's College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. with a 
double second class in 1845, proceeding 
M.A. in 1849, B.D. in 1854, and D.D. in 
1870. He was treasurer of the Union 
in Lord Dufferin's presidency, and was 
offered in 1845 a seat (number five) in the 
university eight, but family circumstances 
prevented him from accepting it. He was 
a fellow of his college from 1844 to 1855, 
and received the degree of M.A., ad eundem, 
at Cambridge in the latter year. He was 
ordained deacon in 1847 and priest in 1848. 
He was curate of St, Luke's, Old Street, 
London, from 1848 to 1849, and of St. 
James's, Westminster, from 1849 to 1851, 
and was assistant preacher at the Temple 
Church from 1854 to 1857. 

In 1852 he adopted a scholastic career, 
and served till 1855 as an assistant master 
at Charterhouse under Dr. Saunders (after- 
wards dean of Peterborough) and Edward 
Elder [q.v.], and became master of the gown 
boys, a post only once before held by one 



who was not a Carthusian, In 1855 he was 
elected headmaster of St. Olave's grammar 
school, Southwark, and was headmaster 
of Cheltenham from 1859 to 1868, and of 
Bradfield from 1868 to 1869. He intro- 
duced science teaching at Bradfield and 
tried somewhat unsuccessfully to compel 
the boys to talk exclusively in Latin. 

On 20 Nov. 1869 he was elected head- 
master of Rugby in succession to Frederick 
Temple [q. v. Suppl. II]. The electors 
were the trustees of the Rugby charity, 
who at that date formed the governing 
body. All the assistant masters but one pro- 
tested against the appointment. Hayman's 
conservative predilections were held to be 
in conflict with the liberal traditions of the 
school. The feeling of hostility grew when 
it became known that many of Hayman's 
testimonials were of old dates, and had been 
used without the consent of the writers. 
At first his disputed authority as head- 
master was maintained by support of 
the trustees, but in December 1871 a 
new governing body, including Temple 
and G. G. Bradley [q. v. Suppl. II], was 
constituted under the Public Schools Act 
of 1868. Meanwhile the school discipline 
deteriorated, the numbers dwindled, and 
when a reduction of the assistant masters 
became necessary, the headmaster resolved 
on the dismissal of two of his most promi- 
nent opponents on the staff, MJr. Arthur 
Sidgwick and the Rev. C. J. E. Smith. Soon 
afterwards, on 19 Dec. 1873, the new gover- 
nors passed a resolution removing Hayman 
from the headmastership. Hayman did not 
retire without a struggle. On 18 Feb. 1874 
he instituted chancery proceedings to re- 
strain the bishop of Exeter (Temple) and 
the governing body from enforcing his dis- 
missal. The defendants replied by filing 
a demurrer. After a six days' hearing 
(13-19 March 1874), Vice-chancellor Sir 
Richard Malins [q, v.] decided against 
Hayman, but left each side to pay its own 
costs, and admitted that Hayman had 
suffered a e grievous hardship. 5 Although 
feeling in the scholastic world ran high, 
his friends urged that he was treated with 
undue severity. 

In 1874 he was nominated by Lord 
Beaconsfield to the crown living of Alding- 
ham, Lancashire. He became honorary 
canon of Carlisle in 1884, was honorary 
secretary of the Tithe Owners Union in 1891, 
was secretary of King Alfred's League of 
Justice to Voluntary Schools ui 1900, and 
served as proctor in convocation (1887-90). 

On 21 March 1892 and 23 Jan. 1893 suc- 
cessful actions were brought against Hayman 



Hayne 



232 



Head lam 



and other directors of the Canadian Pacific 
Colonisation Society, by two shareholders, 
claiming the repayment of thoir invest- 
ments on grounds of misrepresentation- 
He died at Aldingham on 11 July 1904, 
and was buried in the churchyard there, 
He married on 19 July 1855, at St. George's, 
Hanover Square, Matilda Julia, second 
daughter of George West by of Mowbrook 
Hall, Lancashire, and left a numerous 
family. There is an enlarged photograph 
of him at St. Glare's grammar school, and 
an oil painting belongs to the family, 

Hayman was a cultured scholar and a 
fluent speaker and preacher. Ho contri bu tori 
extensively to tho -'Edinburgh/ * Quarterly,' 
* Nineteenth Century,' * National Review/ 
and other leading periodicals, and WUH a 
voluminous writer for Bmith's * Dictionary 
of the Bible ' between 1803 and 1893. His 
independent works include Greek and Latin 
verao translations, 1864, an edition of 
Homer's 'Odyssoy' (3 vok 1881-0), and 
the following : 1. ' DialoguoH of the Early 
Church (1) Rome, (2) Smyrna, (3) Carthago,' 
1851, & ' Retail Mammon, or the Pawn- 
broker's Daughter,' 1853, 3, ' (Jan we 
adapt the Public Heliool ftyHtein to the 
Middle Class 7 * 1858, 4> * tomoim preached 
at Bugby School,' 1875, 5* * Why wo HuiTor, 
and other Ensays/ 1800. 6, 'Tho KpiHtle-Hof 
the New Testament,' an attempt to present 
them in current and popular idiom, 1000., 

[The Times, 2 Jan, 1873, 13 My 1904 ; Rugby 
School, Remarks and Judgment of 
chancellor Sir Bicliard Malms on tho i 
to tho Bill illod by Bov, l)r, Hayman 
the Governing Body of Bugby Httliool, 1H74 ; 
private information.] 

HAYNE, OHAELEB HAYNE 
SEALE-. [Seo HBAWU-HAYNK, CHAELKB 
HATOK (1833-1903), politician ami bene- 
factor,] 

HAYWABD, EGBERT BALDWIN 
(1829-1003), mathematician, born on 
7 March 1820., at Booking, KBHOX, was son 
of Robert Haywarcl by his wife* Ann Bald- 
win, Tho father, of an old Quaker family, 
withdrew from tho Quaker community 'on 
hie marriage. Educated at University 
College, London, Robert Baldwin entered St, 
John s College, Cambridge, in 1846, gradu- 
ating as fourth wrangler in 1850. Ho was 
fellow from 30 March 1852 till 27 March I860, 
and from 1852 till 1855 assistant tutor, 
From 1856 he was mathematical tutor and 
reader in natural philosophy at Durham 
University; leaving in 1859 to become a 
mathematical master at Harrow School 
Hayward remained at Harrow till 1803, 



a period of thirty-four years. He improved 
tho system of arithmetical teaching there, 
and ably advocated bettor method*. Ho was 
president (1878-80) of tho AMsooiatkm for 
tho Improvement of Geometrical Teaching 
(afterwards tho Mathematical Association), 
and publinlied in 1BD5 a pamphlet, ' Mints on 
teaching Arithmetic/ Ho wan author of a 
text-book on' Elementary Solid Geometry*. 
(1800) and 'Tho Algebra of Coplaimr Vectors 
and Trigonometry ' (1 800), In pure matho- 
imitieH he made many resoarchoH, and pub- 
lished numerous papers in the 4 Transactions* 
of the Cambridge PhiloHophieul Homety and 
tho * Quarterly Journal of Mat-hematics.' 
He was eleetwl F..R.M, on I Juno 1.870- 

Ilaywurd, whose interentM were varied, 
was a capablo monntain climber and an 
original member of the Alpine Clhtb from its 
foundation in 1H5H, withdrawing in 1865. 
To the c Nineteenth Century ' (Feb. 1884) 
ho contributed an article on l Propori ional 
EtiproHotitation ^ which attrwiteu notice* 
He died at Hhanklin, Inlt? of Wight, on 2 Feb. 
1!K)*J, Ho married in IBM) Marianne, 
daughter of Henry Howe* of Cambridge ; 
IIJH wift^H muter inarrii.*tl Henry William 
Wat won [q, v. Hupp!. II], He had IHHUO 
two HoiiH and four daught^erH, 

[Prtm, Hoy, Bin-, voh Ixxv, ; Proe. Loiut 
Math* Hoe, vol. xxxv,; lloy. Hoc, Vt 



1*1. J, 

HKADLAM, WALTER (IEOEGE 
(180(^1.008), Hcholar unit pfjet, born in 
London cm Ifi ,Ftih, IH60, WIIH HO of Edward 
Jloadlam, MIow of St* ilohn'H Col logo, 
(Jainbridgo, director of oxaminaiionH in 
<il. Civil Bervke (.JonmiiHHion (neplH^w of 
ThoumN Enu^'Hon lIinwHam [q, v.]) and of 
Mary Aime *lohrwo*i 8oweruy. Ho wa 
edn<sat<Hl at Elntree School, HertfordHhire, 
and at Harrow, m tho IIOUH of this hejul- 
Mutnter, l)r 11 M. Butler, ul>Mequentiy 
MiiHter of Trinity College, Cambridge, 

In JSB4 lie entered Kitttf'n (College, 
Canibridge, m a noholar on the foundation. 
Both at Harrow and at Cambridge his 
career was diHtingiiiHluHi. At Cam bridge 
ho gained many univernity praeH for verHO 
oompoHition (viss, wwm Brownu s n mtnlals 
and tho Poron prixe) in tho yearn 
In 1B87 ho was plaot?d in the lirwt 
(division *l) of tli< olansioal trijKw, part i^ 
graduating B. A. in IBB7*WKl j^roeeedtMl M.A, 
in 1891, and LitUX in 1903. In 1800 ho 
became fellow of King's College* and nhortly 
afterwards was appoihtcni to a U*oturohip in 
classics, Hia boat work m a teacher was 
done with small olo&sos, whoro his striking 
personality had too play* In Jan. 1906 he 
waa a candidate for tho rogius profoosoraliip 



Hearn 



233 



Heath 



of Greek vacated by the death of Sir R. 0. 
Jebb [q. v. Suppl. II]. His prelection on 
this occasion made a profound impression. 
On 20 June 1908 he died suddenly at an 
hotel in London. He was buried in the 
churchyard of Wycliffe, Yorkshire. During 
the last years of his short life his work 
had gained recognition from a rapidly 
growing circle, and he was deservedly 
looked upon as one of the leading Greek 
scholars of bis time ; but at the moment 
of his death the greater part of what he 
had published consisted of contributions 
to classical periodicals. For many years 
the plays of ^Eschylus formed the central 
subject of his studies, and he contemplated 
a full critical edition of them, towards 
which he had made large collections. 
One of his most important contributions 
to learning was a paper on c Greek Lyric 
Metres ' which appeared in the ' Journal of 
Hellenic Studies' in 1902. Headlam's 
writings possess distinction throughout, and 
give evidence of his fastidious "taste and 
keen sensibility to all forms of beauty. 
Of his Greek versions of English and other 
poetry it was said that they are not sur- 
passed, if indeed they are equalled, by any 
existing productions of the same kind, 
His English verse also is of high quality. 
His numerous emendations of Greek texts 
were founded typon a close study of the 
causes of textual corruption, coupled with 
an almost unrivalled sense of the genius of 
the Greek language. 

During his lifetime he published: 1. 
'Fifty Poems by Meleager, with a trans- 
lation, 3 1890. 2. ' On Editing u^schylus : 
a Criticism,' 1891. 3. 'The Plays of 
JSschylus translated from a Revised Text,' 
1900-8; republished in a collected form 
in 1909 (in this volume the translations of 
the 'Persse' and 'Septem contra Thebas' 
are the work of his brother, C. E. S. Head- 
lam). 4. <A Book of Greek Verse/ 1907. 
6. * Restoration of Menander,' 1908. Post- 
humous publications : 1. * The Agamemnon 
of JEschylus,' revised text and English 
translation, with some notes, 1910, edited 
by A. 0. Pearson. 2. ' Letters and Poems,' 
with Memoir by his brother, Cecil Headlam, 
and a full bibliography by L. Haward, 
1910. 

[Personal knowledge; memoir and biblio- 
graphy cited; Academy, 8 Oct. 1910, memoir 
(by Shaen Leslie).] M, R. J. 



HEARN, MARY ANNE, ' 
FABNINGHAM * (1834-1909), hymn-writer, 
daughter of Joseph Hearn, village jpost- 
master, was born at Farningham, Kent, 



on 17 Doc. 1 834. Her kinsfolk were baptists 
of the rigid Calvinistie type. A teacher at 
Bristol (1852-7), at Gravesend (1857-9), 
and at Northampton (1859-66), she gave 
up school work in 1866 to devote herself 
entirely to literature. In 1857 she had 
joined the outside staff of the newly founded 
'Christian World,' for which she wrote 
regularly till her death. To the * Sunday 
School Times ' she was first a contributor, 
and from 1885 editor. In later Jife she 
retired to Barmouth. A keen supporter 
of educational movements, and in request 
as a speaker at free church meetings, and 
as a lecturer, she died at Barmouth on 
16 March 1909. 

Adopting the pseudonym of ' Marianne 
Farningham,' a combination of her Christian 
names with the name of her birthplace, she 
published nearly forty volumes, most of 
them poems or papers collected from the 

* Christian World ' or from publications 
associated with it. The chief are : 1. ' Lays 
and Lyrics of the Blessed Life,' 1861. 2. 

* Poems/ 1865. 3. * Morning and Evening 
Hymns for the Week,' 1870. 4 ' Songs of 
Sunshine,' 1878. 5. 'A Working Woman's 
Life,' an autobiography, 1907. Three or 
four of her hymns passed into occasional 
use. The most popular, * Watching and 
waiting for me,' is in Sankey's * Songs 
and Solos.' Some of her dramatic poems, 
notably *The Last Hymn,' *A Goodbye 
at the Door, 5 'A Blind Man's Story,' 
' Jairus,' and 'Rebekah,' achieved a vogue 
as recitations. 

[Autobiography, 1907 ; Christian, World, 18 
March 1909 ; Julian's Diet, of HymnologyJ 

J. 0. H. 

HEATH, CHRISTOPHER (1835-1905), 
surgeon, born in London on 13 March 1835, 
was son, by Eliza Barclay his wife, of 
Christopher Heath [q* v.], minister of the 
Catholic Apostolic church in* Gordon 
Square, London. Heath entered King's 
College School in May 1845, and after 
apprenticeship to Nathaniel Davidson of 
Charles Street, Manchester Square, began 
his medical studies at King's College, Lon- 
don, in October 1851. Here he gained the 
Leathes and Warneford prizes lor general 
proficiency in medical subjects and divinity, 
and was admitted an associate in 1855. 
From 11 March to 25 Sept. 1855 he served 
as hospital dresser on board H.M, steam 
frigate Imp&cieuse in the Baltic fleet during 
the Crimean war, and for this service he was 
awarded a medal, He became M-R.C.S. 
England in 1866, and F.R.C.S. in 1860. 
He was appointed assistant demonstrator 
of anatomy at King's College, and served as 



Heath 



=34 



Heath 



house surgeon at King's College Hospital 
to Sir William Forgusaon [<! v, ] from May 
to November 1857, In 1856 ho was 
appointed demonstrator of anatomy at tho 
Westminster Hospital, whoro ho was made 
lecturer on anatomy and awmstant surgeon 

in 1861 

In 1858 he was consulting surgeon to the 
St. Goorge and St, Jamea 'JDispctfwary ; in 
I860 ho was appointed Hurgon to tho West 
London Hospital at Hammw'Hmith, und in 
1870 he was surgeon to tho Honpital for 
Women in Soha, Meanwhile in 1800 ho 
was appointed assistant Burgeon and teftehiu* 
of operative surgery at University Coltego 

**' "* ' * J 1 "I . . ** ^L (* H t t .. * U U <4 4 I JL. _* H . * 'I til ^t I t\ *\ 



anatomy with all it rapidity of execution 
was giving way boforo fho advances of 
modern pathology^ with tlm slower inothods 
Jirod of a eocuro an^atlieHia and a more 
cumbrouB techni<{c* His intiiiuito know- 
ledge of anatomy umdto him a dexterous 
Hurgeon, but hw 'coinparativi^ inability to 
appreciatti tho now trutliH of bacteriology 
cut him oil from tht> Heiontiiic sida As a 
ttfaclier ho cc>inbi<*(i th oid<*r .u?thod o! 
tho 'conoboft' or 4 grinders 1 with tho practi- 
cal knowlctl^o of h'oHpitnl work from which 
tlioy wi*ns dobarri'd. Ho wa a born con- 

hit-tin bard, and with a 



Hospital, becoming full Burgeon in 1871 
the retirement of " Sir John Erie Eriplwon 
[q. v,] and Holme professor of dmicml 
Burgory in 1875* Ho resigned his hospital 
appointments in 1000, when ho was 
consulting -surgeon and einorituH 
of clinical surgery* 

At the Boyal College of SttrgoonH of 

England Heath wan awarded tho Jaokonian 

prize in 1807 for Uis <>say upon tho 

'Injuries and DisoaHtss of tho JawHjndud- 

ing those of tho Antrum, with tho troat- 

merit by operation or otlutrwwO Mo wan 

a member of tho board of tmuminofH in 

anatomy and phyniology (1875-80), an 

examiner in surgery (188M#), and m 

dental surgery (188fcM)2), and wan member 

of tho council (18814)7 ). Ho wan Hunteiinn 

professor of eurgary and pathology (1886-7), 

Bradahaw lecturer in 1802, and Huntoran 

orator in X897> when he choso M his aubjoot 

* John Hunter considered as a graat Burgeon,* 

Ho succeeded John Whitakar Hulku [q. v, 

SxrppL I] as president of the collage on 4 April 

189o, and was ro-oloctud for u second torn. 

In 1897 Heath viitod Amorioa to deliver 

tho second courNo of 4 Lano Medical 

Lectures ' recently founded ufc the Coopor 

Medical College in San, FrancuHoo. .During 

this visit the MoGili University ol Montreal 

made him hem. LL.1X lie waB praHitlent 

of the Clinical Society of London in 1890-1, 

a fellow of King's College, London, and an 

associate fellow of the College of Physicians, 

Philaddpliia, 

He lived for manjr years at 30 Cavendish 
Square, a house which m now rebuilt, and 
died there on 8 Aug. 1905* He married (1) 
Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Jasper Peck 5 
and (2) GaBrielle Hora, daughter of Captain 
Joseph Maynard, K*N., and left a widow, 
fire sons, and ono daughter. 

Heath was a brilliant surgeon and a 
great teacher both of anatomy and surgery* 
It was his ill-fortune as a surgeon to be m 
Ms prime when tho older surgery based on 



coiifidmit boliof in his own opinion. 

.lloath*H worltH, all jnibliHlvwl in London, 
wtm* : L * A Manual of Minor Kurgory and 
JJandftginK, 1 1801 ; l&h *Ut. SiK)l. 2, 
4 Practical Anatomy, a Manual of DinHec- 
tione,' 1804 ; Oth edit. 1902 ; trtwwlatwd into. 
, Onaka, 1 BHO. 3 * In juries and 
of 1-ho JftWH,* 1808 ; 4th isdit. IBM ; 
into Frimoh, 1884. 4, fc EHHay^on 
thw Trtialtntutt of Jut mthomuhs Aiumrinm 
by tho Dintal Iji^itttw.*, 1 1H7I ; n*-intt 1898. 
5, * A CUowrKO of Dp>rativo Surgwry, 1 1877 
2nd odit, 1.H84 ; tninwlftUitt into Japant^c^ 
18H2, . *Th< Stud<t*H Chwdo to 
1870 $ 2nd cslit. 1883. 
NiW York, 1881* 7 

4 Clinical JUJoturtJH on Burgk;al Subj^cte, 1 
IBlll ; 2nd wlit. 181)5; flo^nd Hurios 1902* 
iio edited thts * Diaiioiiary of Practical 
Burgry/ in 2 VO!M. 1880. 

A marbb baH-roli^f jwH-rait by Mr. Hop 
Pmkor oomnunnorakiH Ilpath m tlio hall 
of tho mwdioal Hohool buiJdingH of Univoraity 
Coltogo lloHpiiaL 

|'Ltto.it, ltH5, vnl ii, p, 4l)0(with jKJrtrftit); 
Brit. Mtnl iJournal, HHJ5, vtL ii* p. 3M; 

khwiiv vii by Mr. 

*a, :K,E,UB.Eg^ his 

1A*A P 
JL/ JV. X 



Maynard Hath, 
* 



HKATH, 8m LEOPOLD QKOKGB 

(1817-1UQ7), admiral, a youngw son of 

Cil()rgt4 Huath (A 1802), Borjjtuant-at-tow,, by 

luw wito Anno liaymol UunUar, wm* bom 

in London m IB Mov, 1817. Pougliw Donon 

Heath [<j. v. Buppl. 11 wm \m ddmt, brother, 

Hcs ontwod thtJ JR.Su Cottage, l*ortinouth f 

in Bopt 1830* Ho gainod tho ilrat modal 

on. passing out in 1BJJ1, and in Boa, 1840 

received a .prizo comm'it^ion aa Ueutcsmint 

on passing Im final examination. 1 that 

rank he' served on thca Mt*ditorrancan and 

last Indies stations. Ho was prompted to 

oomma&dor on S Aug. 1847, and iu July 

1850 was appointed to command the steam 

sloop Nigar, and soat to the wmi coast of 

Africa* There he had his. first war service, 



Heath 



235 



Hector 



being present in the small squadron under 
Commodore Henry Bruce at the attack 
on and destruction of Lagos, in which 
affair the British loss was 15 killed and 
75Vounded. At the end of 1852 the Niger 
was transferred to the Mediterranean, and 
Heath, remaining in her, was employed 
at the outbreak of the Russian war in 
blockade work along the Black Sea coasts. 
He accompanied the expedition to the 
Crimea, and from 14 Sept. 1854 was beach- 
master at Eupatoria during the landing of 
troops and stores. At the bombardment 
of Sevastopol on 17 Oct. 1854 the Niger 
was lashed alongside the line -of -bat tie sl\ip 
London, and towed her into action. On 
18 Nov. following, Heath was appointed 
acting captain of the Sans Pareil, flagship 
of Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons 
[q. v.] ? and this appointment was after- 
wards confirmed by the admiralty* A 
few days afterwards he was made captain 
of the port of Balaclava, and it is clear 
that the adverse criticisms of the state 
of that port while under his management 
which were published by some London 
newspapers were both ill-informed and 
prejudiced. Sir Edmund Lyons was per- 
fectly satisfied with Heath's work, and in 
January 1855 recommended him to the 
admiralty for the important post of princi- 
pal agent of transports. Heath was ap- 
pointed, and held the post until the war 
was practically over. In November 1855 
he left for England, and in December was 
appointed to command the screw-mortar 
ship Seahorse, which was intended for the 
bombardment of Kronstadt. This ship 
was rendered useless by the peace, and 
Heath returned to the Black Sea to help in 
bringing back the troops. Though almost 
the junior captain in the Black Sea fleet, 
he was among the first to receive the C.B., 
which was awarded to him on 25 July 1855. 
He also received the Legion, of Honour, 
the 4th class of the Medjidie, and the 
Crimean and Turkish medals. 

Following the peace Heath for some years 
commanded the coast-guard ship in South- 
ampton Water, and in April 1862 became 
captain of the Cambridge, gunnery school 
ship at Devonport. A year later he was 
transferred for special service to the Ports- 
mouth gunnery school, where he remained 
till appointed, in July 1867, to the Octavia , 
as commodore in command in the East 
Indies. He arrived on the station in time 
to help on the preparations for the expedi- 
tion from Bombay under Sir Robert Napier 
[q- v.] against King Theodore of Abyssinia, 
and afterwards assisted to land the troops, 



though for this duty Captain (afterwards 
Sir George) Try on [q. v.] was sent out 
from England as transport officer. For hia 
services during his command Heath was 
awarded the K.C.B* and received the thanks 
of parliament. On his return to England 
in 1870 ho was appointed vice-president 
of the ordnance select committee, and 
held that post until promoted to be rear- 
admiral on 20 Dec. 1871. Heath was not 
actively employed as a flag officer, and 
retired on 12 Fob, 1873. He rose on the 
retired list to be vice-admiral on 16 Sept. 
1877, and admiral on 8 July 1884. He died 
on 7 May 1907 at his home, Anstie Grange, 
Holmwood, hear Dorking. 

Heath married in 1853 Mary Emma, 
(&. 1902), daughter of Outhbert Marsh, 
of Eastbury, Hertfordshire, and had issue 
five sons and two daughters. The eldest 
son, Arthur Raymond Heath, was from 
1886 to 1892 M.P. for the Louth division 
of Lincolnshire. Brigadier-general Gerard 
Moore Heath, D.S.O., K.E., is the youngest 
son. 

Heath published, in 1897, his ' Letters 
from the Black Sea/ written during the 
Crimean war. 

[The Times, 9 May 1907; Heath's Letters 
from the Black Sea (portrait), 1897.] 

HECTOR, MBS. ANNIE FRENCH, 
writing as Mrs. ALEXANDER (1825-1902), 
novelist, born in Dublin on 23 June 1825, 
was only daughter of Robert French, a 
younger member of the family of French of 
Frenchpark, Roscommon, a Dublin solicitor, 
by his wife Anne, daughter of Edmund 
Malone of Cartrons. A son died in infancy. 
On her father's side Miss French was a 
direct descendant of Jeremy Taylor, and 
was connected with the poet Charles Wolfe 
(1791-1823) [q. y.]. On her mother's side 
she was related to Edmund Malono (1741- 
1812) [q. v.]. Educated under governesses 
at home, she read much for herself. In 
1844 her parents, owing to pecuniary losses, 
left Dublin for Liverpool, and after sojourn- 
ing at Chester, Jersey, arid other places, 
settled in London. Miss French only once 
again visited Ireland. In London she made 
many literary acquaintances, including Mrs* 
Basil Montagu and Mrs. S. C. Hall. In 
1856 she began lifelong friendships with 
Eliza Lynn (afterwards Mrs. Lynn Linton) 
[q, v. Suppl, I], and W. H. Wills [q. y.], 
editor of * Household Words,' and his wife. 
She first attracted public attention by a 
little paper in 'Household Words' called 
c Billeted in Boulogne,' in 1856. Her 
novels, '.* Agnes Waring 'and ' Kate Vernon,' 



Hector 



Hector 






published in 1854 and 1855, were entirely 
neglected. 

On 15 April 1858 who married, in London, 
Alexander Hector (1810-1875), a man of 
enterprise and ability, Beginning life in 
the East India Company's navy, lie joined 
Richard Lemon Lander [q,, v,J in his ex- 
ploration of the Niger, in 1832, and General 
JbVanciH Rawdon Chosnoy [q. v,] in tho 
exploration of tho Euphrates and Tigrin 
(1835-7)* When GhcHney'8 expedition broke 
up Hector settled at Bagdad, and was tho 
first merchant in recent times to open up 
trade between Groat Britain and tho 
Persian Gull Ho aBmted Bir I^onry La-yard 
[q. v,] in hie Assyrian oxcavatiom, and 
excavated on hie own account, the BritiHh 
Museum purchasing some of his fiwlH, Ho 
returned to England with a largo fortune 
in 1857, but after hi marriage im health 
broke, arid ho died, having long been 
partially paralysed, in IH7f). 

During her husband's lifetime Mra. 
Hootor wrote little, owing to hin (Unlike of 
tho vocation for a woman. NevertholcBa 
* Which shall it bo ? ' camo out in 18(K$, 
and before Hector 1 !* death who pubiiBhed her 
beat known novel, tho *Tho Wooing oX' 
It appeared OB a aerial in 4 Towplo Bar * 
during 1873, being ro-iBHUod in threes 
volumes at the end of that year* Him 
adopted aa a psoudonym hoc htmband'H 
Christian name, 

After Hooter's (loath Jiis widow, loft with 
one son and throe daughters, and with 
smaller moans than die liad anticipated, 
began to write in good oarnoBt. fctyxmding 
six years with her family in Germany ana 
France and then throe yearn at fejfc. Andrews, 
eho settled in London m 1885, and thonco* 
forth rarely left it, Lttnily occupied with 
novel -writing till hor death* 

In 1875 came out 'Bulph Wilton'* 
Ward/ and * Her Dearest Foe ' in I87CI 
There followed forty-one novels, which 
enjoyed popularity among habitual reader* 
of fiction both her and in America* Eleven 
passed into a second edition ; * Tho 
Freros ' (1882) was translated into Spanish, 
< By Woman's Wit ' (1886) into Dantah, 
and *Mona's Choice' (1887) into Polish, 
The fresh and vivacious style reflects the 
Irish temperament, and the tone ia always 
wholesome. * Kitty Coitello ? (1004), a 
novel which, presents aa Irish girl's intro- 
duction to English life, asd has autobio* 
graphic touches, was written when Mrs- 
Hector was seventy-seven and was barely 
completed at hex death. A witty, clever 
talker, of quick sympathies and nooial 
instincts, Mrs, Hector was in many ways 



Voung) 
tlus 



abler and bronxlormind<xl than her writings 
show. She dial in 1/mdon, after ten years* 
Buffering from iietmtK on 10 July * 1002, 
and was buried in Ken^al Hra'ti cemetery. 
A portrait painted at tlio t-itno of Kor 
marriago by an artiHt named FitKg^rald, 
living at VeraillcH r and ntiollter paint<?<l jiiat 
before her deaf h by lt(*r youngest/ daugliUjr, 
MJHH May ll(ctior (r(i|mx.ItKM<l in * To-day/ 
23 July 11)0*2), belong 'V> her laught<^r. 

[Who 1 ** Who, 100 1 ; Brit. MIM. CJat. ; Hdtn 
(1 lilaek* Notal.*!^ Wi>inrn Awl-horn (tf the* Day, 
IHOI'i ; privat.o iuformafinnt j E. L, 

HKCJTOK, Bin JAM15S (18344907), 
Oamuliatt gt^nlngiHt* born in Ktlinburgh on 
10 Mareh 1834, wan HOD of Aloxandor lleat-or^ 
writer to tho Higiiht, by his wift Margarut 
Macrowtio. KfiH<;aU>tl at tho Edinburgh 
Academy, hn iairituilfit<Hi at tho univornity 
in 180^, nd qwaliiiwl M,l>. in IHoli During 
tho Hhort pisriml in 1HM when IMwarcl 
j<\>rbo8 |>|. v;j fiilwl tho ehair of natural 
hintory in tho univet'Hity Inn ImstitroH tl(.M.sj>ly 
ini^?roHt(Hl Hoaf/<jr, who beeatno Im iiBBinUtnt 
and wurkinl w^alouHly at gtn^logy and otlnsr 
natural Ht<mct\ MtK'iuuii ntuclits 
Iik(swino purHuml with ardour, and 

Dr. 
'q, v/J, 
of Bir 

ai' wan 

to uuttjpany tho 
imploring oxjxJition to the 
of liiitiHli North Amwiofy 
under tho t'onunatirl of (Japtairt John 
Pttllimrr |q. v/j, during 18/57-<K), An iin- 
nionno tmt of country ffom Lakttt Bit jw*rior 
and Winui|-H*g to Vttrioottv<r llatitl wan tra- 
V4wd with a viow U) aolonwation. Hector 
tlion <I.iH<>v(*i t tHi tlio paBM, now known as 
ll<jotor*B l*ttH by whitsh tho 
Paoiiia railway oroHnm tho Kooky 
taina Many otlitr important geogr 
as well tm othnologtoiil and' gw.>iogioal 
observations wrt mmlo and oommimioatcxl; 
001110 to tho British Aoeiation (iS5S(IO) 
others to tho Uoologioal Sootety of JLondon 
(1S61), Hoctor drow attontion to the 
orratio blooka and tho ^vidonooof oxtonivo 
glwiation ; ho noted tho gonoml truotur0 
of tho liooky Mountain and doBcribod 
beds of tetiary and orot&ooouu Mgnito and 
ooal in tho country oaat of tho mountains 
and at Nanaimo in.Vanoouvor MaiKl 

In 1801, on Muroliiion's rooommondatton, 
Hootor was appointed geologist to tho 
provincial govommont of Qtago, Now 
Zsaknd* Ifcur yaara later ho bocamo 
director ol tho geological eurvoy of the 
colony (now dominion), and from 1806 



m 



Hector 



237 



Hellmuth 



director of the meteorological and weather 
department of the New Zealand Institute, 
and of the colonial museum and the 
botanical gardens at Wellington. He 
resided in Wellington until his retirement 
in 1903. 

During this service of forty-two years 
Hector gained a world-wide reputation as 
a naturalist and geologist. His numerous 
official reports included several on the coal- 
deposits of New Zealand and on the geo- 
logical structure and other economic deposits 
of various districts. His first sketch map 
of the geology of the islands was published 
in 1869, and later editions, embodying the 
work of F. von Hochstetter, Julius von 
Haast, and others, in 1873 and 1885. A 
table of the fossiliferous formations of New 
Zealand accompanied his reports for 1879- 
1880 (1881). He edited the Transactions 
and Proceedings of the New Zealand Insti- 
tute ' for 1869-76. To scientific societies 
and journals in England as well as in New 
Zealand he communicated many and import- 
ant observations on such subjects as the 
volcanic and earthquake phenomena; the 
thermal and naineral springs; the eruption 
of Tarawera in 1886 ; the rock-basins ; the 
glacial phenomena ; the meteorology ; re- 
cent and fossil fauna and flora, notably fishes, 
reptiles, birds and cetacea ; and the Moas. 
He also obtained from tertiary strata in 
Nelson the remains of a gigantic penguin 
described by Huxley under the name of 
Palsoeudyptes antarcticus. 

He was appointed C.M.G. in 1875 and 
K.C.M.G. in 1887, and received the order of 
the Golden Cross from the German emperor 
in 1874. 

He was elected F.R.S.Edinburgh in 1861, 
and F.B.S.London in 1866, and also a 
corresponding member of the Zoological 
Society of London. The Lyell medal was 
awarded to him in 1876 by the Geological 
Society, and the founder's gold medal in 
1891 by the Eoyal Geographical Society. 
He was president of the Wellington Philo- 
sophical Society in 1873-74, and president 
of the Australasian Association for the 
advancement of science in 1891. In his 
later years he was chancellor of the New 
Zealand University. He died at Wellington, 
N.Z., on 5 Nov, 1907. 

Hector married in 1868 Maria Georgiana, 
daughter of Sir David Monro [q. v.], 
speaker of the house of representatives in 
New Zealand. 

His published works include : 1. 'Hand- 
book of New Zealand,' 1879 ; 4th edit. 1886. 
2. * Outlines of New Zealand Geology,' 
1886 (with geological map, 1880). 



[The Times, 7 Nov. 1907; obituary by 
Prof. J. W. Gregory in Nature, 14 Nov. 1907 ; 
see also Geology of Now Zealand, by Prof. 
James Park, 1910 (bibliography).] 

H. B. W. 

HELLMUTH, ISAAC (1817-1901), 

bishop of Huron, born of Hebrew parents 
near Warsaw, Poland, on 14 Deo. 1817, 
attended Rabbinical schools, and at the 
age of sixteen passed to the University of 
Breslau, where he convinced himself of the 
truths of Christianity. Coming to England 
in 1841, he was received into the Church 
of England at Liverpool. Trained for holy 
orders by Hugh McNeile [q. v.] and James 
Haldane Stewart, Liverpool clergymen of 
strong evangelical views, Hellmuth emi- 
grated to Canada in 1844, bearing letters 
to George Jehoshaphat Mountain [q. v,], 
bishop ot Quebec, from Archbishop Sumner 
of Canterbury, and other eminent men- 
Bishop Mountain ordained him deacon and 
priest in 1846 and appointed him to be 
professor of Hebrew and Eabbinical litera- 
ture at Bishop's College, Lennox ville, of 
which he soon became also vice-principal. 
At the same time he was made rector of 
St. Peter's church, in the neighbouring 
town of Sherbrooke, then the chief centre 
of English settlement in the province of 
Lower Canada. His learning and zeal 
were widely recognised. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Lambeth in 1853 and 
from Lennoxville University in 1854, as well 
as the degree of D.C.L. from Trinity College, 
Toronto, in the latter year. He afterwards 
resigned his posts in the province of Quebec 
to become superintendent of the Colonial 
and Continental Church Society in British 
North America. In this capacity he was 
very successful. He joined Dr. Cronyn, 
bishop of Huron, in an endeavour to set 
up in th diocese an evangelical theological 
college by way of opposition to Trinity 
College, Toronto. During a visit to England 
in 1861 Hellmuth collected a sum sufficient 
to endow the new Huron college in the 
diocese. It was established in London, 
Ontario, and when it was opened in 1863 
Hellmuth became first principal and 
professor of divinity. He was also ap- 
pointed archdeacon of Huron, dean of 
Huron, and rector of St. Paul's cathedral. 
His continued interest in education led 
him to institute at London, Ontario, in 
1865 the Hellmuth Boys' College and in 
1869 Hellmuth Ladies' College. 

On 19 July 1871 Hellmuth was made 
coadjutor bishop of Huron to Dr. Cronyn, 
with the title of bishop of Norfolk, 
and on Cronyn*s death in September 



Hellmuth 



Hemming 



following Hellmuth miocoedod him an tho 
second Bishop of Huron. In his first charge 
to th<s diocesan synod, the bishop flhowtxl 
his strong evangelical views by recom- 
mending tho canon of the Clwreh of 
Ireland for use in his diooeso, by way 
of preventing ritualism. In 1B72 lus 
opened a chap tor- }HMHC% which wan in- 
tended to form part of a new <wtlw<.intl. 
In 1878 he attornim! tho Lambeth otmlVr* 
once. The crowning achievement of his 
opiBCOpato wan the foundation of tha W<t4- 
ern Univomty in oonneotion with Huron 
Oollege, The university wan inoorporati'd 
by an act of the Ontario legwlatim* in 1B78, 
and was iimuguratad by Mdhnuth at the 
chapter-house on 6 Oct. 1BBL Mo ocm- 
tributed of hi own means $10,000 (<mr 
2000^ sterling) to its twdownumt, ami 
had viMtod England in 1880 to (jollci.it 
ftubscriytioiiH. On 21) M'aroh IH8JJ Mollmuth 
resigned tho eo of Huron owing to 
a misunderstanding. His friorul Robert, 
BiokorHtoth fq, v,] "bishop of llipwi 
him to loavo Uanadu to IH.HH.WIO fun 



miffragan an binhoj) of Hull, an appoint- 
ment to whiuh Biakmteth publicly mi 
nauncod that tho royal HHBtwt had bww 
given. But HH an ordjumd bih?*p, IM\ 
muth waw doln,nK.l by tho law ofi'toon* af 
tho orown ineligible for tho pant of milTrn- 
pan, Thereupon Biokowitotli intall^tt him 
in the less aatisf aotory position of ooad jutor- 
bishop^ which lapmHl with Biokf*rBU>th* 
death in 1884 IMlmuth b^oarno wtsa^H- 
eively rector and rural daan of Bridlingttm 
(1885-91), chaplain of Trinity Church, "Piiu 
(1801-7), atid rector of CJompttni 'I*iwmm* 
foot, Homerseti (1B07-0). llo <!iml at 
Woflton-Hupor-Maro on 2B May 100t> luicl 
was buried thoro, 

HoUmuth married (1) in 1847 Clathmiw 
(A1884], daughter of Gonoral Tliomiw* KvaitH, 
0,B. by whom ho had two on ami 
one surviving daughter ; 2} in 18B($ Mary, 
daughter of Admiral tho lion* Arthur Bun- 
combe and widow of tho Hon. Ashfoy 
Oarr-Glynn, by whom he- had no issue, 

Besides numerous oontroverfiial and other 
pamphlets, he publiBhed * The Divine Dis- 
pensations and their Gradual Develop- 
ment/ a critical commentary on the Hebrew 
Scriptures (Edinburgh 1866) ; *Uhe Qenuine** 
ness and Authenticity of tho Pentateuch ' 
(1867), and * A Biblical Thesaurus (Polyglot 
Bible), with an Analysis of every Word in 
the Original Languages of the Old Testa- 
ment' (1884). 

Two paintings of Hellmuth in the pos- 
session of hia elder son were destroyed by 
fire in. Toronto. 



Canadian Men and Women of tho 
Tinus 18118; Mocltrul^ts HinhopMof tho Church 
of Knglaiu! in Canafla, 1890 (with engraved 
portrmt); f'Anfttlian Bu>. t>iU IHHO; Hiei 
of thti <;'onty of MiiMlrBux. JH8t); Annual 
Ri*giMU'r 1001 ; l ( \ *), LinvndcH, ,Bmhop of 
ih"2)ay, 181)7. J IX It K. 

HEMMIN0, OEOEOK WIEGMAN 

aUian and law ro- 
11) Aug. 1B21 wn 
*f IJivnry Ki'^nn Honinung jt (J 
JOMMojt, by t hw wifts iSophia^ datighkr of 
<;{ttbri*rl Wirjyjman of f.^n!tm, Kdimatml at 
(JIaphain gratninar Rli:'jl, hu pnxjtM^kHl to 
St Jr*h* <./ollog<.% Camhri4.i|2;i% w!wro in 1844 
ho wiw Ht?)r wran^ior, and iimt Smith's 
and wiw ohH}t4H$ to a f4iowHhip* 
m a niMnibiT t>f LitihfB Inn 
in tho Hanw y*ar hnfc vm nf, (lallt^l to tho 
bar until i* May lHr>0 mtninwhilii ftrmtinuing 
bin matlinai-ial HtwitoK, HJH work OH a 
riprrU*r m tJm hatrry <?rtrU bt'gan in 
IH50, atwl (loiittiitjotf without a brmk until 

1 HIM. Fwm 1871 to IH75, whm 1m took 
mlk ho wiw junior mninw?! 1i> Iho trtJiwury 
~-#t*nwally a M^^tpigi<mii U> tho btmoh. 
Kroni IH7T* to JH7!) i* wiw Htaiitling downiwl 
to litH tiiVt*rHit.y (iml wim apjminUHl a 
oomniiMMionor u:!w.Ii*r thi* tlniv^miti^H Act, 
1877. AH a CJ.U ho prmjtiwxl Ixjforo 

*llor iifuu?n y uiiti In J.8H7 mm 
an oHidal n*f^r*.\ Eltift<4Hl a 
r in 1B7*I* l.i in 1H1I7 
of Liwi!ri*H Jim, 

2 larl'tt tburt 8({ttaf(.s Koytlt Korwlngkm, 
on Ci lan, 11K)5/ and wan buriini in *jld 



In Jtt&l IUH. 
Anni<% <latigh^*r of 
of M.orrywowl Hall, Brirtfol, and 
had four norm and four daugldorH, Of fh(mo 
th *?ldoMt M*. 1 1 firry Hairtl (6, IH5tj) i 
law r.**port<*r to Itm "Houso of lxmiH$ a 
tIiiuKhU*r, Fanny llonri^tla 
dxhibiiod at tho lioynl Apttt 

A wator-oolotir Mkotoh of 
whon a ymmg ma In fanay dnvw, by 

Hir Jolm Tormit^ and a 



miniature* cixhibit^i at thi Royal Aoadomy 
by his nfoofl, Edith I!onnn!ng f belong to the 

' '" 



Hamming ww?U * An Elomantery T 
on tho Dlffarcmtial ami Integral *0a!oulm * 
(Cambridge, 1S4B ; 2nd odit. i52) ; * Fit 
.Book on Piano Trigonometry * (1B51) 5 and 
* Billiardi Mathornktioaily f w*atd * (1899 ; 
2nd edit. 1904). \H pwlllwliid * Imports of 
Cmm adjudged j In tho High Court of 
Chanoory, boforo 'Sir William'" Faga Wood * 
for'lSfflMffi (2 vota, 1861-8, with Honry 
Robert VaugJwwx Jolmaon) \ and for 1862-06 



Hemphill 



239 



Hemphill 



(2 vols. 1864^-5, with Alexander Edward 
Miller). On the establishment of the 
council of law reporting, Hemming acted 
as an editor of the ' Equity Cases ' and 
' Chancery Appeals/ subsequently merged 
in the chancery division series of the 
* Law Reports.' 

He was a regular contributor to the 
1 Saturday Review,' from which a pamphlet 
on the 'Fusion of Law and Equity' was 
reprinted in 1873. 

[The Times, 7 Jan. 1905 ; Foster, Men at 
the Bar ; Neale, Honours Reg. of University 
of Cambridge ; Law Journal, 14 Jan. 1905 ; 
private information.] C. E. A. B. 

HEMPHILL, CHARLES HARE, first 
BARON HEMPHILL (1822-1908), lawyer and 
politician, born in August 1822 at his father's 
residence in Cashel, was youngest of the five 
children two sons and three daughters 
of John Hemphill (1777-1833) of Cashel and 
Rathkenny, co. Tipperary, whose grand- 
father was Samuel Hemphill [q. v.], the 
Presbyterian divine and controversialist, 
and whose mother, Elisabeth Bacon of 
Rathkenny, was a niece of Matthew Bacon, 
author of Bacon's New Abridgment of the 
Law,' and a descendant of Sir Nicholas 
Bacon [q. v.]. Charles's mother, Barbara 
Hemphill [q. v.], was youngest daughter of 
Patrick Hare, D.D. His elder brother 
served as lieutenant in the 69th regiment, 
and died unmarried in Oct. 1840. Hemphill 
after his father's death in 1833 was placed 
at Dr. Walls's school, Dublin. In 1839 he 
matriculated at Trinity College, Dublin, of 
which his maternal uncle and godfather, 
Charles Hare, D.D., was a distinguished 
fellow and tutor. Hemphill' s academic 
career was brilliant : he obtained a classical 
scholarship in 1842 and first classical 
moderatorship and the large gold medal for 
classics in 1843, when he graduated B.A. 
He was moreover auditor of the Trinity 
College Historical Society, in whose debates 
he took a prominent part. Amongst his 
friends and contemporaries in the society 
were William Magee, archbishop of York 
[q. v.], and Sir Edward Sullivan, Lord 
chancellor of Ireland [q. v.]. After serving 
his terms at the Middle Temple, London, 
and the King's Inns, Dublin, he was called 
to the Irish oar in midsummer term 1845, 
along with (Sir) Charles Gavan Duffy [q. v. 
Suppl. II] and Lord Justice Barry. Hemp- 
hill went the Leinster circuit, and rapidly 
acquired a large practice. 

HemphilTs ambition from the first was 
for a political rather than a forensic career. 
In 1857 and again in 1859, while a stuff 



gownsman, he unsuccessfully contested 
Cashel, his birthplace, in the liberal interest 
and was defeated, polling on the first 
occasion thirty-nine votes against fifty-four 
for Sir Timothy 0' Brien. His high standard 
of electoral morality explains his defeat. He 
took silk in 1860, and next year declined an 
offer of a judgeship in the high court of 
Bengal. In 1 863 he was appointed chair- 
man of a county, the title at the time of a 
county court judge in Ireland. The office 
did not preclude him from practising at the 
bar, but rendered him ineligible for elec- 
tion to the House of Commons. He was 
successively chairman of the counties of 
Louth, Leitrim, and Kerry. The adminis- 
tration of the Irish Land Act of 1870 was 
entrusted to county court judges, and 
Hemphill strenuously endeavoured to carry 
out the intention of the legislature by 
securing for tenants caprieic^ly evicted 
from their holdings compeifeation for 
improvements made by themselves. On 
the coming into operation of the County 
Courts (Ireland) Act of 1877, whereby 
county court judges were no longer per- 
mitted to practise at the bar, he elected to 
vacate his county court judgeship on a 
pension and to pursue his profession. In 
January 1882 he was appointed a bencher 
of the King's Inns, and in the same year 
was made one of three serjeants-at-law, in 
Ireland, who take precedence at the bar 
immediately after the law officers of the 
crown. 

In 1886, on the split in the liberal party 
on the Home Rule question, Hemphill threw 
in his lot with the Gladstonian liberals. 
At the general election of that year, after 
nearly a generation, he was once more a 
parliamentary candidate, contesting un- 
successfully the West Derby division of 
Liverpool in the Gladstonian interest, and 
at the general election of 1892 he was de- 
feated in a contest for the representation of 
Hastings. On the fall of Lord Salisbury's 
administration in August 1892 Hemphill, 
although he had completed his seventieth 
year, became Irish solicitor-general in Glad- 
stone's fourth administration. He held the 
post till the fall of Lord Rosebery's admini- 
stration in 1895, when he was sworn of the 
Irish privy council, an honour not previously 
accorded to an outgoing solicitor-general. 
At the general elections of 1895 and 1900 
Hemphill was returned in the liberal interest 
by majorities of ninety-nine and forty-four 
respectively as member for North Tyrone, 
and was the only member of the Gladstonian 
party in the House of Commons repre- 
senting an Irish constituency. Although 



Henderson 



240 



Henderson 



ho entered ilia HOUKO of Oominon at an 
advanced ag(\ his intfllleelual atari mm 
legal knowU*dg*\ powerful nwmory, and 
pnymoal vigour mmlo him a prnvw in tlobato ; 
whllo hin geniality and old- world courtiwy 



him pomonally popular. On tho 
formation of Sir Henry C^mpbelKB 
zmui'tt admwiHtration in Diwmlwr 



ill'B yearn precluded hin appoint -wtwt 
to tho Irish lord dmjwtdlurHhip, A peerage 
which he did nnt Nwk WUH oonfVnvd on him* 
He wan er<*aled Baron Homphill of fiath- 
kenny and of Ckwhet on 12 Jan. HKML Mo 
dleil on 4 March 1008 at his rmkkmw, 
05 Wforrkm HquartvOubHn, and waw hunts! 
at Beanj^range etmuitwy, near Dublin, 

Of diHtitiguMu'd prtwww'% above the 
medium height, ant! of ercwt* oarriagn (*ven 
in old age* Humph ill wan entertaining in 
convocation owing to hiw wide remling 
and varitxl \y penencn^ 

A portra' by Moranfc i in t!w 
of hiw Htm* th neeond L\m\ M 

marriwl on 1! April 181!) 
Mary, yotni^er dau^liter of llw 
lion* Bir Franeig Htanhope, !i,IL, and 
gmnd-diUighter of (Jlwrles Hlan!iop** f third 



wnt with it to Egypt, whcro it formed part 
of Uraham'H Iirtgmlts In I8B2 ho was on- 
gagcnl at Magfar and Td-d-MaMkhuta, and 



Tol-d-Kobir. lla rf 



, tht* 



nfur ami 



at wwaMin and 
tho inistJal with 



(5th 



. f <t nrnjority 
cm Jim pwmofjrm tn tsatitnin *m 2 June 'IH80, 
In IHHIt li* wnt with hin battalion to 
Bfnutifia, nniJ fhMro t*> Halifax, Nova 
Scolin, v kiting Virginia it* <*\-awiw. tho 
bfiiili^iclrlH **f fin* AnitTtcan Hvil Witr, 
In January 1885 Im jj.iw! t-ho uninanoe 

( atitl wrviHl in if, five yimrH, 
at Wtt<hvih, K*liiiburgh f 
(.'{ibraliar, Dnrmg tltia 
^ was at work on tin* hfatory of tlio 
i.uut i^ivii war and tiw *Kranc>- 
war, In IHHii ! 
* Th* f'ainjiaiyn nf 
lit* J.H1M), whiph attrm^iHl tho 



n|*p*mttjn<iit iis *Jn.ary I HIM) 
at; StttiljitrHl ,, at lirt"ini iilitary 
, but afti.*rwitnlM in tatttum anil 



m, 






he 



<*ur! of Hamiitftom, Sim <Iixl on 12 April j 'Mat-Mo nf NJMI..JHW.II,' it iwwfwly Mfwly in 



Tww Hf>n and a daughter of the 
marriage nurvivts ; tlie elder HOIU Stanhope 
Charles John* tmootKKlotl lti falb^p 
Baron HompliilL 

iTottrnah 5 ft, 7 Mitrelt 



an* 



military rt 



Krotu 17 

} HiH) Im wan prif<3HHor of 
at tho StaS 
J* 



and hiH family,] 



an jftfimwiM* upon the 

Tiraej, 7, 14, 521 March HKM* 5 infor- 1 yomtgi^r >?ni-mlum nf thtu 4*fllt}(^ of tho 
mation <kriym! from th. llrnt Txirtl Jf(iiihiII I British army for u*hih it would bi <liflkult 

t**> 3Hwl a jwirulU*! n*iM*<*r htttiMi than that 
of Multk^ in PntHMw * {'/V/r Tim?*, 1 March 
JK FEANUiH j li)i>). Tbtt |iui>li(ialioii in 1HU8 of 'Htono- 

wall iJ^kHon and th** Atnoritnm Civil War* 



HBNDERSOW, Cl 
ROBJBHT (IB5^'H^3), ouloiu^I ami 
writer, l*om on 2 Jurm IBIS4 at St. 

ddowt won of William Oeorgt* 



HonderHon, aft^rwardn deim of 
[q* v. Btippl 111 by Jan MelvilJ<\ <(aughtor 
of Mm Dalyoll of Lingo, Kifo. Hm<Itttm 
waa 'eduoatod at Loodn gmittitiar wohoul 
white his fathesr' was lioadmttttr 



vok : 

nwik of ttiilitary hiHtoria.nH 

for tho 



in 



Wolmslay 
0cJitioTi* 



head of , tho Bohool f WM captain of the 
oriokot eleven and a good amateur tuitor, 
In 1870 he gained & htotqry oholiunihip at 
St. John's Oellcpe, Oxford, and m exhlbl- 
tion from his aohool, but did not graduate 
In November 1870 to anteaci 



, 

being fourth in the lint, md ws also oaptaln 
of the cricket okven titera* 

On 1 May 1 878 h was commissioned 
as seoond-lieutenant in the York and 
Lancaster regiment^ and joined tbe first 
battalion (65th) at Dinapom On pro 



motion to lieutenant on m Jun 1S70, be 
passed to the second battalion (84th) j and 
alter Berving.at Dovor and in Ireland, lie 



for 



In 



ilo tmiharkm! for flit* (1af. with 
Kolwrt* on 23 Duo. I HiHI. Ito luf t tho York 

and 



t in whih 
itmjor on 10 Nov. IHU7, and was 
)ioutcnirait*ooionoL On 

4iritor of 



10 Jan, l.(KH) hi* wan 



. 
int<'.Ilig<.mot* with ti 3tw?al rank 



of oolond. Mn$* warn inw^lt ntxKlfKl; in 
the post oflloa at Captitwwn h diwtioveracl 
om&'- hundreds of majm of tho Tranavaal 
to-tonded for tho Hour govrnmcmt, 4 
prepaicod mam , of tho Frai Htato. 
acooTOpaniaci KobertiJ to tho Moddor ... 
and vi'tncoiied the beginning of the tumim 
mpvament agatmt Cronjo ;. then his heaJti 
failed, ami Ho want home. H0 WB man 



Henderson 



241 



Henderson 



tioned in the despatch of 31 March, and 
was made C.B. on 29 Nov. 

He was placed on the staff of the war 
office on 29 Aug. 1900 as an assistant 
adjutant-general, to write the history of 
the war ; but he was employed first on 
revision of the infantry drill-book. In 
the autumn of 1901 he went to South 
Africa to examine the battlefields, but he 
worked too hard and broke down again. 
He returned to England in February 1902, 
and at the end of that year he waa sent to 
Egypt for the winter. He died at Assouan 
on 5 March 1903, and was buried in the 
Roman catholic cemetery at Cairo, where 
there is a memorial to him. In 1883 he 
married Mary, daughter of Pierce Joyce of 
Gal way, who survived him. She received 
a civil list pension of 100Z. in 1904. They 
had no children. 

Henderson had rare gifts as a military 
historian. He meant the history of the 
South African war to be a great picture, 
not a cold catalogue of facts. He had 
completed the first volume, on the ante- 
cedents of the war ; but after his death 
it was decided that the history should be 
confined to the military contest, and what 
he wrote was not published. 

The following articles in the * Edin- 
burgh Review ' were Henderson's ; 1. 
'The American Civil War,' April 1891. 

2. 'Clarke's Fortification,' October 1891. 

3. ' Von Moltke's Campaign in Bohemia,' 
April 1894. 4. 'Lord Wolseley's "Marl- 
borough," ' October 1894. 5. ' Army Or- 
ganisation,' January 1896. 6. e National 
Defence/ April 1897. 6. ' The War in 
South Africa,' January 1900. He pub- 
lished a translation of Verdy du Vernois' 
study of the battle of Custozza in 1894, 
and an original study of the battle of 
Worth in 1899. He wrote a preface to 
Count Sternberg's ' Experiences of the Boer 
War ' (1901) in which he dealt with foreign 
criticism ; and he contributed articles on 
war, strategy and tactics to the 'Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica ' (10th edit.). He 
also wrote in ' The Times ' on manoeuvres. 
He was a frequent lecturer at the United 
Service Institution and before the military 
societies of Aldershot and Ireland. Some 
of these lectures *have been reprinted with 
other of his papers in 'The Science of War,' 
1905, with a prefatory memoir by Lord 
Roberts, who writes of Henderson's * most 
fascinating personality,' his gifts as a 
lecturer and a writer, and his value as a 
staff officer. 

[In addition to the above memoir, The 
Times, 7 March 1903 ; Spectator, 14 March 

VOL. LXVIII. SUP. ii. 



1903 ; the Loodicnsian (school journal), April 
1903 ; private information.] E. M. L. 

HENDERSON, JOSEPH (1832-1908), 
portrait and marine painter, born on 10 
June 1832 at Stanley, Perthshire, was the 
third son he had a younger twin brother 
of a stone-carver, Joseph Henderson, 
by his wife, Marjory Slater. The family 
removing to Edinburgh, the father died 
there about 1840 in poor circumstances, 
and the four boys were sent to business 
at a very early age. Joseph was appren- 
ticed to a firm of drapers in George Street, 
but he was allowed time to attend the 
classes of the Trustees' Academy in the 
mornings and evenings. On the recom- 
mendation of Alexander Handyside Ritchie 
[q. v,], sculptor, he was enrolled a student on 
2 Feb. 1849. William Quiller Orchardmen 
[q. v. Suppl. II] and Robert Herdman [q. v.] 
were fellow students. He left the academy 
on 10 May 1853, about a year after Eobert 
Scott Lauder [q. v.] was appointed head- 
master, and settled in Glasgow. Prom 1 852 
onward, Henderson supported himself en- 
tirely by his art. His early work bears the 
impress of the earlier Scottish tradition, 
as modified by Duncan and Thomas Faed 
[q. v. Suppl. I], rather than that of Lauder 
and his pupils, although evidences of 
Lauder' s suggestion appear in Henderson's 
genre pictures such as i The Ballad ' (1858) 
and ' The Sick Child ' (I860). After spend- 
ing some twenty years chiefly on pictures 
of that kind, Henderson, during a holiday 
on the Ayrshire coast about 1871, dis- 
covered that his real bent was sea-painting. 
Although he continued to paint portraits, 
he paid chief attention to the sea. At 
first figure incidents of considerable im- 
portance were usually introduced, and his 
colour inclined to be black and his handling 
hard ; but gradually the figures became 
accessory to the effect, his colour gained 
in freshness and his brushwork in freedom. 
His best work was done during the last 
fifteen years of his life. While his principal 
pictures were in oils, he painted in water* 
colour also, and was a member of the 
Royal Scottish Water- Colour Society. In 
celebration of his jubilee as a professional 
artist the Glasgow Art Club, besides 
entertaining Mm to dinner and presenting 
him with a souvenir, organised a special 
exhibition of his work (190.1), and after his 
death the Royal Glasgow Institute of the 
!Fine Arts, of which he was a vice-president, 
arranged a memorial exhibition. Between 
1871 and 1886 he exhibited twenty 
pictures at the Royal Academy, but his 
chief pictures were usually shown at the 

V '. V. ' " ' * V.' 1 .. " - " ' ".".' ' K 



Henderson 



242 




Glasgow IttHtituto, HiB art JH r 
in tm Glasgow Gallery by an admirabl 
8ea*pic)C, * 'I?ho Flawing Tide,' and by fiill- 
length portraits of two lord provoHtn, and 
the collection of the Scultih Modem Arta 
ABBodatum ccmtamH hin * Slonu,* 

H died at BnUantra<.s Ayrnhlre, where 
for many yearn he had Hpertt the Huwmw, 
on 17 July* 1008, and \VIVH buried in Mighlltill 
ceiueUiry, (..Jhwiguvv. 

llendemm marrim! thrice : (1) in 18&> 
Hdt*n, daughter of Jaintw Oonh, liuclianun, 
and by her ( 18(10) had four ehildreii, 
a daughter Marjory, who became w,mi 
wife (>{ William MuTaggart, H.8.A. [<f. v* 
Biippl. II], aiuj three HUHH, all of whom IH* 
oamo artfotw ; (2) in 181H), Helen Young of 
Strathaven (<* 1H71), by whom he had onti 
daughter; and (%) in 187*2, Klwa Thomwm, 
who Hiirvivixl him with two daughters 

Thero aro tulmimhli:* jiortrnitH of him by 
Ills BOH John (in the artiHt'H fji>wwnHion) 
and by William MoTaggart (in hiw widcnv'n 
i)OH8HHi<m) John MoHuman <w?wit<*tl a 
doable mtKluliion of him and hit* third wife* 

(J^ivale informntion ; Ht^otn l*it-nrial .15 
Jan, HH)l j Int<'tiiifionl Ki.udio, lUOJi. 
xvi. JJ07; (*lnHg<nv Herald, IH July JtH)H; 
exhil>ition tuitAlogmm ; 1'erey Bitt<% 'i'lit.* Aft 
of Joneph HentierHoii, UKm j J* 3L <'i*w 

ottih Pftinting, 1008/j J, L, U 

HENB1EBOH, WILLIAM C1EOEOK 
iSi9**l905) y doan of Oarltalo, bom at Har- 
dgo, Hamp*sliire, on 2i Jutui. iSlil, wcw* 
oldest son of Yloa-adiniral Qoorgo llander- 
on of Harbrldgo, by Im wifo FmniH* I3litt- 
both, daughter of Eawivni Wnloott-SyimiiHont 
Eduo&ted first at Laloham, and thwi tit 
Bruton HoJiooi, fcioinerHot, ho mfttriaulttUHi 
from Wadham Ci*Uugi>, Oxford* on 30 Jun* 
1B3(I WM olooU>d to a dt>myttUu> at Mug- 
daton OoHogo in July, wan tfiu C8in(Hllor'H 
prisBe for Latin vowo in 1830, and gnuluatod 
B*A, with a first olai in oUuwim and a 
&oond class in mathematics in 1840, pro- 
owdirig M.A* in IS4B, XX0.L, in 1S53, and 
D*B in 1882, Ho won the prto for Lutin 
essay in 1842 and the Mwtoa theologioal 
pm next year* Jn 1S44 h WM ordaiiuxi 
deacon but from aome dootrlmal hesitation 
did act take priest's orders until. 1S59, In 
1845 he waa appointed headmaster of Ubg. 
dalen College Bchool, but toft it in the follow- 
ing year to become tutor in the Uniwiity 
of Durham* In 1847 he was abcted to a, 
fellowship at Magdalen, holding it till 1S53, 
In 1851 ho was appointed pnncipal of 
Hatfield Hall, Durham, and in 1852 Beoam 
headmaster of Victoria Collage, jersey* 
Henderson's success here was pronounced, 
and in 1802 he obtained the headmastorohip 



of 3UwdH gramtiiHr HcJiooL A Imni teacher 
and good orgnniHnr, dvvoiwi to hi* school, 
and winning tlw lifting aiTitititm of his 
iK ho r^maiH'I nl UH>^ vuitli 1884 
took lit) lo part in public atfoira, but 
wan an <ujtiv in(*m1.x*r *uitl *litor of the 



In 1884 Hcndiwoii WJIM n|>jK>infcl to 
ihn dt'iuwrv r>f {|}trHHl<% Ib notiglit to 
pMpnliuiHts thi* i'jiihiHlrnl Mfrvi<M' F and inter- 
^Htiil hinmt4f in philanthropic work, but 
owing to \vrnh hcalf-h hi lat**r ytarH wre 
HjK^nt in iuinipitmlivtuvfiri'iiK'nC Ht 
Huddcnly at. H(JM ('iwt li% ('(irlwiis cm 24 
HH)5, A dwi<Uf] high ^lutrc-htnan, H 
mm ttHik no aciivo parl in wmtmveray, 
Imi hci Hignnd tit** riH^noriiil in IHHJ for the 
toit*rutKm of .ritual. Hi* rniirrird Jana (d t 
HJOI }, dattghli.r of tl. DftlyrH <.f Lingo, Fifo- 
Mitin% by \vhoiu hi* bad Hght m.im' (ono of 
whom wa ..yMjt-,.i;olom.*l CJ/'K. !l> Hintkwon 
| q. _ v, Httppi, 1 1 j) antl M H datightiM'H, T w<l v 
of hi tfhildwi mtrvivinl him, ifiM portrait 
by Mr, W, W. Ouliw K,A. (IHH7) in at 



<Hiit**d for t b* 

L * MiHHalo ad UHIUU liiMignw 'I**ctsl<JHie 
KLmnwj^iiHiH. 1 voJn. fi and "(H) 1H74, for 
which ho <!ollat<<l tho iixfant MHH* antl Ilia 

<<JitionH, 2* * Manuals ot 
ad iinatii InnigniH Kuuk^iis 
iH/ vol, (JIJ, J#7f* to wltioh ho 
in an aj>j*ndix an abl>r<iviat4d 
raprint of tho Harum manual and of Huoh 
manual <Mvm m oatnir in th H<.rtfrd 
or nitinuai. IJ. * Lit*r 



vol. 



vivng 



old 



For- 

m * (1874), a 
of tho printwIiHiilion of 
with a imirttHuth*tHntury 



27 %t, I1K0 s Ftwtor, Aiumi Oxon. ; 

w uf ilw 'Univfniity of 
itifurnmtiort ; ). B. Bluxam, 
f Ma^dabn CiiilngtP, Oxford, vii $ 
it. B. Oiwiitiui', Wadham t.'uJk'gu 

, p, 375/J A, H.'B. 

HENLEY, WILLIAM EENKHT (1S40- 
JI), poot>-oriti<3 and driwnttttet, bom at 
on 2tl Aug. 1849, wau oldtt of 
, all onH of William Henley, 
in OloiiotsHttv, by Ills wife. 
Bmma Morgan, liii father oamo of an old 
yeoman- itoek and hiit mother w** deaoended 
from Joseph War ton, tht> ontio [q* T.J. 
Of his brothers, Edward lohn was a wall- 
known London actor,, arid later toured i 
wliew to died in 1S0S| and- 



Henley 



243 



Henley 



Anthony Warton is a landscape painter. 
William Ernest was educated at the Crypt 
grammar school, Gloucester, of which, 
in 1861, Thomas Edward Brown [q. v. 
Suppl. I], the poet, became head master. 
That he had Brown for a teacher, Henley 
was accustomed to deem a rare piece 
of good fortune. His presence, he says, 
was * like a call from the world outside, the 
great, quick, living world. . . . What he 
did for me, practically, was to suggest 
such possibilities in life and character as 
I had never dreamed' (Works, iv. 207-8). 
Brown's influence was all the greater in 
that Henley was partly severed from 
* the great, quick, living world,' during the 
late period of his youth and his early man- 
hood, by a tuberculous disease which from 
his twelfth year made him a cripple and 
long threatened his life. His consolation 
was reading and study, and in 1867 he 
passed the Oxford local examination as a 
senior candidate. The progress of the 
disease soon necessitated the amputation 
of one foot, and having been told by the 
doctors that bis life could be saved only 
by the amputation of the other leg he, in 
1873, went to Edinburgh to place himself 
under the care of Prof. Joseph (afterwards 
Lord) Lister in the infirmary. There he was 
a patient for twenty months. By Lister's 
skilful attention the leg was saved, and 
although his health always remained pre- 
carious, he was able, with occasional inter- 
vals of severe illness, to apply himself to 
literary labour until the close of his life. 
The character of his nights and days in the 
infirmary is vividly disclosed in the ' Hospital 
Verses,' a portion of which appeared in the 
< Cornbill Magazine ' for July 1875. His 
mood of mind is depicted in ' Out of the 
night that covers me.' 

Some verses previously sent from the 
infirmary to the Cornhill Magazine 5 led 
the editor (Sir) Leslie Stephen, when in 
Edinburgh in 1875, to visit him on his 
sick-bed and to introduce him to R. L. 
Stevenson, who describes him as sitting 
* up in his bed with his hair all tangled,' 
and talking e as cheerfully as if he had been 
in a king's palace ' (letter of Stevenson, 
13 Feb. 1875). Henley portrayed Stevenson 
to the life in the hospital sonnet ' Appari- 
tion.' Henceforth their relations became 
intimate. Their temperaments had strong 
affinities ; both were unconventional ; 
both were devoted to the art of litera- 
ture, and their sympathy, as Stevenson 
states, was * nourished by mutual assist- 
ance.' 'As I look back in memory,' he 
wrote in his dedication to Henley of 



'Virginibus Puerisque' (1881), 'there is 
hardly a stage of that distance but I see 
you present with advice, reproof or praise.' 
Subsequently their personal relations grew 
less intimate owing to a private disagree- 
ment, and on the appearance of Stevenson's 
biography by Mr. Graham Balfour in 1901, 
Henley contributed to the ' Pall Mall 
Magazine ' (Dec. 1901) a disparaging article 
called ' R. L. S.' Yet in an essay on 
Hazlitt (1902, Works, ii. 158) he referred 
to Stevenson as an artist in letters, * who 
lived to conquer the English-speaking 
world.' 

On leaving the infirmary in 1875, Henley 
remained in Edinburgh for a few months 
to work on the staff of the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica.' His contributions, mainly 
in, French biography, included Che'nier 
and Chastelard ; but he felt hampered by 
the conditions of the work. Already he 
had begun to contribute to the London 
journals, and in 1877-8 he settled in London 
to become editor of a weekly paper, 'Lon- 
don,' founded by George Glasgow Brown, 
a friend of Stevenson, and himself, in which 
appeared many of his early poems, several 
of the essays included in * Views and 
Reviews/ and Stevenson's unique 'New 
Arabian Nights.' On the discontinuance 
of the paper he did critical work for the 
6 Athenaeum,' the ' St. James's Gazette,' the 
f Saturday Review,' and * Vanity Fair.' 
From 1882 to 1886 he was editor of the 
'Magazine of Art,' where he made known 
to England the sculptural genius of Rodin, 
championed the pictorial art of Whistler, 
and found for Robert Alan Mowbray 
Stevenson [q. v. Suppl. I] opportunity to 
begin his work as art critic. In 1889 he 
returned to Edinburgh to become editor 
of a weekly paper, the fi Scots Observer,' 
the headquarters of which were in 1891 
removed to London, the title having 
been changed to the ' National Observer. 1 
Patriotic imperialism, or anti-Gladstonian- 
ism, was the dominating note of the paper's 
politics ; but Henley's main purpose was 
the promotion of what he deemed the 
higher interests of literature and art. 
While iconoclasm, sometimes extreme and 
one-sided, was a conspicuous feature of its 
criticism, its appreciation of excellence 
only partially recognised or not recognised 
at all was as common as its disparagement 
of what was supposed to have obtained an 
undeserved repute. Its ' middles ' included 
contributions from several writers who had 
won fame, and from more who were on 
the way to win it. Among the many con- 
tributors were J. M. Barrie, T- E. Brown, 




244 



I 




Thomas Hardy, Rjidyard Kipling, Andrew 
Lang, Arthur Morrison, (Sir) Gilbert Parker, 
G, B, Street, G* W, Stoovcma, B, L. 
Stevenson, H, L Wells, and W* B Yeatn* 
Exacting ae an editor, Henley wan yet a 
benevolent autocrat, and Hti mulatto! JUH 
contributors by his Btrong litomry enthu- 
and blend of friendly correction with. 
3 praise. After retiring from the 
editorship 'of the 'National (Hmerver* in 
1804 ho was until 3 BOB editor of a monthly 
magazine, tho * Now Review,* whioh, not- 
withstanding notable, eontrihuiioiw in iktion 
and essays, WHB a financial failure. Front 
1890 till his death he contributed occanicm- 
ally a literary article to tho * Pall Mall 
Magazine.* 

Meanwhile, ho had, in 1888, obtained 
reputation aa a fx>ot, though, mow inntantly 
and widdy in Am^rioa than in England* 
by a 'Book o! VorwiB,' whioh tinbraai 
tho whole graphic hospital HoritJS, of which 
tho moro poignant, in tht* linrhyined 
forrn t had been refused iMlnuHBion k? th<i 
* (lomhill Magaxino * ; tho 4 Jkio-il-Brao 
POOWIB,* Homo in tho so'nnot form and tho 
inujority in tlie modish formB of old Fronoli 
vorso, but often wrought with nuch duft 



command of phrano, and HO alive with 
fancy, or emotion, tliat all HOJJH oi arti 
licittfity diBappmim; and varioim otiwr 
voxweB oiititM 'EohcNMi/ tho majority of 
which accord with his own doHniiion of a 
lyric, *a single emotion temperamentally 
exprewed in tomw of poetry (Profaoo to 



Lyrfc8 t p* 1). In 1S9E ho publlnhed 



the' * Bong of the Bword and other 
including tho * London Voltmtarkt* * ; and 
in 1803 a wocond tHiition, with odditionH, 
appeared under the titlo * London Volun- 
taries and other VcrHttB/ In the * Voluii- 
tarie,* * a rich and lovely vurbal nmgiti/ 
wrote Francis Thompson, * in matwl with 
metre that comes and goen like tho luMvviitg 
of, the Mufie* bosom* " (Academy 9 1H July 
1903). The technical aooompIiHlmumt 
attains hero its most diiioult triompha. 
In 1898 the two ooUootions of vense w<ro 
reprinted in a definitive edition, with 
omissions, additions and change** under the 
title * Poems,' with a photogravuro of the 
author's buat by Rodin, A series of draw* 
ingB of London types by William Niohobon 
with picturesque quatorzains by Henley 



appeared in the same year j and w 1900 
published a small volume of vorno entitled 
r Por England's saka ; Versos and Songa in 
Time of War,' voicing Ms patriotic fervour 
during the Boor struggle. The two most 
notable poems are *Pro Eego Nostro/ 
whioh has 'been -efc to mum as a gong 



by Miss Francos AHitncn, and for choral 
purpoaos by Mr^KriK'Ht DiokB, and *Lost 
Pt.wt/ m.ft to music for diuruH and orchestra 
by Sir (Jliarlt>H Villi^rH Stiwiford, Tho lyric 
* Httvythonuuitl Lavcntkr ' (1901, 
print cd in thfv * North American 
') a kind of parable of Hie npring, 
Hummer, ituttiinn, uiui winttT wf juanhood, 
aotitniiiH el i.nor<i intinuUo revelation of him- 
Helf than tin* earlier !>eim (r\\\n v.lumc also 
iiwlmlt'H twang t1ur pif^en thtj 4 Thrunody 
for MC<. Victoria * whih iml, 



the * Moruing IVwt,* was juiuti'd for private 
circulation m a broadHtdt 4 . * Hawthorn and 
Lav(*mkT * hts inf4*ndt'(! to IK? \m last pootio 
;s ; but hiM iirnt iixi^riiiuco of the 
(if motoring inHj.ri.njd him to writo 
*A Song of BiH't'tl/ whi<?h apj wared in 
tho * Worlds Work * in April I TO, and 
afk't'WimlM WUK puhliHiiod tM^paratoly/ 
vorno WIIH tlto nvjcttHidiiai rocroa*. 
tton of a lifo niaiiily oHnipird with editing 
and thi! i!riii<riHin <-f lif^ratuns and art. In 
ho 



. 

dtmuribed by IIIJUHI*!! m * tv mowtio of weraps. 
and fthmlH from thti nhut rubbinh of wome 

f<.)UrtiHjn earn of otirnnliHn^' and eon- 



Hinting mainly of vignette iniproHnions of 
iho great Knglixh atui Frenoh writers* 
A Companion voJuino on art itppwirfod in 
HH)S2, mikscttHl from tho mtJinorjai catalogue 
(1887) of tho loan <mHt.!Ulii:m of Freinih and 
butch piottiroH lit 1hw J&lintmrgh intoraa* 
tional I^ihihititin (IBHfi), from tiio * Century 
f ArttHtH* (IBfcW), |>re|.artHl iw a 



of the* ttri fiortion of tho UJaMgow Kxhibi 
tionof 1HB8, ami from t-h cttt.ak.tguo (18B9) 
of tho Joan ocilJiHition f iiitwrt*H of the 
groat Fronah anti Dutch romantitiiHtH of tho 

tho art 
For tho 
mi catitloguo ho^wrott* an olabomtt^ noto on 

* KoitmntitJJHm.* " Tho -vuluino aba inoludo 
a study a! Hir Htnry Haobunt^ which pro- 
fiwml a ttumptuouti book, puhHifhod in 1B90. 
by tho A8ooifttin for tho Promotion of 
tho tfine Art in 8otjtlwr$d> m wt*!l a a ttudy 
of two modon* ftrttKt (OjarltiH Koone 
and Eodln) eoittributoi ^ tho 'National 

in IBUOj and a tribute to 
A. M Stovonwrn from tho *l*ftll Mall 

in July I.1KK), 
Ai oritio,' wrotis Momlith of Hotiloy, 

* ho had the rato cumbhitttion of onthuaiasm 



wakeful judijiiiout, 

felt Ms whip smartly* tho adopted imbedle 
had to boai? the weight of hi* epigramu* 
But merit under a eloud, or jut eruergingi 
he sparklod on or Uftod to tlio public view* 
He wa$ on of the main aupporU of good 
litwaturo in out tlmo* ' (Th* llenby. 



Henley 



245 



Henley 



Memorial, p. 7). Impressionist and emo- 
tional, Henley's criticism represents artistic 
sensibilities that are exceptionally keen. 
In painting he proposed to ignore any 
qualities except those strictly pictorial, 
and sculpture he pronounced to be \ wholly 
a matter of form, surface and line.' His 
literary sympathies were restricted by 
peculiarities of temperament, but realist 
and humorist as well as poet, he was 
an expert critic of those forms of litera- 
ture that deal primarily with concrete 
human nature. His prose style, elaborately 
polished and occasionally mannered, is 
notable for elasticity, and vivid apposite- 
ness of phrase. 

Henley collaborated with R. L. Stevenson 
in four plays, ' Deacon Brodie ' (privately 
printed in 1880, and in a finished version 
in 1888), 'Beau Austin' and 'Admiral 
Guinea' (both printed in 1884), and 

* Macaire ' (in 1885). A collected edition 
of the first three plays was published in 
1892, and 'Macaire' was added in 1894. 
c Deacon Brodie ' was produced at Pul Jan's 
Theatre of Varieties, Bradford, on 28 Dec. 
1882, and was performed at the Prince's 
Theatre, London, on 2 July 1884, and in the 
same year at Edinburgh. With the finished 
version, which has not been performed 
in this country, Henley's brother, Edward 
John, made a successful tour in America 
in 1888. ' Beau Austin ' was produced by 
Mr. (now Sir) Beerbohm Tree at the Hay- 
market Theatre, London, on 3 Nov. 1890. 

* Admiral Guinea,' first produced on 29 Nov. 
1897, was revived at the Royalty Theatre, 
Glasgow (the Repertory Theatre) on 19 April 
1909 and at His Majesty's Theatre, London, 
on 4 June of the same year. * Macaire ' was 
played twice by the Stage Society, London 
(on 4 Nov. 1900 at the Strand Theatre, 
and on 8 Nov. at the Great Queen Street 
Theatre). c Beau Austin ' and ' Macaire ' 
were performed at a matinee in Her 
Majesty's Theatre on 3 May 1901 on behalf 
of the Prince of Wales's Hospital Fund, 
all the parts being filled by leading actors 
and actresses. c Deacon Brodie ' is drama- 
tically the most effective of the four pieces, 
none of which attained popular success, 
though all helped to promote a higher ideal 
of playwrit|ng in Great Britain. 

Henley was also the author of *A new 
and original trayestie by Byron M'Guiness/ 
entitled 'Mephisto,' new music by Mr. D. 
Caldicott and Mr. Ernest Bucalossi, which, 
produced on Whit Monday, 14 June 1887, 
was played for some weeks as an after 
piece at the Royalty Theatre, London; 
his brother taking the part of Mephisto, 



and Miss Constance Gilchrist that of 
Marguerite. 

A warm admirer of Elizabethan prose, 
Henley projected the republication of a 
series of Tudor translations which, edited 
and prefaced by special scholars and 
begun in 1892 with Florio'a translation of 
Montaigne's 'Essays,' was completed by 
the issue of the Tudor Bible, the preface 
for which he did r not live to finish. With 
Mr. J. S. Farmer he was engaged for many 
years in compiling a 'Dictionary of Slang 
and its Analogues,' issued in parts only to 
subscribers (1894-1904), which was almost 
finished at the time of his death. With Mr. 
T. F. Henderson, he prepared the centenary 
edition of the poetry of Robert Burns, 
in four vols. (1896-7), contributing to the 
last volume an elaborate essay, which was 
also published separately, on the poet's 
' life, genius and achievement.' An edition 
of * Byron's Letters and Verse,' volume i., 
with vivid biographical sketches of 
Byron's friends and other persons men- 
tioned in the letters, appeared in 1897 ; 
but, owing to copyright difficulties, the 
project was abandoned. In 1901 he 
edited the Edinburgh folio Shakespeare. 
He contributed a preface to the poetry of 
Wilfrid Blunt (1895), and to the collected 
edition of the poems of T. E. Brown 
(1900); introductory essays to editions of 
SmoUett (1899), Hazlitt (1902-4), and 
Fielding (1903) ; and prefaces to various 
novels in the American edition de luxe of 
the works of Charles Dickens. Amongst 
his latest essays was that on ' Othello,' for 
the Caxton Shakespeare (1910), edited by 
Sir Sidney Lee. In 1891, under the title of 
'Lyra Heroica,' he published a selection, 
of English verse ' commemorative of 
heroic action or illustrative of heroic 
sentiment,' of which a school edition with 
notes by L. Cope-Cornford and W. W. 
Greg was printed in 1892 ; in 1894 with 
Mr. Charles Whibley, a Book of English 
Prose ' ; in 1895 a ' London Garland from 
Four Centuries of Verse,' and in 1897 
* English Lyrics : Chaucer to Pope.' 

In 1893 Henley received the degree of 
LL.D. from the University of St. Andrews ; 
in 1898 he was granted a civil list pension of 
225Z. a year. Considerations of health in- 
duced him, after experimenting with various 
suburban residences about London, to 
remove in 1899 to Worthing, though ^he 
retained a flat in London, which he occupied 
at intervals. In 1901 the removed to 
Woking. A nervous shock, due to an 
accident while leaving a moving railway 
carriage, seriously affected his health, 




246 



Hennessey 



and ho died at Woking on 11 Juno 1903. 

His body was cremated at Woking and 

the rushes were brought to Cockayne Hatley, 

Bedfordshire. 

Honloy married at Edinburgh, in Jan* 
78, Anna, daughter of Edward Boyle, 



1878 



f ' 1 ) (r i* 

engineer, of Edinburgh, and Marianne 
Mackie. She survived him and in 11)04' 
was granted a civil lint peiiHion of 1SJ5/. 
Tho only child, Margaret,, died at tho age of 



five yea in IBOi She is tho * Reddy * 
of Mr. J. M. Barrio's * Sentimental Tommy '; 
there in a painting in oil of her by CharleH 
Wellington Furno, 'A. B, A. [q. y. SuppL II| 
and a crayon wkoteh by the 'MarchionoH of 
Granby (Duchess of 'Rutland) , Khe wan 
buried in the churchyard of* Ooekayno 
Hatley, where a tombstone, deigned* by 
Gnalow Ford, with beautiful bronze work 
by the artist, in erected to her* 

Henley was over tho average height, 
broad-shouldered, and, notwithstanding 
his illnesses, physically vigorous and ener- 
getic. His powerful head was erowiud 
by strong, Iniahy yellow hair, which had 
a tendency towards tho perpendicular ; 
latterly it bccamo wluto, Ho poHHUHHiid 
pleasant and tjxprowivo blue oyoH, but wan 
extremely eliort-Hi^htcd. Physically ho 
contrasted, striking ly with the whadowy 
E. I* Stevenson. ''Debarred by lm lame- 
ness and uncertain health front various 
pastimes and diversions, ho obtained .much 
enjoyment from conversation, and waft 
an admirable listener and inquirer m well 
as talker. In Stevenson's enaay, *Tdk 
and Talkers,' he is cleverly portrayed under 



the pseudony m * Burly * ; but the 'doHoription 
applies chiefly to bis earlier ycmrw and 
largely to special bouts of dmtJiWHiou with 
tho BtevenHOiiH ; in his later yearn hit* 
manner was IOBB * boisteroun and piratical* 
Although capable under exoitoinont of 
muoh picturesque denunciation, he wan m 
conversation, for tho moat part, quietly 
humorous, frank, robust, and genial 

Henley's collective works appeared in 
1908 in a limited edition in six volume* ; 
vols, i, and ii. poems, including, in an ap- 
pendix, somo published in earlier volumes 
or in anthologies but not reprinted by him 
in his definitive edition ; vols, iii. and iv. 
^says not previously collected ; and vols.- 
v. and vi. 'Views and Reviews,' Th 
essays include those on Fielding, -Smollett, 
Hazlitt and Burns ; 'Byron's World * ; and 
an unrevised selection from contributions 
to tho * Pall Mall Magazine.' 

There is a bust of Henley by Bodin 
(1886), a drawing by William Rothenstoin 
(1897), and an oil painting by William 



Nicholson (1901). A Hkctoh by 'Spy* 
(Lortliei Warrl), which, though touched with 
tuuicatuto, IK ati twlinirablo likcnoH, waa 
mode for 'Vanity Fair *in 1807. On 11 
July 1907 a memorial of H<mley, consinting 
of a bust by Rodm in broims'a replica 



that of 1880, Hct in wliite marble, waa xm* 
vcilwl by tho Marl of Plymouth in tho 



crypt of JSt, Paurn (kthedml, London. It 
WMH tjrtKit^d l)y his frirlH and atimirora, 
tho Inmt being a fivt^ gift by Htnlin, 
('.Obituary notiiM'H ; tSkwiiHi.m-H Lifts and 
^ttrw; fho li?nloy 'Memorial, l!H)7; A 
Blurrwl Memory (f (t!iildlu>tHl by Etxlon 
HhitMH (a fallow pat-itrut an a boy \vitli Ileuley 
in t.ho Infirmary}, in CJuruhill "Mag,, May 
HK)tf ; William .feJrnrHt K'nl^v. hy" Hkhmy 



. . 

Low, ib. Kopt, IMS; Miu W. V, 



. !)(;(!, HMO; PortwilH of the 
IIniU\VH by Fratu.riH Watt, hi Art 
Fob, UKHi; inftrnnntion fruin Mm* 
and Mr. Alfiiul Waiting ; -prtional knmvltulgi 
Tlu*ro w a lint of lltnhy*H w^ru'd oontrillu" 
to wagRMiwrH and ri^viowH in it biblio- 
witi note in KngliHlt UluHfmtcd Mag., 
vL xxist.J T, l<\ if. 

HEHKELL, HAHA, fSno under BMY, 
Mr8* CAIWJWNIS (1814-1005), friisttd of flourge 
Kliot und autlior-l 

HENNESSEY, JOHN BOBANAU 

NICKEJiLIKU (iHSp- 11)10), cloimty Bur- 
yoyor-gont*ral of India, born at Fatohpur, 
Nprthorn India, on 1 Awpj. 1B29, wan tm 
ol Mk?luwl Honry Ht'iUH^Moy by a native 
mother. Afitir boing (Hluoaii*d laoally, ho 
WJIH mlinitttHi to tho junior t)rauh of Uio 
gr^at trigonotuotrioal Httrvoy on 14 April 
1844* For Homo y( k arn h worked in the 
nmtHhy junglo tracts of Bengal and the 



j*rovin<;<*H bunlorlng ih(D Nopal 
Terni, Of tho party of 140 oiliotsra and 
aHiHtantw which ho jomad, forty ware 
carried of! by fovor in a ftnv clayn, and 
he wan often incapacjitatoti by ill mm But 



his swal and thoroughm*HB attracted 
and, transforrod to tho Punjab in 1850, ho 
fixed tho longitudinal ptwitum of Lahore, 
Amritsar, Wassirabad, and othor plaotm. 

Attaohofl to tho Buponniondont'H ftold 
offlpo in 185.1, ho hdpwl tho atronomioal 
aBsistant to collate* tho various computa- 
tions of latitude obaorvationn and in other 
'work. In . Oct. 1853 ho wa ' plaood in 
charge of the branch computing oHioo, and 
in the following year aBHiatid tho surveyor- 
general at the Chaoh bams lino. Promoted 
to tho senior branch on 25 April 1864, ho 
was employed at hoodquartor (Dohra 
Dun) in reducing tho moasuromonts of 
tho Chaoh base line, and preparing (in 



Hennessey 



247 



Hennessy 



triplicate manuscript) a general report on 
the north-east longitudinal series. During 
the Mutiny he was at Mussoorie, a hifl 
station ten miles beyond Dehra Dun. 
For nearly five months he was under arms 
and on harassing duty. 

After service with the base line at 
Vizagapatam, in the south, he took two 
years' leave to England in March 1863. 
Entering Jesus College, Cambridge, on 31 
Oct. as a fellow commoner, he pursued 
mathematical studies with great aptitude 
under professors Adams, Challis, and 
Walton. With the sanction of the secre- 
tary of state he learned the new process 
of photo -zincography at the ordnance 
survey offices, Southampton, and return- 
ing to duty in India (April 1865) took out 
an extensive apparatus with which he 
established the process at survey head- 
quarters. By this means the rapid repro- 
duction of maps and survey sheets became 
possible, and the great cost and delay of 
sending orders to England were avoided. 

Hennessey, appointed to the charge of 
the amalgamated computing office and 
calculating branch, made (1866) the com- 
parisons of standards and determined the 
10 feet standard bar of the trigonometrical 
survey. He also took in hand the vast 
accumulations of material provided by 
the labours of William Lambton [q. v.], 
Sir George Everest [q. v.], and Sir Andrew 
Scott Waugh [q. v.], and with the help of a 
large staff reduced them to order. 

Hennessey assisted his chief, General 
James Thomas Walker [q. v.], in the 
editorship of the monumental c Account of 
the Operations of the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey of India,' of which the first volume 
was issued in 1870. He was a large con- 
tributor to some of the volumes, fourteen of 
which were issued during his tenure of office. 
He also wrote the report on ' Explorations 
in Great Tibet and Mongolia, made by 
A k in 1879-82 ' (Dehra Dun, 1884). 
He was designated deputy superintendent 
of the trigonometrical survey in Sept. 1869, 
officiated as its superintendent in 1874, and 
after the three branches of survey opera- 
tions had been amalgamated under the title 
of the Survey of India, he was appointed 
(Feb. 1883) deputy surveyor-general. 

On 9 Dec. 1874, with the equatorial of 
the Royal Society, he observed from 
Mussoorie (6765 ft.) the transit of Venus 
(see Trans. Roy. Soc. Nos. 159 and 161, 
1875). This won him the fellowship of 
the society (1875), to the ' Transactions ' of 
which he had contributed in 1867, 1870, 
1871, and twice in 1873. Cambridge con- 



ferred upon him the honorary M.A. degree 
in 1876, and after his retirement on 1 Oct. 
1884 on a special pension granted by 
government, he was made a C.I.E. (6 June 
1885). 

At Mussoorie, where he at first lived after 
retirement, he was an active member of 
the municipality, captain of the local 
volunteer corps, and discoverer of the 
spring from which the water-supply is ob- 
tained, Coming to London, he resided in 
Alleyn park, West Dulwich, where he died 
on 23 May 1910, being interred at Elmer's 
End cemetery. 

He married at Calcutta in March 1868 
Elizabeth Golden, only daughter of R. 
Malcolm Ashman ; by her he had a son and 
daughter. The son, Lieut. J. A. C. Hennes- 
sey, 45th (Rattray) Sikhs, was killed in 
action at Jandola, Waziristan, in Oct. 
1900; memorial prizes for moral worth 
were founded at his old school, Dulwich. 

[Memoir on Indian Surveys, by Sir C. 
Markham, 1878, and cont. by C. E, D. Black, 
1891 ; List of Officers in Survey Dept. to 
Jan. 1884, Calcutta ; Indian Survey Report 
for 1888-5, Calcutta; The Times, 26 May 
1910; personal knowledge.] R H. B. 

HENNESSY, HENRY (1826-1901), 
physicist, born at Cork on 19 March 1826, 
was the second son of John Hennessy of 
Bally hennessy, co. Kerry, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Casey of 
Cork. Sir John Pope -Hennessy [q. v.] 
was a younger brother. Educated at 
Cork under Michael Healy, he received 
an excellent training in classics, modern 
languages, and mathematics. Deprived 
as a Roman catholic of a university 
education, he adopted the profession of an 
engineer. His leisure was from early youth 
devoted to mathematical research, in which 
he engaged quite spontaneously. From an 
early period he made original and valu- 
able contributions to British and foreign 
scientific journals, which he continued 
through life. In 1 849 he was made librarian 
of Queen's College, Cork, and in 1855, on 
the invitation of Cardinal Newman, he 
became professor of physics at the Roman 
catholic University, Dublin. In 1874 
he transferred his services to the Royal 
College of Science, Dublin, where he was 
appointed professor of applied mathematics. 
His work there was of exceptional merit, 
and he was dean of the college in 1880 and 
again in 1888. Hennessy was made a 
member of the Royal Irish Academy in 
1851, and was its vice-president from 1870 to 
1873. He was also elected F.R.S. in 1858. 



Hennessy 



248 



Henry 



In 1800 ha resigned hm chair tinder the 
recent comptilHorjr rulas for superannuation. 
in the civil service at the ago of (JI5. A 
memorial to tho government pwteHtmg 
against his retirement wa inlluontially 
signed but was without o fleet, Owing to 
tho inadequacy of his pension ho ronidad 
much abroad, but returning to Ireland undor 
medical advice, ho died on S March JIM) I, 
at Bray, co. Wioklow. Ho marriod Howa* 
youngest daughter of Haydon Corn, and 
had iHHUe, 

Hennery wan remarkable for his voraatilo 
interests and scientific ingenuity* In IUH 
earliest paper, which was jmblMiod in 1845, 
whon ho was only nineteen, in tho * Hnlo* 
sophical Magas&ino/ lie proposed to MM 
photography for tho registration of baro- 
metric and thermomotric readings. In 
'Researches in TorrtsHtrial Phyniaw 1 (Phil, 
Trans. 1851) he argued from tho iiguro 
and structure of the earth and planotw, 
that they wore of fluid origin, and that 
a fluid uueleuft at a high temperature WIIH 
enclosed within their crut. Ho alno wrote 
on meteorology and on climatology (ftrifwk 
A won* JR$p* 1857), deducing IA,WH wfuoh regu- 
late tho distribution of toin pnratu ro iu inlands 
The oxGollenca of ft papor * On tho Influcnico 
of the Gulf Stream * ( Pnm> MM/. MM, 1 8574)) 
led to a request to report on tha torn ptmkt/uro 
of tho mm surrounding tho British IH!H for 
the Committoo on Irish Fiwhorios in 1870. 
Among his other proposals was ono for a 
decimal system of weights and ttiooHuroH 
founded' on tho length of the polar axiw of 
the earth, a quantity isapablo of nioro aoou rate 
determination than tho oarth'tt quadrant, on 
which tho metric Bywtom IB bawd. Stun- 
dard such as tho polar foot and tlio polar 
pound, and a complete Hot of wwightn and 
moaeurofl on tho polar flywtom, oonHtructod 
under Honnosay's' supor vision, aro in tho 
Museum of the Boyal Collogo of Sokmoo, 
Dublin-' In the same muBoum arc many 
models of his -moohanioal iavontions ono of 
them illustrating the structure of iowari 
best adapted to obtain tho greatest scour 
with due provision for a great influx of 
storm water (pi 'Hydraulic Problems on 
the Cross-sections of Pipes and Channels,* 
Proc. Roy. Boo, 1888)* 

Hennessy, besides his papers in scientific 
periodicals, published separately ; L * On 
the Study of Science in its Halation to 
Individuals and Society,' Dublin, 1858; 
2nd edit. 1859. 2. 4 On the Freedom of 
Education *. (a paper at the Social Science 
Congress, Liverpool, in 1858), 1859, 3, * The 
Belation of Science to Modern Civilisation/ 
1862, 



["Mon of tho Tinw, 180 ; Proo. Roy. 
vol 78 (1005) ]>, MO; Whn'B Who, 1901 
Pratt, Pooplo of tho Period, 181)7.] 



A 



HENRY, MITCHELL (1828-1910), Irish 
politician, bom at Art! wick Croon, Man- 
chowtwr, in 182(1, wan younger non of Alex* 
and or Henry, M.I** for South LaneaHhiro 
in tho liberal iiitenmt (1847-52), who died 
4 Got, 18(52, by hm wifo Eii/.aboth, daughter 
of OJoorgo Brunh, of Promoro, oo. Down, 
Having bwm (idttcatiMl privately and at 
UnivorMity CoJlogo 8ahooL Honry joined 
tho Pino vStroot t?huol of imxlicino in 
Manolusnter, aftorwardn incorporate*! in tho 
medical dtpnrtmont of the* Owtm College* 
Ho grafluatwl MJ'iC.K, in 1847 and having 
OHtabitahtKl hhrwdf in pra<:tiao w a con* 
milting Hurgf-on at No, I) Harloy Street, 
Oavtsndiflh Hfjiiare, lm WIVH next year 
appoinUnl Htirgeon to tho MultiiaHt'^ 1-los- 
pital, and in 1854 wan utottol a fallow of 
thw Eovftl (Jollt^o of HurgtwmH, In 18(12- 

wf .*...' f . " ' " 

h*7\vt.svt)i*i ho abanfioncn! IUH profoHHic->n and 
a parifiior in tho family firm of 
ft* Hiuiry, inorohantiH and gonoral 
num,uf Man<il.umi<irftnd lltaddena* 
In 18<J5 ho wnHtio(iMHfulIy eon tested 
in tlio libtrnl intt^ret, and was 
at MaiUihoHttrr botli at a byo- 
eleotion in 1BB7 and at tho gtmoral ol*tlon. 
in 1808* During \m mmntl Manohotor 
oandidnturo ho foundwl tlia * Evoning 
HOWH * m an oloetionooring Hlnnst* and after 
hi defeat ha 4iHj[;Hml of tho papr to the 
printer, Williani Evivna, 
Henry wttn an ^nthtifliiiHtio anglor^ and 

W !F7 

hiu' interest in tho poi*t brought him fro* 
quontly to tho wcmt of Ireland* An a 
oonfioqijenoo 1m BtiattciHHfully eontetod 
county Gal way in 1871. "Ho warmly 
mipportod tho political principle of Isaac 
Butt [q* v,] ami wa ft ww*mber of tha 
oounoil of tho Homo Bute Loaguo; his 
election wan theroforo rogardml m a groat 
victory for tho national party jJO'OoNNOiv 
The Purndl Mommmt, p. 220}. His firt im- 
portant upoooh in parliamont wo in support 
of Butt's motion for an inquiry into the 
judgment of Mr, Justice Kaogh (HO Kioaii, 
WILLIAM NKJHOLAS) in the matte of tho 
(Mw&y election petition In 1872. H0 
opposed Gladstones i Irish university bill, 
cmefly on the ground that it did not concede 
the principle | sectarian education do- 
mandod by public opinion in Ireland, and 
on 2 Jul^r 1874, in seconding Butt's motion 
to consider tho parliamentary relations 
between Groat Britain and Ireland* he 
dealt effectively with the financial side of 
the question, arguing strongly that Ireland 



Henry 



249 



Henty 



had for years been paying more than her 
due share of the taxation of the empire, 
as fixed by the Act of Union. In July 
1877 he returned to the subject of the 
over- taxation of Ireland, and at the open- 
ing of parliament in January next year, 
being called on, owing to Butt's illness, 
to act as leader of the Irish party, he 
urged that the most pressing needs of 
Ireland were the assimilation of the Irish 
franchise to that of England, a reasonable 
university bill, and the acknowledgment 
of Ireland's right to manage her own 
domestic affairs. 

Meanwhile he had purchased from the 
Blakes a large estate of some 14,000 acres 
in county Galway between Letterfrack 
and Lenane. It consisted mostly of bog 
land, which he reclaimed, and at Kylemore 
Lough he erected a stately mansion, 
known as Kylemore Castle, now the pro- 
perty of the duke of Manchester. These 
operations and the fact of his residing 
there brought money into the district, 
and his relations with the peasantry were 
on the whole very friendly till the days of 
the Land League. His position as an Irish 
landlord seems, however, to have modified 
his political views; anyhow he came to 
view with apprehension the development 
of the home rule agitation under Parnell's 
leadership. Independent of his rents for 
his income, he suffered less than his neigh- 
bours from the Land League movement, but 
he disapproved its operations. The home 
rule which he advocated was, he declared, 
intended to draw Ireland closer to England, 
whereas the object of the Parnellites was 
to sever Ireland from England (HANSABD, 
Debates, cclv. 1884^-90). His warm support 
of Forster's efforts to suppress the league 
brought about an open breach with his 
former colleagues. While supporting the 
land bill of 1881 he deprecated the working 
of it by the county court judges (12 May 
1881, ibid, cclxii. 342-51), and described the 
Land League as a * dishonest, demoralis- 
ing and un-Christian agitation.' Henry 
was unseated at the general election in 
1885 by what he called Parnellite 'in- 
timidation.' He was, however, elected 
for the Blackf riars division of Glasgow, 
and returning to parliament he reopened 
the campaign against his former colleagues 
and their Gladstonian allies (ib. ccciv. 1275), 
and voted against the second reading of 
Gladstone's home rule bill on 7 June 1886. 
He failed to obtain re-election at the 
general election that year and retired 
from parliament. In 1889 the firm of 
A. & S. Henry was turned into a limited 



liability company, of which Henry was 
chairman till 1893. His interest in Ireland 
declined and his pecuniary position was 
not maintained. Disposing of his Gabtfay 
estate, he established himself at Leamington, 
where he died on 22 Nov. 1910. Henry 
married in 1850 Margaret, daughter of 
George Vaughan of Quilly House, Dromore, 
county Down, by whom ho had three sons 
and three daughters. His wife predeceased 
him in 1874 and was buried in a mausoleum 
erected by him near Kylemore Castle. 

A cartoon by ' Spy ' appeared in * Vanity 
Fair' (1879). 

[Manchester Guardian, 24 Nov. 1910 ; Tho 
Times, 23 Nov. 1910 ; Annual Register, 
1910, p. 144 ; Burke' s Landed Gentry ; 
Hansard's Parliamentary Debates; Lucy's 
Diary of Two Parliaments ; Locker-Lampson's 
Consideration of the State of Ireland ; 
O'DonnelTs Hist, of Irish Parliamentary 
Party; information kindly supplied by 
Mr. Percy Robinson and Mr. C. W. Button.] 

R, D. 

HENTY, GEORGE ALFRED (1832- 
1902), writer for boys, born at Trumping- 
ton, near Cambridge, on 8 Dec. 1832, was 
the eldest son of three children of James 
Henty, stockbroker, and Mary Bovill, 
daughter of Dr. Edwards, physician, of 
Wandsworth. In September 1847 he was 
admitted to Westminster School, and in 
1852 he proceeded to Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, but left the university 
prematurely without taking a degree. On 
the outbreak of the Crimean war Henty 
and his younger brother, Frederick, 
volunteered for active service. Both 
entered the hospital commissariat, and 
in the spring of 1855 went out to the 
Crimea. Later in the year the brother 
died of cholera at Scutari. Henty' s 
Crimean experience gave him a taste both 
for soldiering and for journalism. His 
letters describing the siege of Sevastopol 
were accepted by the ' Morning Advertiser,' 
and he continued his contributions until 
he was incapacitated by fever. On being 
invalided home, he was promoted purveyor 
of the forces, and received the Turkish 
order of the Medjidie. His administrative 
capacity was recognised, and in 1859 he 
was chosen to organise the Italian hospitals 
during the war with Austria. On Ma 
return he held various posts in the com- 
missariat department at Belfast and. Ports- 
mouth, but he soon wearied of routine 
and resigned his commission, For a time 
Henty helped his father in the management 
of a colliery in Wales, an experience he 
afterwards turned to account in his story 



Henty 



250 




4 Facing Death 7 (1883; 3rd edit, 1007), 
and subsequently he went out to Sardinia 
w manager of a mine, but this occupa- 
tion proved equally uncongenial 

In 1865 Henty adopted the calling of a 
journalist and wrote mined! anoouB articles, 
mainly for the ' Standard,' .Roving in- 
stincts, however, would not let him Hettlo 
down. His chance came in I860, when ho 
was commissioned to servo an aomsspomk'nt 
of the t Standard ' during tho AuHtro- 
Italian war. Whilo following <3aribaldi 1 H 
TyroleHe campaign ho became acquainted 
with George Meredith fq* v* 8uppL 11], 
who was then a correspondent of tho 
* Morning Post * ; and ho witneBHed from 
an Italian man-of-war tho dinantrouB naval 
battle of Liaea (20 July 1860), In tho 
course of tho next ten yearw Henty, in the 
service of tho ( Standard, 1 accompanied 
Lord Napier's expedition to AbyNMinia in 
1807-8, his articles being reprinted IIH 
*The March to Magdala' (1868)'; attended 
the inauguration of the Hue/, Catu.il in IBdii ; 
saw something of tho winter campaign of 
1870-1 during the Franco-German war, 
afterwardft ntarvmg in Parin during tho 
Commune ; witneHHed tho KuHnian" con- 
quent of Khiva in 1873 ; followed Lord 
WolHoloy'n victorious expedition to Anhanti 
( 1878-4), hiB lettotH being refonuod m * Tho 
March to Coomassio* (1874); watched 
guerilla warfare in Spain during tho 
Carlist insurrection in 1874 j waB with 
the Prince of Wales (aftorwardB King 
Edward VII) during MB tour through 
India in 1875, and saw worno tlpHporato 
hand-to-hand fighting while with tho 
Turkish army hi the Turco-Borvian war 
(1876). Hard work and rough experi- 
ences told on Hcmty's health, and <^oept 
for a visit to tho mining campH of 
California he did no more oorroflponctontfs 
work abroad. 

Meanwhile Henty made occasional excur- 
sions into fiction. His first boys* book, 
'Out in the Pampas 9 (1868; 4th edit. 
1910), WM followed by * The Young Frano- 
Tirours,' a tab of the Franco-Prussian war 
(1872; 0th edit, 1010). After 1876 ho 
settled down to writing stories largely baaed 
on his own experiences; He issued about a 
dozen orthodox novels, including * Colonel 
Thorndyko's Secret,' published w lat as 
1898, but none of them achieved much 
success. His real strength lay in writing 
tales of adventure for boys, which cam out 
at the rate of three or four volumes a year, 
'Military history was his favourite theme, 
but he took all history for his province, 
from that of ancient Egypt in * TEc Cat of 



' (1889; 3rd edit 1908) to that 
of current afTairn in * With Roberts to 
Pretoria * (1902), lie prided himself upon 
IUK hiHtorioal fidelity and manly senti- 
ment. From 1880 to IHHJI h wiw editor 
of tho * Union-Jack** in HuctsuHsiou to 
W. 11. 0. Kingston [ q. v/| ; from 1888 to 
185)0 ho won tho maiimlay of Breton's 
' HoyH' Own MagiM&iM!/ ami in 1 BSD ho 
collaborated wit it Ardiibald Forbew [q, v, 
l. 1] in a k>y* annual, * ('ampn and 
U.u'H.* TiicHr magazineH all (lied young, 
Of tall burly, athletic ilgimC bluff 
fae<% and patriarchal beard, Henty do* 
voted hiH leiHtiro to Hailing* in 1887 
he, purolioHod a yacht, ami moro than 
pnoo ho wan an nrmticct'-HHfuI competitor 
in tlw ruco from Dover to Heligoland for 
tho KainerV oup. Ho dim! on board lm 
yatsht l^ret in W<\ymoni.h harbour on 16 
Nov. 1002 und wan buriod in Brompton 



Ht^ity wan twico nuirriod : (I) in 1858 
to Elizabeth Fij.njaut% by whom ho had 
two HoiiH and two diM^lit^rH, hin older 
won, Captain CliarlfH (It'tald Henty, alone 
Hurviving him j (2) lato in Hfo to l4i'/al)uth 
Koylook, ( who fiurvivwl him. 
( In addition to thono workn already men* 
tioncd, H.(nty*H (shicjf vultunoH include : 
L *Tho Young Bugler*: a Talo of the 
PoniMwulttr War/ 1880; 4th edit. 1010. 
2. * In TimoH of ?wil : a Talci of India/ 
1881 ; 4th edit. 191 L a. * Fritrndn though 
Divided : a Tula of tho Civil Wttw,' im ; 
3rd odit, 1010. 4. * tlndw Driiktf H Flag/ 
1883; 2ml Mit 1890. 5,* With Clivo 
in India,' JSB4 ; Siml <*tt. 18SHJ. 0. *Bi 
for England ; a Talo of C>nwy and 
1885'; 2nd inlit 181KJ, 7, 'In 



H Caxwo : a feJt^ry of Wallace 
igB5 ; rd otlit. 190(L B* 4 For 
N*uno and Fame ; or, llmnigh tho Afglian 
PttHW*; 1886; 3rd edit. 1000. 9. F The 
Dragon and tha Ravwi : or tiio Days of 
King Alfwxl,' 1880 ; 3rd odit. I SOB. 10* 
* Tho Lion of 'tho North : a Talo of tho 
Timofi of GuHtavuH Adolphuw/ 1880; 3rd 
odit. 1900. 11. * Tho Young Onrthaginiim,* 

1887 ; Std edit. 100& 12. * Tho liravosl* 
of the Bravo j or. With Potorborough in 
Spain/ 1SS7 ; 2nd odit. 1890, 13. * Queen 
victoria, SconoB from hor Lifo and Eaign,' 
1887; 3rd-' edit IDOL 14 'For the 
Temple : a Talo of tho Fail of Jerusalem/ 

1888 ; 2nd odit* 1800, 15. * Orange and 
Green: a Talc of Boy no and Limoriok/ 
1888; 3rd odit, 1810. 10, *0nb of tho 
28th : a Talo of Watorloo/ 1880 ; 3rd edit* 
1908* 17. ' The Lion of St. Mark : a 
Talo of Vonico,' 1889; 2nd odit* 1897. 



Herbert 



Herbert 



18. By *Pike and Dyke: a Tale of 
the Rise of the Dutch Republic/ 1890; 
3rd edit. 1905. 19. ' By Right of Con- 
quest ; or, With Cortez in Mexico,' 1891 ; 
3rd edit. 1910. 20. * Redskin and Cow- 
boy/ 1892. 21. ' A Jacobite Exile/ 1894 ; 
2nd edit. 1909. 22. 'In the Reign of 
Terror/ 1896. 23. c Through the Russian 
Snows : a Story of Napoleon's Retreat from 
Moscow/ 1896. 24. 'With Frederick the 
Great/ 1898 ; 2nd edit. 1909. 25. * With 
Moore at Corunna/ 1898; 2nd edit 1909, 
'26. * Torpedo-Boat 240 : a Tale of the 
Naval Manoeuvres/ 1900. 27. 'With 
Buller in Natal/ 1901. 28, 'John 
Hawke's Fortune : a Story of Monmouth's 
Rebellion/ 1901; 2nd edit. 1900. 29. 
'With Kitchener in the Soudan/ 1903. 
30. ' With the Allies to Pekin/ 1904. 

[G. Manville Venn's George Alfred Hontv, 
1907 (photographs) ; The Times, and Standard, 
17 Nov. 1902 ; Athono&um, 22 Nov. 1902 ; 
Life and Adventures of George Augustus Sala, 
1896 ; Edmund Downey, Twenty Years Ago, 
1905 ; private information from Capt. 0. G. 
Henty,] G. S. W. 

HERBERT, AUBERON EDWARD 
WILLIAM MOLYNEUX (1838-1906), 
political philosopher and author, born at 
Highclere on 18 June 1838, was the third 
son of Henry John George Herbert, third 
earl of Carnarvon [q. v,], by his wife Henri- 
etta Anne, eldest daughter of Lord Henry 
Molyneux Howard, a brother of Bernard 
Edward Howard, twelfth duke of Norfolk. 
Henry Ho ward Molyneux Herbert, fourth earl 
of Carnarvon [q. v.], was his eldest brother. 
Herbert was educated at Eton, entering the 
school in Sept. 1850. He had a high reputa- 
tion for scholarship and general ability, but 
left early, having boon elected to a founder's 
kin fellowship at St John's College, Oxford, 
at Easter 1855. He took a aocond in 
classical moderations in the Michaelmas 
term 1857, but did not seek final honours. 
In May 1858 he joined the 7th hussars 
at their depot at Canterbury as cornet) by 
purchase, and in June 1859' became a lieu- 
tenant, also by purchase. In the autumn 
of 1860 he joined tho service troop at 
Umballa. In 1861 ho returned to England, 
and in Feb. 1862 sold his commiswion. II o 
then returned to Oxford, where ho wan 
president of the Union in Hilary Term 
1862; he graduated 3.0,1* in 1862 and 
D.C.L. in 1865. He lectured in history and 
jurisprudence at St. John'B Colleges', and 
resigned his fellowship in 1869, 

During these years Herbert diflplayod MB 
father's love of adventure. In March 1864 



he visited tho scene of tho Prusso -Danish 
war, and distinguished himself at Dybbol, 
near Sonderbxirg, by sallies from the Danish 
redoubts for tho purpose of rescuing the 
wounded. As a recognition of his bravery 
he was made a knight of the Order of the 
Dannobrog (The Time, 4 April 1864; 
Nationaltidende, Copenhagen, IS Nov. 1906)* 
His impressions of the campaign are recorded 
in his letters to his mother published under 
tho title c The Danes in Gamp ' (1864). 

The American civil war drew him to tho 
United States, and he witnessed tho siege 
of Richmond An intention to witness the 
war of 1866 between Prussia and Austria 
was frustrated owing to its short duration. 
During the Franco-Gorman war ho went 
to Prance, and was present at Sedan. Ho 
was outside Paris during the siege, and was 
one of tho very first to enter the city after 
th capitulation, being nearly shot as a spy 
on his way in. He remained there during 
tho Commune in the company of his second 
brother, Alan Herbert, who practised 
medicine in Paris. In later life he received 
the Axistrian Order of the Iron Crown, 
third class, for helping to rescue the crew 
of the Pare, an Austrian vessel wrecked 
off Westward Ho ! 

Herbert had early been attracted by- 
politics, and while at Oxford he founded 
tho Chatham and Canning Clubs, conser- 
vative debating societies. In July 1865 
he was defeated as a conservative candidate 
in an election in the Isle of Wight, In tho 
summer of I860 Sir Stafford* Northeote, 
who had just been made president of tho 
board of trade, choao him as his private 
secretary, a post he held till the autumn of 
1868, when no resigned, surprising his chief 
with tho news that "ho was about to contest 
Berkshire an a liberal. This election ho lost, 
but in Feb. 1870 ho wan returned at a 
bye-election for Nottingham with tho 
support of Mundolla. A fortnight after 
entering tho htmRe he made hiw JlrHt speech, 
in the Bticoml reading debate* on th educa- 
tion bill of 1.870 ; ho Hupportud tho principle 
that all provided Hohools whould Ixj neeular 
or Htrictly unHUctarian, I'M July 187 1, 
when tho HOUHO of Lonln had wjtscttxl tho 
bill for tho abolition of tho purchawts Hytwiu, 
ho eriticiHtsd (Uadntono'H Holutkm of tho 
difficulty^ by royal warrant, nnd urged the 
HOUMO of CowmtmB to takts dTootivo action 
against UK* veto of this HOUHO of 
*a body which wan wholly Sms 
(HANSARD, third Horten, vol. 208)* On 
19 March 1872 ho Htxxmtbd Sir C/harbB 
I)illc,o'a motion for an inquiry into tho 
expexwos of tho civil list, and ioltowod S 



Herbert 252 Herbert 



Charles'* example by declaring himaelf n! colled *A Pica for Liberty' (1893.) 
republican. This led to a ncoho of great j an article ' A^uming tho Foundation* 1 

tliHordor, and the latter part of liw mmtii : (Ninrtr.wth fimtnru and Alter* Auir ' Knnf 

* 'I * i 1 * * # ' M T k ? " jf * ' " y * H ft* t I Tl " I Jii 

was inaudible* (HANHAIUH third WTOM, ; JWH), ho exprnrndwl hm ugnrmtio position 
voL 210), lk took n. lending part in the knvimto religion. 

pa8ittg of tho Wild BmiB* Proteefkm Act, I On lt*avittg'j-Hirlia>uiit bo twk to fanning 
1872 (HANHAiU), third HOFWH, vol. 211), . purdHwinja; Anhlcy Aninwomt fo rm ' J?I 

A 1 II * 1 I t i * ^ ^ * A * '-,** *.1%* h iH wIVd'iJMj, 

At all pomtH an auvuwwii nw.nt.juU ho \VIIH Lyuiin^ttm, wlnt^ ho lived till \m wife's 

an ardent wipporto of .fowqih Ardi and fk*nfhiii 1K8IJ. !!<* limn mrmwl tothonoich" 

wpokcmt the inasH .mating at L^imitigtuii on luMirlu.^! of J-Jiirby in Urn Ntnv Ftmmt 'and 

Oond Friday 1872, wlu*n t-J* VVftrwfckHhirti i*iH. nffrr a jtrf^oxiH.in^ imihlinff, ' TlioOld 

f Union WUH formed Hrmw; whirb WH lim Iwnw till dcniih At 



, t, tv-vmtod 

At th^ diHdwtmn o! 1H74 . Atnr'H(.% in HMI2-*$, niitl ofiin winteed 
ho mtiml from parliamcntiiry lifts, hit almuid. AMirHt- at, AMU^y Anwvvomi Farm 
he took an activu part in tho ugiiiition cataani on a Hiimll mUis nnd MMiiKrrnntntly at"*Tho 
the Btttgarian ijtrooitwrn, argiinwiul in Old Hotiws' on a larg^ w'fth% HwWt once 
tho nit *anfi-Iiiio* citmmnNio at tfaul 



in Hy<!o Pnrk ngaiiiHt !lm expect**'! war \vithnut di8tii'ii(n of 

with KiiHHia, and in 1880 champions! tho nnmlwr of mmwd tiwuiMandH, th 

cauuo of <Jharl8 Jiratltaugh [q V.|,R[ nuking clearing oil thw 



, . .>rbwt, a wan of Blngulur charm, 

Herbert litwl kwmm an ulwuyH HwrnjjukwHly imxkm* to diNtinmriah 

but indojfwmlwit <lwni|-)lt.i of Hurlwrt tho Hytwn ' jm altarlu'fi from tlm mm who 
M|x>m^rK jmik>HO|.*hy, IJiw cm.?il dwIo|Hl : itpkdd or lwI wk*r i!,, wm wjwtrtttod 
a varmiit nf^ ty.twuwrwn Itidtvidimlinm !y thw kIi**f Ihtit Mm law ' of ' equal 
which ht tUwerilK*! HH voluntJiryww. But ; frmlwu m ih jiin moml law. A 
IH upvotlon to SJWIKM^'H #wit <jttriiM^ kftctn H|K;*rlma and n lin ridor in 1m 

ir*? 1 ^**??. 1 * 1 ^^^^'f J< him, at.'youih, "ho HIUNI tjp Mfwjrt in later life on 

;4Mii nJ(l,U oniM>i hm ihrtm injMf4H^H ; jtcwotmti <*C hm M'bjmjtiMn to ticking lift% and 
t t^i Sl tl ^**&& li)04 f qw^imint^i/ nttft), \ to thu MUHUI n*ftn INHUUIU) a vt^tarian. 
In 1884 Herbert j>ubliflh<xl hi loKi*kno\vn But hk intarrHtM miliij hm t>hiloopliio 
book, A IVjliticiun in Troublo about Im ; pmimgandiHtn m^ vnriHi, I'lii wiu*' ono 
Soul, -a ropnnt'wilh ftitomtiaiw and addi* i of ihti fii^t tt tiikw lo.Mcyt'lfofl, uttd wiw 
tion from- tho * Fortnightly Hoviow.' In ! vory fotitl of mlvimturoMH miilin"in a mall 
tho firat ohaptor tho abjcxstioim to tho 'I boat. An itr*lf*nt olinil^r h< wiw a wicm- 
narty iiystom aro dmouuHCxl,, and in tho : UT <if th Alniim Club from I8(J to 
tot ohaptor hpowoorittn prinoiploH aro ox- ! 1K72, Ho WIM inkwHttH-i Su wnhwtoro 
potmdml ami tho doctnno of Aumez.faire. m rcnmiim and nimlo a Ihut olltxjtioii of flint 

to tho esxlwiu) pomt of lulvooathig imptemonU, H fulIowtHl with nyinwathy 

nrv tamliim.* d-i* i..^..A:,. U 4!,....,. ,.* ,..., ,.**.. ,,.. . ^.f ^*i 

ii jiwyanta roHoaruu and 



poundcxl and the doetnno of Aumez.faire. m reniaiim and nimlo a n eolation of Hint 

pUHfaod to the oxtrome pumt of w4vooatig imptettitmU, H fullowtnl with . sympathy 

imtey texatum, th invtiHtigatitm of pwydiio rowartth anii 

in isao werbort Htartect a fittiall wot?kly utaiie vigtmwM ltMrtw k* im.*Krve the 

papep^ArooLife, whiohllrtapiHimhmd^^ ehanujtnr of iho Now Fowst (cf, 

TO M^OOW w hw fao^ St. awj^ ' Tiw Liu*t Hit of Natnrui Wiodland ' 

SS^-.Wm? ^5? dd vi u J Fw ? *-*' ito W'^temtt Omtoiy/ Htmi 1891), Ho 

later ealleft The Free Life/ noon became ho bum eomarat ' to Ttilntoi but he 



m *-*' ito W'^temtt Omtoiy/ Htmi 1891), Ho 

The Free Life/ noon became ; ho bum eomparat ' to Ttilntoi, but he 

mputtiated tho goMpvi ' of non- 
the Volun.tary | TOHiHtarwe, '' ineeting It with liie favourite 
on fomtl *' to ratMin loroe 



13 August 1901, In 1900 

his. view* b the Herbert -Spenoer 



f-Mi^M M* TMVTW r^w JT '^F ^f 1 * *Bf *w*ifc i* fcff% \ff xafi fa \& 

which he- delivered at-Orfoid. In 1880 ha 



4 ^ *>it WHH l*HMfe**^ **VJ 

edited *The iaoMflo of eduoation to 
eaowocttnation, Letters from all aorts and 
conditions of mon,* a result of the ininan- 
tiaily signed * Protest ' agaimt examinations 
m tho ^Ninoteenth Century,' Nov. 1888. 
He explained his view of tho capital and 
labour problem in *Th Truo Lin of 
Deliyerano,' a criticism of trade unionism, 
which appeared in a volume of 



and fraud.* 

He diod at - Tho Old Houw ' on fi Nov. 
and ww twrtod at l